Organizational Development
 “OD is a planned process of change in an organization’s

culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology, research, and theory.” -Burke

 Achievement of competitive edge of the organization.  Development of Organizational Culture.  Empowerment of social side of employees.  Employee participation in problem solving and decision making.  Focus of value development.  Inculcating team spirit.Why OD…?  Individual and group development. .

OD Intervention 4 Fronts:  Personal Concern  Job-Related Intervention  Structural Intervention  Socio-Technical Intervention .

Personal Intervention .

encounter groups. tolerance and conflict resolution . loosely directed by professional behavioral scientist  Rejects any leadership role  Increase understanding of group processes and behavior of others  Specific results are improved listening skills.Sensitivity Training  Laboratory training. T groups  Changing behavior through unstructured group learning  Members interact freely and openly. improved empathy.

coordination . effectiveness.  Questionnaire is given to manager of any given unit and employees under him.  Asks employees their opinion on decision making practices.Survey Feedback  Helps in solving discrepancies and differences among members. peers and immediate supervisor.  Data collected is tabulated and distributed to the members.  Helps as spring board in -Identifying problems -Clarifying issues -Generating new ideas . job.

The process is followed JOINTLY so that it can still be continued after PC is gone . PC does not solve the problems but guides the client on how to solve his own problems.Process Consultation  When manager knows there is need for improvement but is unable to     identify. within him and between him and other people.what and how? Outside consultant assists client to perceive understand and act on process events. PC consultant gives client insight into what is happening around him.

. removes ambiguity and understand their specific tasks. each members’ roles and responsibilities and team processes.Team Building  Uses high interaction group activities to increase trust and openness     among people Applicable in groups which are doing interdependent jobs. Following this the members evaluate teams’ performance. Helps clarifying each members role. First team members define goals and priorities of the team. its effectiveness and the Problem areas.

 Each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. distorted perceptions and stereotypes that groups have of each other. other group and how other groups see it  The groups then share their lists after which similarities and differences are discussed.Intergroup Development  To solve dysfunctional conflicts that exist in different groups.  Seeks to change negative attitudes.  Integration phase-Working to develop solutions and improve relationships .

Job Related Interventions Workflow In a technological environment there is a need to review every job in order to ensure that job includes: Task Identity Task Significance Meaningfulness Autonomy     .

Job Evaluation  It is a process of determining the relative worth or value of the various jobs within an organization. political and economic factors which determine the pay structure .  It cannot be the sole factor for deciding the pay structure.  There are various external factors like technological changes. labor market.  Job evaluation helps to set a job hierarchy.

 Modern approach job design is done by gathering a rough description about the job and then finalizing the requirements and relationships of job holders.Job Re-design Strategies  It refers to the study of jobs.  Now-a-days greater emphasis is given to human values. job enlargement etc. Job redesign is mainly aimed at enhancing productivity and employee motivation includes job enlargement. It includes job enrichment. tasks and collection of tasks. .

Structural Intervention  Change in Physical Settings  Formalization  Organizational mirroring .

Management By Exception.  ORGANIZATIONAL MIRRORING Improve the organization effectiveness by providing feedback from other org.  FORMALIZATION: Refers to -policies -procedures -rules and regulations. .Contd…  CHANGE IN PHYSICAL SETTING Main objective is to reduce the physical fatigue.

Steps Involve  Consultation  Identification of problem and suggesting solution  Implementation .

Socio-Technical Interventions Endeavors to redesign the organization’s -Structure -Process -Functions It could involve the following steps  System Analysis  Flexible Work Arrangements .

 Composed of 4 Interlocking system:- · Technical system · Social system · Administrative system · Strategic system . Problem Solving.System Analysis  Four sequential stages: Assessment. Implementation and Evaluation.

Flexible Work Arrangements Introduce a flexible working hours scheme  The introduction requires care and needs to be carefully planned by all those likely to be affected.  When the details have been agreed there should be a trial period of. perhaps. three months to help identify and eliminate any problems. .

Flexible Work Programs  Flex-Time  Compressed Work Week  Flex-Place  Job Sharing  Role Analysis  Expanded Leave  Partial Retirement .


and only lukewarm defenders in all those who would profit by the new order.Change Requires Courage “It must be considered that there is nothing more difficult to carry out. For the reformer has enemies in all those who profit by the old order. more dangerous to handle.The Prince . more doubtful of success.” -Machiavelli. than to initiate a new order of things.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful