CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT

Lizamarie C. Olegario U.P. College of Education

86.Teacher Tala always considers the family background of her students to better understand them. Which principle is considered here?

a) Maturation precedes certain types of learning b) Development rates vary among individuals c) Each stage of development has characteristic traits d) Development of an organism is the result of heredity and environment interaction

Biopsychosocial Perspective on Development

What does this prove? a) Development ends after infancy. In a research conducted by Jerome Kagan.87. almost one-third of a group of children who had an inhibited temperament at 2 years of age were not unusually shy or fearful when they were four years old. b) Latter experiences do not change the impact of early experiences c) Development continues after infancy. d) Early experiences are the sole determiners in the development of persons. .

Jerome Kagan  At early ages  inhibited children ○ cling to their mothers and may cry and hesitate when confronted with unfamiliar persons or events ○ appear to be timid and shy  Uninhibited or exuberant children ○ approach new events and persons without hesitation or trepidation ○ appear fearless and sociable  These characteristic profiles tended to continue .

although relatively few researchers have studied the interaction of these two influences as of the early 2000s. .Malleability the extent to which temperament can be influenced or reshaped by later life events Individual children may change and become more or less inhibited while the groups of children remain distinct on average Temperament and environment both influence development.

• A genetic legacy of timidity was shaped by parental behavior "and these kids became far less fearful” .Jerome Kagan • has shown how different parenting styles can shape a timid. shy child who perceives the world as a threat • measured babies at 4 months and at school age • The fearful children whose parents (over)protected them were still timid. • Those whose parents pushed them to try new things -"get into that sandbox and play with the other kids.lost their shyness. dammit!" -.

88.Which is/are the basic assumption/s of behaviorists?
I. II. The mind of a newborn child is a blank slate. All behaviors are determined by environmental events behavior can change as a result of extrinsic motivators such as incentives, rewards, and punishments. III. The child has a certain degree of freedom not to allow himself to be shaped by his environment. IV. View learners as mechanical responders. V. Rely on both experiential and discovery learning. A. B. C. D. I, II and III II, III, and IV I, II, and IV I, II, III, and V

Assumptions of behaviorism:
1) The primary means of investigating learning is by observation. 2) Principles of learning apply equally to different behaviors and to different species of animals. Behaviorists typically state that human beings and other animals learn in similar ways.

Assumptions of behaviorism:
3) Learning processes can be studied most objectively when the focus of study is on stimuli and responses. Typically learning is described as a stimulus and response relationship, S = R. 4) Internal cognitive processes are largely excluded from scientific study.

6) Organisms are born as blank slates. then no learning has happened. Some behaviorists proposed that if no observable change happens. each will have a different set of behaviors. Since each organism has a different experience with the environment.Assumptions of behaviorism: 5) Learning involves a behavior change. . Organisms are not born with any predispositions to be made in certain ways.

. 8) The learning of all behavior is best explained by as few learning principles as possible.Assumptions of behaviorism: 7) Learning is largely the result of environmental events. Behaviorists tend to use the term conditioning instead of learning to reflect this. The most useful theories tend to be universal ones.

Teacher Marissa is convinced that whenever as student performs a desired behavior. provide him/her reinforcement and soon the student learns to perform the behavior on his/her own.89. On which principle is the conviction based? a) b) c) d) Social Cognitivism Behaviorism Constructivism Cognitivism .

• Behaviorism is applied in different educational areas including systems approach.Learning Theories • Behaviorism: • Discuses behaviors that can be observed. the curriculum and behavioral objectives include learning tasks. Behaviorism does not fully consider the thought processes that go on in the learner’s mind. Watson. an Gagne promoted and experimented in the behaviorism. development of objectives etc. divided (chunked) into distinct quantifiable tasks through analysis. • Stimulus and responses as derived from the work of Pavlov. Skinner. Thorndike. . computer-assisted learning. • In instructional design.

Piaget. Vygotsky.Learning Theories • Cognitivism: • It deals with the internal mental processes of the mind and how these processes could be used to endorse effective learning. • The tasks are first analyzed and then broken down into steps. . • Information is then organized and delivered or taught from the most simple to the most complex depending on the learner’s prior schema or knowledge. These chunks of information are then used to enlarge learning in instructional design curriculum. • Dewey. and Gagne are a few of the theorists associated with cognitivism.

