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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5

The branch of mechanics


concerned with bodies that
www.kmph.matrik.edu.my/physics

are acted upon by balanced


forces and couples so that
they remain at rest or in
unaccelerated motion.
motion

CHAPTER 5:
Static
(4 Hours)

1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Learning Outcome:
5.1 Equilibrium of a particle (1 hour)
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5.2 Polygon of forces (1 hour)


At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
 Define the equilibrium of a particle and state the
condition for equilibrium.
 State two types of equilibrium, i.e. static (v=0) and
dynamic (a=0).
 Sketch polygon of forces to represent forces in
equilibrium.

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
5.1 Equilibrium of a particle
5.1.1 Concurrent forces
 is defined as the forces whose lines of action pass through a
single common point.
point (whether inside or outside of the body)
 The forces cause the translational motion on the body.
 Figure 5.1 and Figure 5.2 show the examples of concurrent
forces. 
 F2 
F2 F1

F1 
 F3
F3

Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2


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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
5.1.2 Equilibrium of a particle
 is defined as the vector sum of all forces acting on a particle
(point) must be zero.
zero
 The equilibrium of a particle ensures the body in translational
equilibrium and its condition is given by
 
∑ F = Fnett = 0 Newton’s first law
of motion
 This is equivalent to the three independent scalar equations
along the direction of the coordinate axes,

∑F x = 0, ∑F y = 0, ∑Fz =0
 There are two types of equilibrium of a particle. It is
 Static equilibrium (v=0)⇒ body remains at rest
(stationary).
stationary
 Dynamic equilibrium (a=0)⇒ body moving at a uniform
(constant) velocity.
velocity
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
5.1.3 Problem solving strategies for equilibrium of
a particle
 The following procedure is recommended when dealing with
problems involving the equilibrium of a particle:
 Sketch a simple diagram of the system to help
conceptualize the problem.
 Sketch a separate free body diagram for each body.

 Choose a convenient coordinate axes for each body and


construct a table to resolve the forces into their
components.
 Apply the condition for equilibrium of a particle in

∑ ∑
component form :
Fx = 0 and Fy = 0
 Solve the component equations for the unknowns.

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
5.2 Polygon of forces
Case 1:
 A particle in equilibrium as a result of two forces acting on it as
shown in Figure 5.3.
 
F2 F1
Figure 5.3
 They are equal in magnitude but opposite in the direction, thus
∑F = F 1 − F2 = 0 i.e. ∑F
x = 0 OR ∑F y =0
Case 2: 
 A particle in equilibrium as a result of F3
three forces acting on it as shown in
Figure 5.4. 
Figure 5.4
F1

F2
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
 They are form
 a closed triangle of forces, thus
F1    
  ∑ F = F1 + F2 + F3 = 0

F3
F2
i.e. ∑F x = 0 and ∑ Fy = 0 F3
Case 3:
 A particle in equilibrium as a result of
 
four forces acting on it as shown in F F2
4
Figure 5.5.

F1
Figure 5.5
 They will form a closed polygon of forces, thus
    


 F4  F = F1 + F2 + F3 + F4 = 0
F3
F1
 i.e. ∑F x = 0 and ∑F y =0
F2 7
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Example 1 :
A load of 250 kg is hung by a crane’s cable. The load is pulled by a
horizontal force such that the cable makes a 30° angle to the
vertical plane. If the load is in the equilibrium, calculate
a. the magnitude of the tension in the cable,
b. the magnitude of the horizontal force. (Given g =9.81 m s−2)
Solution : m = 250 kg Free body diagram of the load :


30
T Ty
30 

 60 F
F Tx

mg
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution : m = 250 kg
1st method :
a. Force x-component (N) y-component (N)

mg

0 − mg = −( 250)( 9.81)
 = −2453
F F 0

T − T cos 60 T sin 60
Since the load is in the 
equilibrium, then
∑F = 0
Thus ∑ Fx = 0 F − T cos 60 = 0 (1)

∑F y =0 T sin 60 − 2453 = 0


T = 2833 N (2)
b. By substituting eq. (2) into eq. (1), therefore
F − ( 2833) cos 60 = 0 F = 1417 N 9
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution : m = 250 kg
2nd method :
a. Since the load is in the equilibrium, then a closed triangle of
forces can be sketched as shown below.

