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Clinical Chemistry

INTRODUCTION

What is Clinical Chemistry ?


Also known as Clinical biochemistry, chemical pathology, medical biochemistry or pure blood chemistry

It is the area of pathology wherein it is generally concerned with analysis of body fluid
Originated in the late 19th century with the use of simple chemical test for various components of blood and urine

Other techniques were also applied including the use of measurement of enzyme activities, spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, immunoassay All biochemical tests come under chemical pathology

These are performed on any kind of body fluid especially on serum or plasma. It is in here where they test the serum for chemicals present in blood. These include a wide array of substances, such as lipids, blood sugar, enzymes, and hormones.

Large array of tests can be further subcategorised into subspecialities of:


General chemistry Endocrinology Immunology Pharmacology/ Toxicology

Common Tests in Clinical Chemistry


Electrolytes Renal Function Test Liver Function Test Cardiac Markers Minerals Blood Disorders Basic Metabolic Panel Comprehensive Metabolic Panel and many more....

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Hormone is a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. Immunity is a biological term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion.

Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses.
Spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength. Deals with visible light, near-ultraviolet, and near-infrared, but does not cover timeresolved spectroscopic techniques.

Electrophoresis, also called cataphoresis, is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a substance in solutions that frequently contain a complex mixture of substances.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes.

General Chemistry -General chemistry is the study of matter and energy and the
interactions between them. This is an overview of General Chemistry topics, such as acids and bases, atomic structure, the periodic table, chemical bonds, and chemical reactions.

Endocrinology
-the study of hormones. A hormone is a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism.

Immunology -the study of the immune system and antibodies. An immune system is
a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells.

An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large Yshaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target, termed an antigen. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell.

Pharmacology or Toxicology
- the study of drugs. Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. Toxicology, it is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people.

COMMON TEST IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY


Electrolytes Sodium, Potassium, Chloride and Bicarbonate testing. Renal Function Test -Creatinine, Blood urea nitrogen Liver Function Test -Total protein (serum);Albumin;Globulins;A/G ratio ( (albumin/globulin)Protein electrophoresis Urine protein Bilirubin; direct; indirect; total Aspartate transaminase (AST); Alanine transaminase (ALT); Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT); Alkaline phosphatase(ALP);

Cardiac Markers Minerals Blood Disorders Basic Metabolic Panel Comprehensive Metabolic Panel and many more....

PANEL TEST A set of commonly ordered tests are combined into a panel:
Basic metabolic panel (BMP) A basic metabolic panel (BMP) is
a set of seven or eight blood chemical tests. It is one of the most common lab tests ordered by health care providers. It provides key information that has a variety of applications in guiding the medical management of a patient. 7 tests - sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, glucose

Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)


The comprehensive metabolic panel, or chemical screen, (CMP; CPT code 80053) is a panel of 14 blood tests which serves as an initial broadscreening tool for physicians, nurse practitioners and physician assistants. Because it is often ordered as a routine part of an annual physical examination or check up, over time the CMP provides an important baseline of a patient's basic physiology
14 tests - above BMP plus calcium, total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), bilirubin

Machines used in Clinical Chemistry


BMD 1940 PLUS (BIOMEDICA SEMIAUTOMATIC ANALYZER) - A fully programmable entry-level analyzer, designed for smaller clinics with testing load of 30 to 50 patients/day. Features low initial cost, minimal training requirements, self-prompting interactive operation, and advanced electronics & software. Accurate, fast results from small samples, large test menu for over 50 assays. Internal printer with graphics capability, integral heating block and RS232 interface. Includes an optional patient management software package.

BMD 3300 (STAT FAX SEMI-AUTOMATIC ANALYZER) - A relatively more advanced analyzer designed for medium-sized clinics, providing additional modules for convenience and faster throughput. It is the instrument of choice for larger clinics with a testing load of 50-100 patients/day. This analyzer features a large flip-up display screen that enables the visualization of kinetic plots in real time. Creates a work list, runs tests, prints patient reports, stores patient data. Stores control values and creates LeveyJennings plots for QC. Optical system is temperaturecontrolled to 37C. Adapts to 12 mm round tubes, 1 cm square cuvettes, or built-in flow cell. On-board 40column thermal printer, external printer, or PC. Optional incubation block and plug-in standard external keyboard are also available.

BMD-100 COMPACT (KUADRO AUTOMATIC ANALYZER) - This is an automatic instrument developed to fill the gap existing between the small semi-automatic analyzers and the advanced automatic instruments. Ideal for the small laboratory, gives users a flexible, cost-effective approach to automation. Many advanced features, such as linear and non-linear chemistries in a single routine, and two-point calibration ensures a better accuracy and stability. Easy download and printing of stored reports. With a typical throughput of 120 tests/hour, 72 patient sample positions, 18 reagents on board, and programmable organ-specific panels, this instrument offers an automatic load-and-walk-away operation appropriate for most hospital laboratories with a testing load of 100150 patients/day.

BMD-300 HIGH SPEED (GLOBAL 300 FULLY AUTOMATIC ANALYZER) - The ultimate in clinical chemistry automation. This fully automated analyzer operates with direct reading technology that allows continuous access and a typical throughput of 300 tests/hour. Multiple wavelength reading, barcode option, automatic cuvette washing; combine with the most advanced patient data management software to deliver a testing capacity sufficient for larger reference laboratories and hospitals with a testing load of up to 500 patients/day.

BMD-200 RANDOM ACCESS (PRONTO FULLY AUTOMATIC ANALYZER) - The only analyzer in its price range provided with a Continuous Access feature that permits the operator to insert a sample anywhere on the tray at any time. Operates in Batch Mode (test by test) or in Random Mode (patient by patient), as required. The instrument is supplied with clinical chemistry software as standard. Different software versions are available for immunochemistry or other tests. With a typical throughput of 200 tests/hour and STAT capability, this instrument would meet the needs of a relatively large hospital with a patient testing load of up to 200 patients/day.

LABORATORY ACCESSORIES - A full complement of essential accessories to complete a turn key operation. Blood collection equipment, sample pipetting station, centrifugation facilities, plastics, labware and consumables. Microscopy provided with a variety of certified biological stains, reagents and accessories for microbiology, hematology, histology and cytology identification procedures.

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