. where the learner can gain access to a wider area of learning. by learners reflecting on their experiences. and thereafter constructing their own understanding of their world." which they use to make sense of their experiences. by controlling what elements they access. • The learners generate their own "rules" and "mental models. • Constructivism principles in instructional design curriculum are applied in the use of the hypertext and hypermedia.Learning Theories • Constructivism: • Founded on the premise that.

Phases in a Behaviorist Lesson • Orientation: overview. explains why. . etc.

Phases (cont. .) • Presentation: explain how to. – Presented in very small steps with mastery of each step the goal – Numerous examples with teacher demonstrating correct responses – When difficulty is encountered. – Constant evaluation of ALL students understanding. demonstrate how to. steps. additional explanations and examples given.

Teacher circulates and monitors. – Guided practice: students work on a few examples alone at their desks.Phases (cont. . providing corrective feedback and reinforcement – Independent practice: students given a few examples just like what had been learned to practice alone. Feedback is not necessarily immediate (i.e.) • Practice phase – Structured practice: whole class led through each step of the problem with teacher leading and checking for everyone’s understanding. next day).

then the left arm in the left sleeve. then buttoning the front of the shirt. This technique is called______________. a) b) c) d) Fading Reinforcement Chaining Conditioning .90.Miss Cortez is teaching a three-year old boy how to put on his shirt. She might first rewarded him for placing his right arm in the right sleeve. then tucking into his pants.

Chaining  the procedure for building chains  Behavior chain ○ a series of related behaviors ○ Each provides the cue for the next and the last that produces a reinforcer.  the reinforcement of successive elements of a behavior chain  Two chaining procedures  forward  backward chaining .

.Chaining • FORWARD CHAINING: – start with the first task in the chain • BACKWARD CHAINING: • begins with the last element in the chain and proceeds to the first element.

Rules for Chaining Define the target behavior  take notice of all the steps involved  task analysis Reinforce successive elements of the chain Monitor Results Shaping  always moves forward  there is no such thing as backward shaping .

Raphael gets to play his favorite computer game. the kindergarten children will have an early access. In behavior modification. . b) Every time Allan says the magic word “please” he is rewarded with a hug by the teacher.91. EXCEPT: a) For every five targeted appropriate behavior that occur. c) When six pages of worksheets are completed with 90% accuracy. schedules of reinforcement can control target behaviors. The following are examples of fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement. reinforcement is delivered. d) After stacking colored bricks following a pattern with 95% accuracy.

• Variable Interval Schedules: similar to fixed interval schedules. • Fixed Ratio Schedules: a fixed number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement may recur. but the amount of time that must pass between reinforcement varies.Reinforcement Schedules • Fixed Interval Schedules: the target response is reinforced after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement. .

Reinforcement Schedules • Variable Ratio Schedules: the number of correct repetitions of the correct response for reinforcement varies. variable ratio schedules produce steadier and more persistent rates of response because the learners cannot predict when the reinforcement will come although they know that they will eventually succeed. • Variable interval and especially. .

92. Which is not an application of the cognitive approach to motivation? • Begin lessons with challenging questions/conflicting events • Explain reasons for studying the topic • Create a supportive classroom climate • Provide clear and prompt feedback on assignments .

" • These attributions are either internal or external and are either under control or not under control.Cognitive Approaches to Motivation • Attribution Theory (Weiner) • proposes that every individual tries to explain success or failure of self and others by offering certain "attributions. .

Cognitive Approaches to Motivation • Weiner’s Expanded Attributional Theory Internal Controllable Stable Long-term effort Uncontrollable Aptitude External Controllable Uncontrollable Instructor bias/ Ease/ difficulty favoritism of school or course requirements Unstable Skills/ knowledge Temporary or situational effort for exam Health on day of exam Mood Chance Help from friends/ teacher .

Cognitive Approaches to Motivation • Attribution Theory (Weiner) • In a teaching/learning environment. control). . it is important to assist the learner to develop a selfattribution explanation of effort (internal.

1964) which proposes the following equation: • Motivation = Perceived Probability of Success (Expectancy) * Connection of Success and Reward (Instrumentality) * Value of Obtaining Goal (Valance.Cognitive Approaches to Motivation • Expectancy Theory (Vroom. Value) .

two actions.Cognitive Approaches to Motivation • Cognitive Dissonance by Leon Festinger (1957) • when there is a discrepancy between two beliefs. or between a belief and an action. . we will act to resolve conflict and discrepancies.

