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Methods of Training

Various Methods
INFORMATIONAL primarily informational, one way communication EXPERIMENTAL learner interact with instructor, a computer, or other trainee to practice skills.

Uses Gaining new knowledge Introductory material Lecture Benefits Equally good as TV Low cost Limitation Learners are passive Poor transfer

Reaches large Depends in lecture audience ability Audience is often Is not tailored comfortable with it individual trainee

Uses Gaining new knowledge Gaining attention AUDIO VISUAL Benefits Can reach large audience at one time Versatility Can reduce trainer, travel and facility cost Audience is often comfortable with it Limitation Is not tailored to individual trainee Passive learner

Independent study Uses Benefits Gaining new Allow trainees to knowledge go at own pace Completing degree Continuous education Minimize cost of development Limitation Expensive to develop liabrary material Performance depends on trainee motivation Is not applicable to all job

Uses Limitation Gaining new Expensive to knowledge develop Pre training Allows trainees to Not applicable for preparation go at there own all task pace Provide immediate Does not lead to feedfack higher performance than lecture E Learning Benefits Convenient


ON THE JOB Benefits Good transfer Limited trainer cost High trainee motivation since training is relevant Limitation Depends on Trainer May be costly due to mistake May have frequent interruption due to job demand

Uses Learning Job skills Apprentice training Job rotation

E-Learning Uses Benefits Limitation Trainees may have difficulty using computer Limited opp for interaction Less useful for interpersonal and psychmotor task

Gaining New Self Paced and Knowledge Convenient Drill and Practice Individualise d Learning Standardised, Good Retention Feedback is given

SIMULATOR Uses Produces real world conditions For physical and cognitive training For Team Training Benefits Effective for learning and transfer Present realistic challenge Limitation Costly to develop Sickness can occur Requires good fidelity

GAMES Uses Benefits Limitation Highly competitive Time consuming May stifle creativity

Decision Resembles the making skills job tasks Management training Interpersonal skills Provide feedback Present realistic challenge

CASE STUDY Uses Decision Making skills Analytical skills Benefits Decision making practice Limitation Must be updated

Real world Criticized as being training unable to teach material mgmt skills Communicati Active learning Trainer often on skills dominates discussion Illustrate diversity of solution Good for problem solving skills

ROLE PLAY Uses For Changing attitude Practice skills Benefits Gain experince of other role Active learning Limitation Initial resistance of trainee Trainee may not take it seriously

Analyse Close to reality Interpersonal problems

Behaviour Modelling Uses To teach Interpersonal skills Benefits Allow practice Limitation Time consuming

To teach Provide May be costly cognitive feedback to develop skills To teach Retention is training skills improved

Inventory of training methods

Lecture Case analysis Role plays Business / management games & simulations Experiential learning, including outdoors Organizing / preparing training material, including A.V. aids

Traditional Method / Oldest One way communication Lack of Interaction Effective when seek to transmit information or intellect understanding Trainer becomes center of attraction

Talent of Trainer can engage participants with communication skills


When large group is there and participation is not possible Bridge the gap between lectures and reading by themselves

No guarantee that method stimulates thinking or actively involves participants therefore most difficult method.
The onus lies with Trainer. It calls for motivation and commitment

Does not allow two way communication Develops a sense of dependence on the trainer. Lack of involvement of the participant leaves the trainer without the feedback. Requires high level of skill, knowledge and aptitude. Good lecturing and good presentation

ADVANTAGE Can reinforce trainers credibility and authority Info is concentrated and organized Efficient: lot of info can be shared Can be personalized and customized

DISADVANTAGE One Way Depends on trainer for effectiveness Words and figs can easily be garbled.

Trainer Role Initiator, Main speaker, option of involving question Building Group The group is prepared for lecture.

Participant role Style of speaker, good listener

Facilities & resources Room should be comfortable, chart, flips, pen Time Allocation depends on subject

Very popular Transmitting of knowledge through involvement of the participants Used as an exercise in decision making or problem solving. Helps participant to think

Guidelines for using

Imp to know objective of the session Through knowledge of the topic should be there. The case study should be based on genuine data and situation The trainer should be aware of the actual outcome in order to enable to compare and contrast after findings.

