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KOJI

Koji is a Japanese name given to a preparation consisting of mold growth on Click edit Master subtitle style cookedtocereals and/or soybeans. Koji serves as an enzyme source for converting complex 4/15/12 plant constituents to simple

Scientific classification Domain : Eukarya Kingdom : Fungi Division : Ascomycota Class : Eurotiomycetes Order : Eurotiales Family : Trichocomaceae
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Soy sauce koji is made from a mixture of roasted wheat and steamed soybeans , with a koji starter consisted of selected strains of ASPERGILUS ORYZEE of A.soybean KOJI STARTER--- is known as TANE KOJI in japan

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KOJI STARTER
Polished rice is soaked in water overnight ,drained , streamed for 1 hour, and mixed thoroughly with about 2% of wood ash as a source of trace elements. The rice is then inoculated with spores of a selected of A.oryzee , spread out in trays in a layer approx. 1.5cm deep and covered with damp clothes to favor the growth of mold 4/15/12

PREPARTATION
Raw materials , soybeans and wheat is treated as explained in the previous slide. The best soy sauce is generally made by a soybean-to-wheat ratio of 50:50 by weight , or 52:48 by volume based on that of raw materials.
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BRINE FERMENTATION

SOY SAUCE is transferred to a deep vessel to which an equal volume of salt solution is added to make moromi Lower concentration of salt solution,the better utilization of nitrogen. Sodium chloride content of the moromi is 17-19% Moromi fermented in large wodden

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Low temperature fermentation gives better results becaues rate of enzyme inactivation is slow The temperature of moromi is controlled start at 15 c for 1 month 28 c for 4 months again 15 c for 1 month

Strains of Saccharomyces rouxii,Torulopsis yeast and Pediococcus soyea where found to be 4/15/12

PRESSING

The matured moromi is


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MISO

Miso is the most important fermented soybean food in Japan. Generally known as bean paste Made from cereal,soybeans and salt by the action of

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Preparation

The ingredients used to produce Miso may include a mix of soybean, barley, rice, buckwheat, millet, rice, wheat, hemp seed, and cycad among others.

Process mainly consists of cooking soybeans,preparing koji ,mixing cooked soy-beans with rice koji and salt,fermenting and ripening in tank,blending, pasteurizing and 4/15/12

Treatment of soybeans:
whole soybeans generally used for making miso Large size soybeans is preffered Should have high water absorbing capacity They are washed, soaked in water for about 20 hours at 16 c and drained ,the soaked beans are cooked in water or steamed at temperature of 115 c for 20 minutes

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Flow sheet for manufacture of miso


Polished rice soybeans

Washed washed

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Steamed Steamed

Cooled Cooled

Inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae


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Incubated
inoculum miso or pediococcus halophiles

Koji (mold rice)

torulopsis sp, streptococcus faecalis

MIXED
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FERMENTED

TRANSFERRED

RIPENED
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PASTEURISED

PACKAGED

MISO

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NUTRITION & HEALTH

Miso can help treat radiation sickness. There were cases in Japan and Russia where people have been fed miso after the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Miso is a source of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lecithin which is a kind 4/15/12 of phospholipid caused by

OVERVIEW : A dark brown liquid with a salty taste and a distinct

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SOY SAUCE

In additon to the fermentaion technique ,chemical technique in which acid hydrolyzes the protein and the carbohydrates has been used in the United states However the flavour of the chemically hydrolyzed product is quite different from that of the product obtained about by microbial enzymes

The brewing of soy sauce originated in China many centuries back and 4/15/12 later introduced to Japan and other

METHOD OF PREPARATION:

Many improvements have been made since the early development of fermentation, but the basic method of manufacture is almost unchanged. RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR TREATMENT : Soybeans: Made from whole soybeans however, in recent years, deflated soybean have been put to 4/15/12 use.

a.

a)

Wheat : Whole wheat is generally preferred, which is first roasted and then coarsely crushed, the roasting process adds color and flavour to it, and in addition destroys surface microoraganisms &facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis.

Wheat is used because, the mold grows better and produces more enzymes on a mixture of wheat and soybeans 4/15/12

c)

Salts : Although commercial (not chemically pure) sodium chloride is generally used in making soy sauce , chemically pure sodium chloride have been used successfully In making soy sauce on a laboratory scale with added pure inoculum of yeasts and bacteria .
)

In additon to giving a salty taste, sodium chloride acts as a preservative and also has a selective action on the microorganisms that grow in the 4/15/12

FLOW CHART FOR MANUFACTURE OF SOY BEAN

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