The teacher’s role in the classroom according to cognitive psychologists is to: a) Make the learning task easy for the learner b) Help the learner connect what she/he knows with new information from the teacher c) Dictate what to learn upon the learner d) Fill the minds of the learner with information .93.

who tend to process information less effectively. Cognitive processes influence learning. 2. as well as what they are trying to learn. they become capable of increasingly more sophisticated thought. As children grow. especially for children with learning disabilities.  Teachers need to be aware that all students are trying to learn something. Learning difficulties often indicate ineffective or inappropriate cognitive processes. 3. .General educational implications of cognitive theories: 1.

Ultimately students. People organize the things they learn. not their teachers.e. . This organization should reflect students' previous knowledge and show how one thing relates to the other (i.   Teachers should then show how new ideas relate to previous learning. 5.   Teachers can facilitate students' learning by presenting information in an organized manner.. New information is most easily acquired when people can associate it with things they have already learned. People control their own learning.General educational implications of cognitive theories: 4. 6. determine what things will be learned and how they will be learned. helping students understand and make connections).

Cognitivist Teachers • Teach by presenting information in a way which calls upon students' previously acquired knowledge • utilize processing strategies in order to help students learn information and retain information once it is learned – mnemonic devices – metaphors and analogies – rehearsal of information .

” But who said ”One can help the child to get ready by developing pre-requisite skills in an interesting and meaningful way”? a) b) c) d) Gagne Bruner Ebbinghaus Kohler . One group of psychologists said "Wait until the child is ready.94.

The Process of Education • The Four Themes: – Structure – Readiness for learning – Nature of intuition – Desire to learn .

Three Modes of Representation • Enactive – Motor responses to manipulate the environment • Iconic – Use of mental images that stand for certain objects or events • Symbolic – Symbol system to encode knowledge .

Bruner’s theory on intellectual development .

b) There is no need to provide background information. Which principle is observed by Ausubel’s schema theory? a) Learners have stock knowledge of things based on background information and experiences. c) Children can be taught how to study.95. d) Teachers must presume that learners know everything. .

. and – (2) the learner must relate it in a meaningful way to his or her prior knowledge.Ausubel’s Schema Theory • Two things are necessary for understanding to occur: – (1) the content must be potentially meaningful.

Schema Theory: Ausubel • primary process in learning: subsumption – new material is related to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure • Cognitive structures – represent the residue of all learning experiences – forgetting occurs because certain details get integrated and lose their individual identity. .

The most general ideas of a subject should be presented first and then progressively differentiated in terms of detail and specificity.Schema Theory: Ausubel • Instructional Application: – 1. Instructional materials should attempt to integrate new material with previously presented information through comparisons and crossreferencing of new and old ideas. – 2. .

Everytime Miss Pilar presents a new unit. she does so with the use of advance organizer. Which principle does she apply? a) Provide the correct response on the first trial b) Arrange for appropriate practice c) Arrange materials into appropriate learning units d) Assist students to identify meaningful relationships .96.

and remind you of relevant information you already have" (Woolfolk. 2001. 288).  Types  Expository Organizers: serve to make appropriate prerequisite knowledge available to the learner by providing new information  Comparative Organizers: serve to build external connections with existing knowledge that is relevant to the new information by reminding the learner about prior knowledge are .Advance Organizers  used to provide support for new information  can "direct your attention to what is important in the coming material. they highlight relationships among ideas that will be presented.

Which are the first and the last in the sequence? a) Informing students of the lesson objectives – enhancing the retention and transfer of learning. Gagne delineates 9 external events in sequential instructional planning. d) Gaining attention – enhancing the retention and transfer of learning.97. . c) Informing students of the lesson objectives – assessing student performance. b) Stimulating recall of previous learning – assessing student performance.

Gaining attention  Giving learner a stimulus to ensure reception of coming instruction Telling learner what they will be able to do for the instruction 2. Informing the learner of the objective  .Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction 1.

Presenting the stimulus 5. Providing learner guidance .Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning    Asking for recall of existing relevant knowledge Displaying the content Supplying organization and relevance to enhance understanding 4.

Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction 6. Eliciting performance  Asking learners to respond. 7. Providing Feedback  . demonstrating learning Giving immediate feedback on learner's performance.

 Assessing performance Providing feedback to learners' more performance for reinforcement Providing diverse practice to generalize the capability 9.Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction 8. Enhancing retention and transfer  .

d) Make teaching-learning interactive. William Glasser’s control theory states that behavior is inspired by what satisfies a person’s want at any given time. .98. What then must a teacher do to motivate students to learn? a) Make schoolwork relevant to students’ basic human needs. c) Organize curriculum in a spiral manner. b) Avoid giving assignments.

Control Theory: William Glasser • theory of motivation • behavior is never caused by a response to an outside stimulus • behavior is inspired by what a person wants most at any given time: survival. or any other basic human need. power. freedom. love. .

To belong and be loved by others. To survive. To have fun.  Choice aspect: individuals have the power to change their lives for the better based on the choices they make . 2. 5.Choice Theory  Five internal needs: 1. 4. To have power and importance. To have freedom and independence. 3.

 Students’ basic needs literally help shape how and what they are taught.How Control Theory Impacts Learning Curriculum  Teachers must negotiate both content and method with students. active learning techniques that enhance the power of the learners. . Instruction  Teachers rely on cooperative.

 Courses for which a student doesn’t earn a “good grade” are not recorded on that student’s transcript.How Control Theory Impacts Learning  Lead teachers make sure that all assignments meet some degree of their students’ need satisfaction Assessment  Instructors only give “good grades”–those that certify quality work–to satisfy students’ need for power. .

2. 5.The Ten Axioms of Choice Theory 1. 3. but we can only satisfy our basic needs right now and plan to continue satisfying them in the future. . The problem relationship is always part of our present life. What happened in the past has everything to do with what we are today. All we can give another person is information. All long-lasting psychological problems are relationship problems. The only person whose behavior we can control is our own. 4.

feeling and physiology. 8. We can only control our feeling and physiology indirectly through how we choose to act and think. thinking. All Total Behaviors are chosen. 10. All Total Behavior is designated by verbs and named by the part that is the most recognizable . but we only have direct control over the acting and thinking components. 7. All behaviors are Total Behaviors and are made up of four components: acting.The Ten Axioms of Choice Theory 6. 9. All we do is behave. We can only satisfy our needs by satisfying the pictures in our Quality World.

How this is done 1) What do you want? 2) What are you doing to achieve what you want? 3) Is it working? 4) What are your plans or options? .

• Teachers rely on cooperative. • Instructors only give "good grades"--those that certify quality work--to satisfy students' need for power. active learning techniques that enhance the power of the learners. .How the Control (Choice) Theory Impacts Classroom Learning • Students' basic needs literally help shape how and what they are taught.

6. Supporting Encouraging Listening Accepting Trusting Respecting Negotiating differences . 7. 3.Seven Caring Habits 1. 4. 2. 5.

6. 3. 2. 4.Seven Deadly Habits 1. 5. 7. Criticizing Blaming Complaining Nagging Threatening Punishing Bribing. rewarding to control .

The Six Conditions of Quality Schoolwork 1. Quality work always feels good. Quality work is never destructive. 5. There must be a warm. 4. 3. 6. Students are always asked to do the best that they can do. supportive classroom environment. Students are asked to evaluate their own work and improve it. . 2. Students should be asked to do only useful work.

. Which of the following is NOT true about Vygotsky’s scaffolded instruction? a) Teachers support students until they can apply the new skills independently. d) Teachers ensure that students have the necessary support to learn successfully. b) Teachers’ support gradually increases until mastery is manifested by student.99. c) Responsibility for learning shifts from teacher to students.

p. & Chen. Sung. 2000.  a more knowledgeable other provides scaffolds or supports to facilitate the learner’s development  facilitate a student’s ability to build on prior knowledge and internalize new information  Temporary  As the learner’s abilities increase the scaffolding provided by the more knowledgeable other is progressively withdrawn. 2002) .  “The zone of proximal development is the distance between what children can do by themselves and the next learning that they can be helped to achieve with competent assistance” (Raymond. p. 7)  the goal of the educator : for the student to become an independent and self-regulating learner and problem solver (Hartman. & Chen.176).  Finally the learner is able to complete the task or master the concepts independently (Chang. 2002).Vygotsky’s Scaffolding Instruction  The scaffolding teaching strategy provides individualized support based on the learner’s ZPD (Chang. 2002. Sung.