 From the closed triangle of forces, hence


 30 T
mg mg
= cos 30
( 250)( 9.81) = cos 30
T T
 T = 2833 N
F
b. F F
= sin 30 = sin 30
T 2833
F = 1417 N

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Example 2 :

F2 = 20 N F1 = 12 N

30.0  55.0
A
45.0

F3 = 30 N
Figure 5.6

Calculate the magnitude and direction of a force that balance the


three forces acted at point A as shown in Figure 5.6.

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution : F1 = 12 N; F2 = 20 N; F3 = 30 N
Force x-component (N) y-component (N)
 12 cos 55.0 12 sin 55.0
F1
= 6.88 = 9.83
 − 20 cos 30.0 20 sin 30.0
F2
= −17.3 = 10.0
 − 30 cos 45.0
F3 − 30 sin 45.0
= −21.2 = −21.2

F Fx Fy
To find a force to balance the three forces means the system must
be in equilibrium hence
∑F x =0
6.88 − 17.3 − 21.2 + Fx = 0
Fx = 31.6 N
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution :
∑F =0
y
9.83 + 10.0 − 21.2 + Fy = 0
Fy = 1.37 N
The magnitude of the force,
F= ( Fx ) 2 + ( Fy ) 2 = ( 31.6) 2 + (1.37 ) 2
F = 31.6 N
and its direction,
−1 
Fy 
θ = tan  
 Fx 
−1  1.37 
θ = tan  
 31.6 
θ = 2.48 from the +x-axis anticlockwise
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Example 3 :

F

50.0

Figure 5.7
A window washer pushes his scrub brush up a vertical window at
constant speed by applying a force F as shown in Figure 5.7.
The brush weighs 10.0 N and the coefficient of kinetic friction is µ
k= 0.125. Calculate

a. the magnitude of the force F ,


b. the normal force exerted by the window on the brush.

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution : W = 10.0 N; μk = 0.125
a. The free body diagram of the brush :
 Force x-component (N) y-component (N)
constant
F 
F F cos 50.0 F sin 50.0
speed
 50.0 
N W 0 − 10.0
 
N −N 0
 fk
 − μk N
W fk 0 = −0.125 N
The brush moves up atconstant speed (a=0) so that

∑ F = ma = 0
Thus
∑ Fx = 0 N = F cos 50.0 (1)

∑F y =0 F sin 50.0 − 0.125 N = 10.0 (2)


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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution :
a. By substituting eq. (1) into eq. (2), thus
( )
F sin 50.0 − 0.125 F cos 50.0 = 10.0
F = 14.6 N
b. Therefore the normal force exerted by the window on the brush
is given by
N = F cos 50.0
N = (14.6 ) cos 50.0
N = 9.39 N

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Exercise 5.1 :
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s−2
1.

Figure 5.8
The system in Figure 5.8 is in equilibrium, with the string at the
centre exactly horizontal. Calculate
a. the tensions T1, T2 and T3.
b. the angle θ.
ANS. : 49 N, 28 N, 57 N; 29°

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Exercise 5.1 :
2.

Figure 5.9
A 20 kg ball is supported from the ceiling by a rope A. Rope B
pulls downward and to the side on the ball. If the angle of A to
the vertical is 20° and if B makes an angle of 50° to the vertical
as shown in Figure 5.9, Determine the tension in ropes A and B.
ANS. : 134 N; 300 N

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Exercise 5.1 :
3.

Figure 5.10
A block of mass 3.00 Figure 5.10
kg is pushed up against a wall by a force
P that makes a 50.0 ° angle with the horizontal as show in
Figure 5.10. The coefficient of static friction between the block
and the wall is 0.250. Determine the possible values for the
magnitude of P that allow the block to remain stationary.
ANS. : 31.8 N; 48.6 N

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Learning Outcome:
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5.3 Equilibrium of a rigid body (2 hours)


At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
 Define and use torque, τ .
 State and use conditions for equilibrium of rigid body:


∑F x = 0, ∑F y = 0, ∑ τ =0
 Examples of problems :
Fireman ladder leaning on a wall, see-saw, pivoted /
suspended horizontal bar.
 Sign convention for moment or torque :
+ve : anticlockwise
− ve : clockwise
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
5.3 Equilibrium of a rigid body
5.3.1 Non-concurrent forces
 is defined as the forces whose lines of action do not pass
through a single common point.
 The forces cause the rotational motion on the body.

 The combination of concurrent and non-concurrent forces cause


rolling motion on the body. (translational and rotational
motion)
 Figure 5.11 shows an example of non-concurrent forces.

