Methods of Training

Various Methods
• INFORMATIONAL – primarily informational, one way communication • EXPERIMENTAL – learner interact with instructor, a computer, or other trainee to practice skills.

Uses Gaining new knowledge Introductory material Lecture Benefits Equally good as TV Low cost Limitation Learners are passive Poor transfer

Reaches large Depends in lecture audience ability Audience is often Is not tailored comfortable with it individual trainee

Uses Gaining new knowledge Gaining attention AUDIO VISUAL Benefits Can reach large audience at one time Versatility Can reduce trainer, travel and facility cost Audience is often comfortable with it Limitation Is not tailored to individual trainee Passive learner

INFORMATIONAL Independent study Uses Benefits Gaining new Allow trainees to knowledge go at own pace Completing degree Continuous education Minimize cost of development Limitation Expensive to develop liabrary material Performance depends on trainee motivation Is not applicable to all job .

INFORMATIONAL Uses Limitation Gaining new Expensive to knowledge develop Pre training Allows trainees to Not applicable for preparation go at there own all task pace Provide immediate Does not lead to feedfack higher performance than lecture E Learning Benefits Convenient .

Experimental Experimental ON THE JOB Benefits Good transfer Limited trainer cost High trainee motivation since training is relevant Limitation Depends on Trainer May be costly due to mistake May have frequent interruption due to job demand Uses Learning Job skills Apprentice training Job rotation .

Good Retention Feedback is given .Experimental E-Learning Uses Benefits Limitation Trainees may have difficulty using computer Limited opp for interaction Less useful for interpersonal and psychmotor task Gaining New Self Paced and Knowledge Convenient Drill and Practice Individualise d Learning Standardised.

Experimental SIMULATOR Uses Produces real world conditions For physical and cognitive training For Team Training Benefits Effective for learning and transfer Present realistic challenge Limitation Costly to develop Sickness can occur Requires good fidelity .

Experimental GAMES Uses Benefits Limitation Highly competitive Time consuming May stifle creativity Decision Resembles the making skills job tasks Management training Interpersonal skills Provide feedback Present realistic challenge .

Experimental CASE STUDY Uses Decision Making skills Analytical skills Benefits Decision making practice Limitation Must be updated Real world Criticized as being training unable to teach material mgmt skills Communicati Active learning Trainer often on skills dominates discussion Illustrate diversity of solution Good for problem solving skills .

Experimental ROLE PLAY Uses For Changing attitude Practice skills Benefits Gain experince of other role Active learning Limitation Initial resistance of trainee Trainee may not take it seriously Analyse Close to reality Interpersonal problems .

Experimental Behaviour Modelling Uses To teach Interpersonal skills Benefits Allow practice Limitation Time consuming To teach Provide May be costly cognitive feedback to develop skills To teach Retention is training skills improved .

V. aids .Inventory of training methods • • • • Lecture Case analysis Role plays Business / management games & simulations • Experiential learning. including outdoors • Organizing / preparing training material. including A.

LECTURE METHOD • Traditional Method / Oldest • One way communication • Lack of Interaction • Effective when seek to transmit information or intellect understanding • Trainer becomes center of attraction • Talent of Trainer can engage participants with communication skills .

• It calls for motivation and commitment . • The onus lies with Trainer.WHY & WHEN TO USE • When large group is there and participation is not possible • Bridge the gap between lectures and reading by themselves • No guarantee that method stimulates thinking or actively involves participants therefore most difficult method.

• Requires high level of skill.Cont… • Does not allow two way communication • Develops a sense of dependence on the trainer. knowledge and aptitude. • Good lecturing and good presentation . • Lack of involvement of the participant leaves the trainer without the feedback.

ADVANTAGE • Can reinforce trainers credibility and authority • Info is concentrated and organized • Efficient: lot of info can be shared • Can be personalized and customized DISADVANTAGE • One Way • Depends on trainer for effectiveness • Words and figs can easily be garbled. .

chart.CHECKLIST • Trainer Role – Initiator. Main speaker. • Participant role – Style of speaker. option of involving question • Building Group – The group is prepared for lecture. flips. good listener • Facilities & resources – Room should be comfortable. pen…… • Time Allocation – depends on subject .

• Helps participant to think .CASE STUDY • Very popular • Transmitting of knowledge through involvement of the participants • Used as an exercise in decision making or problem solving.