Guidelines for writing case study Can be done yourself Can be delegated-imp objective should be kept in mind The case must relate to overall work situation, participants skills exp and knowledge Good communication and writing skills and should be in past tense for protection.

ADVANTAGE Can focus the discussion and learning experience Can gain a shared understanding of on the job training Provide real world experience

DISADVANTAGE Impose time limitation for reading and discussion Difficult to develop and in corporate all the necessary details. Only build and demonstrate understanding and not skills

Checklist Case Study

Trainer role Initiate and guide discussion, clarifies, expected learning outcomes, highlights the learning. Climate building methods procedure norms should be familiarized well, good time Participant role actively involved in analyzing the case, assisting for understanding

Checklist contd
Facilities, recourses and equipments Case sheet should be well made, room should be spaced.. Black board, flip charts..

Time allocation approx 2 hours

Valuable training method Its a conscious attempt to bring out dynamic and intricacies of various roles performed in real life. Its not theoretical Provides opportunity for participation, involvement and action learning. Engendering (produce) behavioral science. Provides a useful experience in self expression and interpersonal communication.



Real life situation, problems concerning org and individual Presents the problem for analysis and discussion Focus more on cognitive learning and thinking Less involvement of participants Deals with analysis and response.

Same real life situation Interactive style Emphasis both on cognitive and affective development Greater involvement Stresses the importance of behavior & reaction

Types of Role Plays

Simple Role Play Simplest form, group performs in front of group and act as observer too, opportunity for participant to develop sensitivity to the feeling of others Multiple role Plays Various group, same exercise, experience same situation, play role simultaneously, discussion

Process observation (Leadership that emerged in a
group, process of decision making, indicate who took initiative, describe how conflicts emerged and resolved, list factor that influenced action)

Content observation (role of different role player,

issue emerged and response by group, conflict resolution, negotiation skill of different role player)

Whom to observe Procedure for observation Recording the observation (observation sheet) Presenting the observation


Trainer role Preparation, brief the participant, active involvement in the exercise, Monitor the progress of the exercise, discussing highlights

Preparing group Adequate time should be given, procedure norms, acquainted with how role will be played. Participant role full involvement, provide assistance.

Facilities and resources appropriate material to be distributed, space required, large room, blackboard, flip chart.

Time allocation Min 1-2 hrs approx

Related to specific aspect of business Bring together various elements of practical decision making. Games concentrate on general management principles i.e planning, decision making,

Design and Methodology

Trainer should be well aware about objective Should also know what sequence to be followed for a balance between cognitive and experimental learning. Trainer should well aware how game works Game must have depth

Inter-relationship between functional area of a business are translated into mathematical relationships. Time available to the team for making decisions is normally related to complexity of game Avoid any kind of distraction The term and language used should be same used in training prog

Popular method Adaptability Standalone method or in combination Large group or sub group

Aims at structured but informal exchange of knowledge and idea. Result in change in behavior and action if participant willing to learn.

Process oriented prompting interaction Result oriented specific outcome Generate ideas by examining issues in greater depth

Develop skills in interpersonal group

Effective means of changing attitude

Limitation of GD
If group is large all the members may not get the opportunity to participate and contribute to the discussion If the task is not clear defined, the discussion may lack focus and unproductive Difficulties can arise if the leader in unskilled in guiding the discussion Some members may dominate

Specialized form of discussion
Unstructured way of generating idea Possible to generate more ideas collectively than sum of the ideas

Generating wide range of solutions in solving a problem, stimulating creativity in the group

Developing a positive attitude among the participant by encouraging to listen them carefully Encouraging shy participants to share ideas and views without getting negative reaction
Creating effectiveness

Steps in Brainstorming
Generation of Ideas Amending ideas Posting all ideas on flip chart

Analyzing ideas
Action planning