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Scientific study of behaviour and mental processes (Peterson, 1991)

Goals of psychology
Describe Explain Predict Behaviour Change IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE

A relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of practice or experience Not just acquiring knowledge and skills but also beliefs, values etc. Conditioning- forming an association between stimulus and behavioural response

Classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov, Russian physiologist Experiment: Stage 1- before conditioning Bell No saliva Meat Saliva

Stage 2- during conditioning Bell + meat


Stage 3- after conditioning Bell Saliva

Stage 1- before conditioning

Neutral stimulus (NS)

No saliva
no response

Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

unconditioned response (UCR)

Stage 2-During conditioning

Bell +meat


Stage 3- After conditioning


conditioned response (CR)

Learning to respond to a stimulus when that stimulus is paired with a stimulus that causes a involuntary or reflex response.

Clinical example
Before conditioning Hospital During conditioning Hospital+chemotherapy After conditioning Hospital

No response Nausea

Classically conditioning emotional responses

Watson and Raynor (1920) Experiment with Little Albert Paired white rat with loud noise After 6 pairing, fear response to white rat Fear generalized to furry animals Discriminate different looking animals

Generalization- tendency to respond in the same way to stimulus that have similar characteristics Discrimination- learning to differentiate

Operant conditioning
B.F. Skinner, American psychologist Learning to operate on the environment as a result of certain consequences Also called instrumental conditioning because behavior is instrumental in producing certain consequences

Law of effect
Proposed by E.L.Thorndike If consequences of a behavior are desirable, behavior is likely to be repeated If consequences of a behavior are undesirable, behavior is less likely to be repeated Consequences are reinforcement and punishment

Experiment with rat in a skinner box

Lever Press lever Food

- Stimulus - Behaviour - Reinforcer

Reinforcement-any procedure that results in an increase of a response Punishment- any procedure that results in decrease of a response, usually a aversive or noxious stimulus

Types of reinforcers
Primary vs secondary- value doesnt have to be learnt vs value has to be learnt Positive vs negative- desirable stimulus added vs desired stimulus taken away



Effect on behaviour Example

+ reinforcement

Provides pleasant consequence

Increase probability Verbal phrase in that preceding rehabilitation behaviour will occur again


Removes unpleasant Increase probability Adjusting posture to consequence that preceding avoid pain behaviour will occur again


Removes positive reinforce or applies aversive stimuli

Deceases probability Vomiting after that response will eating poisonous occur again mushrooms

Laws of effective reinforcement

Law of immediate reinforcement Law of contingent reinforcement

Differences b/w classical and operant conditioning

CC Involuntary behv ANS Desirable stimulus before behaviour Learner passive OC Voluntary behv CNS Desirable stimulus after behaviour Learner active