 
F1 F2


F4 
Figure 5.11
F3
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5

5.3.2 Torque (moment of a force),τ
 The magnitude of the torque is defined as the product of a
force and its perpendicular distance from the line of action
of the force to the point (rotation axis).
axis)
OR
τ = Fd
where τ : magnitude of the torque
F : magnitude of the force
d : perpendicular distance (moment arm)
Because of d = r sin θ
where r : distance between the pivot point (rotation
axis) and the point of application of force.
Thus
  
τ = Fr sin θ OR τ = r ×F
 
where θ : angle between F and r
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
 It is a vector quantity.
quantity
 The dimension of torque is

[τ ] = [ F ][ d ] = ML2T −2
 The unit of torque is N m (newton metre), a vector product
unlike the joule (unit of work),
work) also equal to a newton metre,
which is scalar product.
product
 Torque is occurred because of turning (twisting) effects of
the forces on a body.
 Sign convention of torque:
 Positive - turning tendency of the force is anticlockwise.
anticlockwise
 Negative - turning tendency of the force is clockwise.
clockwise
 The value of torque depends on the rotation axis and the
magnitude of applied force.
force

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Case 1 :
 Consider a force is applied to a metre rule which is pivoted at
one end as shown in Figures 5.12a and 5.12b.


F τ = Fd
(anticlockwise)
d
Figure 5.12a

Line of action of a force


Pivot point
(rotation axis) Point of action of a force

d = r sin θ F
θ
τ = Fd = Fr sin θ
r (anticlockwise)
Figure 5.12b
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Case 2 :
 Consider three forces are applied to the metre rule which is
pivoted at one end (point O) as shown in Figures 5.13.

 τ 1 = F1 d 1 = F1r1 sin θ1
F3 d 1 = r1 sin θ1 τ 2 = − F2 d 2 = − F2 r2 sin θ2

F1 τ 3 = F3 d 3 = F3 r3 sin θ3 = 0
r2 θ1 Therefore the resultant (nett)
torque is
∑τ
O θ2  r1 = τ1 + τ 2 + τ 3
d 2 = r2 sin θ2 O
F2 Figure 5.13
∑τ O = F1 d 1 − F2 d 2
 Caution :
 If the line of action of a force is through the rotation axis
then τ = Fr sin θ and θ = 0
τ =0 Simulation 5.1
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Example 4 :
Determine a resultant torque of all the forces about rotation axis, O
in the following problems.
a. F = 10 N
2

5m 5m F1 = 30 N

3m
6m
O
3m

10 m

F3 = 20 N

26
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Example 4 :
b.
10 m F1 = 30 N

3m
6m
β O
3m
F3 = 20 N
5m 5m
α F4 = 25 N
F2 = 10 N

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution : F2 = 10 N
a. 5m 5m F1 = 30 N

d1 = 3 m
6m
O d2 = 5 m

10 m
Force Torque (N m), τo=Fd=Frsinθ

F3 = 20 N F1 − ( 30 )( 3) = −90

F2 + (10 )( 5) = +50

The resultant torque: F3 0
∑τ O = − 90 + 50 = − 40 N m
(clockwise) 28
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution :
b. 10 m F1 = 30 N

3m d3 d = 3 m
1
β O 6m
β r =5m 3
sin β = = 0.515
F3 = 20 N 5m 5m
32 + 5 2
F2 = 10 N α F4 = 25 N
Force Torque (N m), τo=Fd=Frsinθ

F1 − ( 30 )( 3) = −90

F2 0 The resultant torque:

F3 F3 r sin β = ( 20 )( 5)( 0.515) = 51.5 ∑τ O = −90 + 51.5

F4 0
∑τ O = −38.5 N m
(clockwise)
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
5.3.3 Equilibrium of a rigid body
 Rigid body is defined as a body with definite shape that
doesn’t change, so that the particles that compose it stay in
fixed position relative to one another even though a force is
exerted on it.it
 If the rigid body is in equilibrium,
equilibrium means the body is
translational and rotational equilibrium.
equilibrium
 There are two conditions for the equilibrium of forces acting on
a rigid body.
 The vector sum of all forces acting on a rigid body must
be zero. 
∑F = F nett =0
OR

∑F x =0, ∑F y =0, ∑Fz =0


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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
 The vector sum of all external torques acting on a rigid
body must be zero about any rotation axis.
axis

∑ τ = τ nett = 0

 This ensures rotational equilibrium.


equilibrium
 This is equivalent to the three independent scalar
equations along the direction of the coordinate axes,