Brown.Vygotsky’s Scaffolding Instruction  The scaffolds provided are activities and tasks that:  Motivate or enlist the child’s interest related to the task  Simplify the task to make it more manageable and achievable for a child  Provide some direction in order to help the child focus on achieving the goal  Clearly indicate differences between the child’s work and the standard or desired solution  Reduce frustration and risk  Model and clearly define the expectations of the activity to be performed (Bransford. 2000). and Cocking. .

partial solutions. think-aloud modeling and direct instruction (Hartman. hints.Vygotsky’s Scaffolding Instruction • Scaffolds may include models. cues. prompts. . 2002) • cooperative learning: students help students in small group settings but still have some teacher assistance.

and standards of excellence are shown to the students. scaffolding:  clear direction and reduces students’ confusion  Clarifies purpose –helps students understand why they are doing the work and why it is important  Keeps students on task  Clarifies expectations and incorporates assessment and feedback – examples of exemplary work. surprise.Vygotsky’s Scaffolding Instruction  According to McKenzie. and disappointment .  Points students to worthy sources  Reduces uncertainty. rubrics.

Which stage is this according to Freud? a) b) c) d) anal phallic latency genital . Oedipus and electra complexes are reactivated at this stage but directed toward other persons of opposite sex.100.

Freud’s Psychosexual Stages  Oral Stage  The infant's first source of pleasure is oral. . will be severely impaired.  The fundamental requirements are food.  Bonding must occur at this stage or the capacity to form emotional bonds. the anus and the genitals.  Anal Stage  Tension builds up as bowel and bladder functioning demand attention.  includes the child's first experiences with external regulation of an instinctual impulse. security and warmth. as an adult. so that development can proceed without hindrance. deriving from the mouth. involving the postponement of the pleasure from relieving anal tensions  child learns to differentiate between the 'ME versus NOT-ME‘  child begins to realize that it is a pleasurable experience to manipulate particular areas of the body. such as the mouth.

Freud’s Psychosexual Stages  Phallic Stage  Oedipus Complex  With a male infant the objective choice is the loved mother. .  With careful handling by the parents. these stages are worked through leaving no ill effects. with jealousy of the father  Elektra complex  The girl develops a love for the father and corresponding jealousy of the mother  It is in the Phallic Stage that the sexuality of early childhood reaches its greatest intensity and that male and female sexuality becomes differentiated.

 the drives are decreased and the libido is transferred from parents to friends. clubs and leading figures. The child has evolved from an animal-like creature with primitive drives to a reasonable human being with complex feelings. . he/she starts the identification with the parent of the same sex and this will lead to rapidly evolving sex roles. but becomes more organized and principled." the repression of the earliest traumatic.  The Superego is already present.  The child learns to adapt to reality and also begins the process of what Freud terms "infantile amnesia. guilt and disgust arise. overly sexual or painful memories.  Culturally valued skills and values are acquired and feelings of shame.  Hence.Freud’s Psychosexual Stages  Latency period  a child's sexual impulses are repressed  The child then realizes that his/her wishes and longings cannot be fulfilled and will turn away from his/her original desires.

Freud’s Psychosexual Stages • The Genital Stage • The child's energy once again focuses on his genitals. . • Puberty reactivates the early genital impulses and the person passes into the mature Genital Stage.

the person will always be exposed to two negating some situations which have to be resolved. He also coined the term “identify crisis” a) b) c) d) Freud Piaget Bandura Erikson .101. According to this prominent psychologist.

punished. the positive resolution dominates. made to feel guilty.  Some contact with the negative aspect is important in development  TROUBLE AT ONE STAGE NEED NOT RUIN EVERYTHING . a negative identity may emerge from having been shamed.  POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF STAGE CRISIS  In a healthy solution to a stage crisis.Erik Erikson  IDENTITY IS CENTRAL TO ERIKSON'S THINKING  lived such a crisis in his own life  At a young age found out his father was really his stepfather  Went to art school against his stepfather's wish before entering psychiatry  Early in life.

DESPAIR (41-) . GENERATIVITY VS. (12-18) 6. IDENTITY VS. SHAME AND DOUBT. IDENTITY CONFUSION. BASIC MISTRUST. GUILT. AUTONOMY VS. INITIATIVE VS. (2-3) 3. ISOLATION (19-25) 7. (4-5) 4. INTIMACY VS. INFERIORITY (6-12) 5. BASIC TRUST VS. (26-40) 8. EGO INTEGRITY VS. STAGNATION. (0-2) 2.Erik Erikson          "EIGHT AGES“ 1. INDUSTRY VS.

this particular behavior is typical for a child who is undergoing which stage of development? a) b) c) d) Concrete operational Formal operation Sensorimotor Pre-operation . According to Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development.102. a grade 1 pupil plays with his classmates but cannot accept defeat. Emmanuel.

 preoperational stage  children think of the world in magical terms. human characteristics. .  Egocentrism  the belief that the world revolves around you.  concrete operations stage  the child cannot deal with abstractions. but they do not analyse or reflect upon it and lack self-consciousness.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development  sensorimotor stage  describes how an infant can experience and react to the world.  Anthropomorphic thinking  giving something which is not a human.  formal operations stage  adolescents are able to see the world for how it really is. meaning they do not take into consideration the laws of nature.

Teacher A equally divided the apple juice in two glasses for her two pupils. What problem was demonstrated? a) b) c) d) Limited Social Cognition Lack of conservation Rigidity of thought Semi-logical reasoning . Both pupils wanted the long but thin glass believing that it contained more.103. One glass is short but stout another long but thin.

Conservation • The realization that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different. • Achieves conservation of number (age 6). mass (age 7). and weight (age 9) .

c) Expect hypothetical reasoning for learners between 12 to 15 years of age. Research on Piagetian tasks indicates that thinking becomes more logical and abstract as children reach the formal operations stage. What is an educational implication of this finding? a) Learners who are not capable of logical reasoning from ages 8 to 11 lag behind in their cognitive development. d) Let children be children. . b) Engage children in analogical reasoning as early as preschool to train them for higher order thinking skills (HOTS).104.

. As well as reason about the future without tying it to a personal past or present experience.  includes reasoning about hypothetical problems  reasoning that is not tied to a personal past or present experience.Formal Operational Thinking  a person's ability and experiences with the use of logical operations  can deal with complex verbal propositional reasoning that is not tied to a personal past or present experience.

principles. models. and theories.Formal Operational Thinking  Can use theories. models. .  Can use inductive reasoning by combining similar solutions to create generalizations. and hypotheses to create solutions to problems  Is able to think about his or her own thoughts and feelings (metacognition) as if they were objects  Reasoning can be independent of content. Can argue on the logic of an argument (solution or problem) independent of its content.  Complex problems can be dealt with simultaneously and systematically by coordinating multiple thinking and reasoning strategies and or variables to derive solutions.

Formal Operational Thinking
 Have a highly developed understanding of causation.  Can use deductive reasoning  Combinatorial reasoning is thinking that systematically considers all possible relations of experimental or theoretical conditions, even though some may not be realistic.  Identify and control all variables when attempting to validate a relationship or inference.  Proportional reasoning  Probabilistic reasoning  Can ues correlational reasoning to recognize a comparison between the number of confirming and disconfirming cases of a hypothesized relationship to the total number of cases.

105. Vygotsky claimed that social interaction is important for learning. What does this imply?

a) Since they are not capable of interaction, children in the crib have no learning yet. b) Children learn well by passive presentation of information. c) Children learn from adults and other children. d) Children are independent problem solvers.

Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory
 one of the foundations of constructivism  Major themes:
 Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development.  The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)
○ anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner ○ teacher, coach, or older adult, could also be peers, a younger person, or even computers

 The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
○ the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. ○ learning occurs in this zone

Applications of the Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory • promotes learning contexts in which students play an active role in learning • a teacher should collaborate with his or her students in order to help facilitate meaning construction in students • Learning becomes a reciprocal experience for the students and teacher .

they raise their left hands. c) Piaget would say that students are egocentric. the others follow. and I’ll call on you.to behave in class. as I am doing?” Twenty hands went up. If one student raises his or her left hand. d) Erikson would say that the students lack the motor skills necessary to complete the task. . All were left hands. They cannot complete the task without assistance. “When I ask a question. thus unable to consider another person’s point of view. b) Vygotsky would say the students are outside their zone of proximal development. Teacher Z is perplexed when he asks his students to follow his example by raising their right hands. why did this happen? a) Kohlberg would say students at the conventional level of moral development cooperate with peers. I want you to raise your right hand. He said. According to developmental theory. instead. Can you all raise your right hands.

hears what they hear. • For example. a child might cover her eyes and say. "You can't see me!“ .Egocentrism • inability to take another person's perspective • inability to separate one's own perspective from those of others • Preoperational children believe that everyone sees what they see. and knows what they know.