Guidelines for using • Imp to know objective of the session • Through knowledge of the topic should be there. . • The case study should be based on genuine data and situation • The trainer should be aware of the actual outcome in order to enable to compare and contrast after findings.

Guidelines for writing case study • Can be done yourself • Can be delegated-imp objective should be kept in mind • The case must relate to overall work situation. . participants skills exp and knowledge • Good communication and writing skills and should be in past tense for protection.

• Only build and demonstrate understanding and not skills .• ADVANTAGE • Can focus the discussion and learning experience • Can gain a shared understanding of on the job training • Provide real world experience • DISADVANTAGE • Impose time limitation for reading and discussion • Difficult to develop and in corporate all the necessary details.

good time • Participant role – actively involved in analyzing the case. expected learning outcomes.Checklist – Case Study • Trainer role – Initiate and guide discussion. • Climate building – methods procedure norms should be familiarized well. clarifies. assisting for understanding . highlights the learning.

room should be spaced. flip charts. recourses and equipments – Case sheet should be well made. Black board.. • Time allocation – approx 2 hours .Checklist – contd… • Facilities..

• Its not theoretical • Provides opportunity for participation. • Provides a useful experience in self expression and interpersonal communication.ROLE PLAY • Valuable training method • It’s a conscious attempt to bring out dynamic and intricacies of various roles performed in real life. • Engendering (produce) behavioral science. . involvement and action learning.

• Same real life situation • Interactive style • Emphasis both on cognitive and affective development • Greater involvement • Stresses the importance of behavior & reaction .• CASE STUDY • ROLE PLAY • Real life situation. problems concerning org and individual • Presents the problem for analysis and discussion • Focus more on cognitive learning and thinking • Less involvement of participants • Deals with analysis and response.

discussion . opportunity for participant to develop sensitivity to the feeling of others • Multiple role Plays – Various group. same exercise. experience same situation. group performs in front of group and act as observer too.Types of Role Plays • Simple Role Play – Simplest form. play role simultaneously.

OBSERVATION • Process observation (Leadership that emerged in a group. describe how conflicts emerged and resolved. issue emerged and response by group. indicate who took initiative. process of decision making. conflict resolution. negotiation skill of different role player) • Whom to observe • Procedure for observation • Recording the observation (observation sheet) • Presenting the observation . list factor that influenced action) • Content observation (role of different role player.

acquainted with how role will be played. Monitor the progress of the exercise. provide assistance. . brief the participant. procedure norms. discussing highlights • Preparing group – Adequate time should be given. active involvement in the exercise.CHECKLIST – Role play • Trainer role – Preparation. • Participant role – full involvement.

flip chart…. • Time allocation – Min 1-2 hrs approx . blackboard. large room.. space required.Contd. • Facilities and resources – appropriate material to be distributed.

. • Games concentrate on general management principles i.e planning.MANAGEMENT GAMES • Related to specific aspect of business • Bring together various elements of practical decision making. decision making.

• Trainer should well aware how game works • Game must have depth .Design and Methodology • Trainer should be well aware about objective • Should also know what sequence to be followed for a balance between cognitive and experimental learning.

Contd… • Inter-relationship between functional area of a business are translated into mathematical relationships. • Time available to the team for making decisions is normally related to complexity of game • Avoid any kind of distraction • The term and language used should be same used in training prog .

. • Result in change in behavior and action if participant willing to learn.GROUP DISCUSSION • Popular method • Adaptability • Standalone method or in combination • Large group or sub group • Aims at structured but informal exchange of knowledge and idea.

Objective • Process oriented – prompting interaction • Result oriented – specific outcome • Generate ideas by examining issues in greater depth • Develop skills in interpersonal group • Effective means of changing attitude .

Limitation of GD • If group is large all the members may not get the opportunity to participate and contribute to the discussion • If the task is not clear defined. the discussion may lack focus and unproductive • Difficulties can arise if the leader in unskilled in guiding the discussion • Some members may dominate .

BRAINSTORMING • Specialized form of discussion • Unstructured way of generating idea • Possible to generate more ideas collectively than sum of the ideas .

stimulating creativity in the group • Developing a positive attitude among the participant by encouraging to listen them carefully • Encouraging shy participants to share ideas and views without getting negative reaction • Creating effectiveness .Objective • Generating wide range of solutions in solving a problem.

Steps in Brainstorming • Generation of Ideas • Amending ideas • Posting all ideas on flip chart • Analyzing ideas • Action planning .

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