∑τ x = 0, ∑τ y =0, ∑τ z =0

Centre of gravity, CG
 is defined as the point at which the whole weight of a body
may be considered to act.
act
 A force that exerts on the centre of gravity of an object will
cause a translational motion.
motion
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
 Figures 5.14 and 5.15 show the centre of gravity for uniform
(symmetric) object i.e. rod and sphere
 rod – refer to the midway point between its end.
end
l
CG
l l
2 2
Figure 5.14

 sphere – refer to geometric centre.


centre

CG

Figure 5.15

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
5.3.4 Problem solving strategies for equilibrium of
a rigid body
 The following procedure is recommended when dealing with
problems involving the equilibrium of a rigid body:
 Sketch a simple diagram of the system to help
conceptualize the problem.
 Sketch a separate free body diagram for each body.

 Choose a convenient coordinate axes for each body and


construct a table to resolve the forces into their
components and to determine the torque by each force.
 Apply the condition for equilibrium of a rigid body :

∑F x =0; ∑Fy =0 and ∑τ = 0


 Solve the equations for the unknowns.

33
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Example 5 :
A 35 cm O 75 cm B

W1
W2
Figure 5.16
A hanging flower basket having weight, W2 =23 N is hung out over
the edge of a balcony railing on a uniform horizontal beam AB of
length 110 cm that rests on the balcony railing. The basket is
counterbalanced by a body of weight, W1 as shown in Figure 5.16.
If the mass of the beam is 3.0 kg, calculate
a. the weight, W1 needed,
b. the force exerted on the beam at point O.
(Given g =9.81 m s−2)
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5

Solution : m = 3 kg; W2 = 23 N N
The free body diagram of the beam :

0.20 m
A 0.35 m 0.75 m B
CG
O
 
W2 0.55 m  0.55 m
W1
mg
Let point O as the rotation axis.
Force y-comp. (N) Torque (N m), τo=Fd=Frsinθ

W1 − W1 − W1 ( 0.75) = −0.75W1

W2 − 23 + ( 23)( 0.35) = 8.05
mg
 − ( 3)( 9.81) − ( 29.4 )( 0.20) = −5.88
 = −29.4
N N 0
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution :
Since the beam remains at rest thus the system in equilibrium.
a. Hence
∑τ =0
O

− 0.75W1 + 8.05 − 5.88 = 0


W1 = 2.89 N

b. and ∑F y =0
− W1 − 23 − 29.4 + N = 0
− ( 2.89) − 23 − 29.4 + N = 0
N = 55.3 N

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Example 6 :
A uniform ladder AB of length 10 m and
mass 5.0 kg leans against a smooth wall
as shown in Figure 5.17. The height of the A
end A of the ladder is 8.0 m from the
rough floor.
a. Determine the horizontal and vertical
forces the floor exerts on the end B of
the ladder when a firefighter of mass
60 kg is 3.0 m from B.
b. If the ladder is just on the verge of
slipping when the firefighter is 7.0 m
smooth
up the ladder , Calculate the coefficient wall B
of static friction between ladder and rough floor
floor. Figure 5.17
(Given g =9.81 m s−2)
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution : ml = 5.0 kg; m f = 60 kg
a. The free body diagram of the ladder :
Let point B as the rotation axis. 
Torque (N m), τ
A N1
x-comp. y-comp. 8
Force α sin α = = 0.8
B=Fd=Frsinθ
(N) (N)
β 10

ml g 0 − 49.1 ( 49.1)( 5.0) sin β sin β =
6
= 0.6
= 147 10

mf g 0 − 589
( 589)( 3.0) sin β 8.0 m CG 10 m
 = 1060 
N1 − N 1 (10 ) sin α ml g β 3.0
N1 0  m
= −8 N 1 
mf g β N2

N2 0 N2 0 5.0 m α
  B
fs − fs 0 0 fs
6.0 m

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution :
Since the ladder in equilibrium thus

∑τ B
=0
147 + 1060 − 8 N 1 = 0
N 1 = 151 N
∑F x
=0
N1 − f s = 0
Horizontal force: f s = 151 N
∑ Fy =0
− 49.1 − 589 + N 2 = 0
Vertical force: N 2 = 638 N

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution : sin α = 0.8; sin β = 0.6
b. The free body diagram of the ladder :