Mr Ocenar allows his students to construct their own knowledge through direct experience and enable them to create schema. He instructed the team leader in every group to start along the members of the group. What theory is displayed in the given situation? a) Lev Vygotskys’ Social Constructivism b) Jean Piagets’ Cognitive Constructivism c) Albert Banduras’ Social Learning Theory d) Urie Brofenbrenners’ Ecological Systems Theory . Mr. Ocenar prepared the materials for his laboratory class in chemistry.107.

Comparison of Social Constructivism & Cognitive Development Theory .

Comparison of Social Constructivism & Cognitive Development Theory Similarities • Both theories are based on the premise that cognition is the result of "mental construction". • Also. • They both believe that learning is affected by the context in which an idea is taught as well as by students' beliefs and attitudes. . both of them believe that the boundaries of cognitive growth were established by societal influences.

through language and the social and material structure of society.Comparison of Social Constructivism & Cognitive Development Theory Differences • Piaget's theory is most concerned with the mechanisms of intellectual development and the acquisition of knowledge. • Vygotsky's main contribution was to our understanding of the way in which culture influences development. .

this contradicts Piaget's view of universal stages and content of development.Comparison of Social Constructivism & Cognitive Development Theory Vygotsky's theory differs from that of Piaget in a number of important ways: 1: Vygotsky places more emphasis on culture affecting/shaping cognitive development . 3: Vygotsky places more (and different) emphasis on the role of language in cognitive development (again Piaget is criticized for lack of emphasis on this). 2: Vygotsky places considerably more emphasis on social factors contributing to cognitive development (Piaget is criticized for underestimating this). . (Vygotsky does not refer to stages in the way that Piaget does).

Mental states are important to learning. . Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior. • 2. People can learn through observation. • 3.Bandura’s Social Learning Theory • people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people • known as observational learning (or modeling) • Basic Social Learning Concepts • 1.

.Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory • holds that development reflects the influence of several environmental systems • five environmental systems: – Micro system: setting in which the individual lives – Mesosystem: relations between microsystems or connections between contexts.

Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory – Exosystem: links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context – Macrosystem: the culture in which individuals live. . – Chronosystem: The patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course. as well as sociohistorical circumstances.

According to MI. his strength lies in his_______________.108. He always spends time reflecting about his strengths and weaknesses and is able to use strategies to further improve himself. Ferdie has a high level of self-awareness. a) b) c) d) Emotional intelligence Intrapersonal intelligence Interpersonal intelligence Existential intelligence .

goals. anxieties.Intrapersonal Intelligence • has accurate knowledge of one’s dreams. moods. desires. and motivations • Has the ability to act on the basis of selfknowledge. guiding behavior. and making decisions based on an accurate picture of oneself • makes decisions based on what is right for himself/ herself • possesses a strong sense of identity and purpose . creating environments. limitations. strengths.

• A distinctive development history. prodigies and other exceptional individuals. along with a definable set of 'end-state' performances. • The existence of idiots savants. • An identifiable core operation or set of operations. .Eight criteria or 'signs' of an intelligence • Potential isolation by brain damage.

Eight criteria or 'signs' of an intelligence • An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility. • Susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system. • Support from experimental psychological tasks. • Support from psychometric findings. (Howard Gardner 1983: 62-69) .

b) Give them materials on their level and let them work at a pace that is reasonable for them.109. d) Give them the same work as the other pupils. anyway they will learn as much as they are capable of learning. You have pupils in your class whose achievement is below the grade level they are in. What should you do? a) Give them the same work as other pupils so that they won’t feel embarrassed. c) Give the work that is a little above their achievement level to challenge them. .

. • In the classroom we should teach children to think for themselves. • An enriched environment for one student is not necessarily enriched for another.Brain Research • No two children are alike. • No two children learn in the identical way.