Let point B as the rotation axis. A N1
x-comp. y-comp. Torque (N m), τ α
Force
(N) (N) B =Fd=Frsinθ β

ml g 0 − 49.1 ( 49.1)( 5.0) sin β 
= 147 mf g 10 m
β

mf g 0 − 589
( 589)( 7.0) sin β 8.0 m

7.0 m
 = 2474 ml g β
N1 N1 0 − N 1 (10 ) sin α 
N2
= −8 N 1
 5.0 m α
N2 0 N2 0  B
 fs
fs − μs N 2 0 0 6.0 m

40
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution :
Consider the ladder stills in equilibrium thus

∑τ B
=0
147 + 2474 − 8 N 1 = 0
N 1 = 328 N
∑ Fy =0
− 49.1 − 589 + N 2 = 0
N 2 = 638 N
∑ Fx =0
N 1 − μs N 2 = 0
( 328) − μs ( 638) = 0
μs = 0.514
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Example 7 :
A floodlight of mass 20.0 kg in a park is
supported at the end of a 10.0 kg uniform
horizontal beam that is hinged to a pole as
shown in Figure 5.18. A cable at an angle
30° with the beam helps to support the light.
a. Sketch a free body diagram of the beam.
b. Determine
i. the tension in the cable,
ii. the force exerted on the beam by the
pole.
Figure 5.18
(Given g =9.81 m s )
−2

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution : m f = 20.0 kg; mb = 10.0 kg
a. The free body diagram
 of the beam : 
S T
30
O 0.5l CG 
mb g
l 
mf g
b. Let point O as the rotation axis.
Force x-comp. (N) y-comp. (N) Torque (N m), τo=Fd=Frsinθ

mf g 0 − 196 − (196) l

mb g 0 − 98.1 − ( 98.1)( 0.5l ) = −49.1l

T − T cos 30

T sin 30 
Tl sin 30 = 0.5Tl

S Sx Sy 0
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution :
b. The floodlight and beam remain at rest thus
i.
∑ τ =0
O
− 196l − 49.1l + 0.5Tl = 0
T = 490 N
ii. ∑F x
=0
− T cos 30  + S x = 0
S x = 424 N
∑F y
=0
− 196 − 98.1 + T sin 30 + S y = 0
S y = 49.1 N

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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Solution :
b. ii. Therefore the magnitude of the force is
2 2
S = Sx + S y

S= ( 424) 2 + ( 49.1) 2
S = 427 N
and its direction is given by
−1 
Sy 
θ = tan  
 Sx 
−1  49.1 
θ = tan  
 424 
θ = 6.61 from the +x-axis anticlockwise

45
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Exercise 5.2 :
Use gravitational acceleration,
 g = 9.81 m s−2
1. F1
a B

A F2

D γ
C

shows the forces, F1 =10 N, F2= 50F3N
Figure 5.19
Figure 5.19 and F3=
60 N are applied to a rectangle with side lengths, a = 4.0 cm
and b = 5.0 cm. The angle γ is 30°. Calculate the resultant
torque about point D.
ANS. : -3.7 N m
46
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Exercise 5.2 :
2.

Figure 5.20

A see-saw consists of a uniform board of mass 10 kg and


length 3.50 m supports a father and daughter with masses 60
kg and 45 kg, respectively as shown in Figure 5.20. The fulcrum
is under the centre of gravity of the board. Determine
a. the magnitude of the force exerted by the fulcrum on the
board,
b. where the father should sit from the fulcrum to balance the
system.
47
ANS. : 1128 N; 1.31 m
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Exercise 5.2 :
3.

Figure 5.21
A traffic light hangs from a structure as show in Figure 5.21.
The uniform aluminum pole AB is 7.5 m long has a mass of 8.0
kg. The mass of the traffic light is 12.0 kg. Determine
a. the tension in the horizontal massless cable CD,
b. the vertical and horizontal components of the force exerted
by the pivot A on the aluminum pole.
ANS. : 248 N; 197 N, 248 N
48
PHYSICS CHAPTER 5
Exercise 5.2 :
4.
30.0 cm 50.0

15.0 cm

F
Figure 5.22
A uniform 10.0 N picture frame is supported by two light string
as shown in Figure 5.22. The horizontal force, F is applied for
holding the frame in the position shown.
a. Sketch the free body diagram of the picture frame.
b. Calculate
i. the tension in the ropes,
ii. the magnitude of the horizontal force, F .
ANS. : 1.42 N, 11.2 N; 7.20 N
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PHYSICS CHAPTER 5

THE END…
Next Chapter…
CHAPTER 6 :
Circular motion

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