Four Ways to Differentiate Instruction 1. Manipulating The Environment or Through Accommodating Individual Learning Styles . Differentiating the Content/Topic 2. Differentiating the Process/Activities 3. Differentiating the Product : varying the complexity to demonstrate mastery of the concepts 4.

sociocultural influences status and cultural background c) superior to them in age and position in life d) similar to them in terms of race. socioeconomic status and cultural background . Considering socio-cultural influences.110. who can serve as an effective model for students’ motivation? One who is ________. a) popular and loving b) not like them in terms of race.

YouTube videos) to teach.Motivating Students Make it real  learning activities based on topics that are relevant to your students' lives  Strategies: using local examples. teaching with events in the news. cell phones. using pop culture technology (iPods. or connecting the subject with your students' culture. outside interests or social lives Provide choices  sense of autonomy in the learning process .

age and social circles.Motivating Students  Balance the challenge  too easy: boredom and message of low expectations  too difficult : undermine self-efficacy and create anxiety  Scaffolding  Seek role models  If students can identify with role models they may be more likely to see the relevance in the subject matter  due to differences in gender. sources of role models can be invited guest speakers. fellow students or other peers. .

friendly and helpful. being responsive to student questions and showing empathy for students.Motivating students  Use peer models  Students can learn by watching a peer succeed at a task  someone whom the student identities with  Establish a sense of belonging  higher degree of intrinsic motivation and academic confidence  fostered by an instructor that demonstrates warmth and openness.  Adopt a supportive style  behaviors include listening. is enthusiastic. . giving hints and encouragement. encourages student participation. and is organized and prepared for class.

•This explains the learning of complex behavior in one or a few trials. •This process implies cognition since we must remember what we saw and then repeat it.Modeling •The process of learning by watching and repeating a behavior. .

Four Conditions for Effective Modeling to Occur • • • • Attention Retention Motor Reproduction Motivation .

movies) character (Superman.Types of Models • Live • Symbolic “image” of a real person (TV. Harry Potter) • Verbal Written instructions or descriptions of how to act .

Characteristics of Effective Models Competence Prestige and Power Gender-Appropriate behavior Relevance Identification with the Model Observer .

a) Trace all students’ background and coordinate with the guidance center in case the students have problems b) Be in class and listen to reasons of justification when students get into conflict.111. c) Provide some practical learning activities that will develop or foster harmonious relationships in classroom d) Remind the students to develop a peaceful classroom atmosphere so that everyone will be safe and happy . The teacher who nurtures the students’ positive psychosocial nature is likely to__________.

Positive psychology • encourages individuals to strive to do the best • Positive emotions enable individuals to learn and work to the best of their ability • Positive emotions are contagious so having a teacher or student who is positive can help the other students to be positive and work to the best of their abilities .

teachers. and other authority figures acted toward them as if they had no intrinsic value as a person . congruence.Nondirective Teaching     emphasis on harmonious relationships based on respect. and empathy in promoting healthy psychological development Teacher should have  Empathetic understanding  Congruence: be authentic and genuine  Unconditional positive regard or respect ○ ○ ○ ○ To create an atmosphere of psychological safety not judging character or personality without danger of rejection or condemnation antidote to previous experiences in which parents.

” Barbara Coloroso Six Critical Life Messages .• • • • • • “I Believe in you… I trust you… I know you can handle this… You are listened to … You are cared for… You are very important to me.

Psychosocial Environment • • • • • • • ~POSITIVE~ Warmth Caring Supportive Friendly Pleasant Sweet Encouragement ~NEGATIVE~ • • • • • • Cold & uncaring Harsh Punitive Aloof Sarcastic Threatening .

But. 2002 p. achievement is suppressed.48) . pleasure is nonexistent. (Charles and Senter. for the most.Students in Threatening Environments: • Fear making errors • Hope they will not fail or be embarrassed • Pray that if they do the teacher will not take reprisal against them Fear has been used to motivate. Elementary Classroom Management.

– Structured. – Reflective Climate full of… • • • • Warmth Support Pleasant Circumstances Low Levels of Fear .The Research Results Suggest: • Classrooms Function best when: – Positive.

112. Studies in the area of neurosciences disclosed that the human brain has limitless capacity. What does this imply?

a) Pupils can possibly reach a point where they have learned everything. b) Every child is a potential genius. c) Some pupils are admittedly not capable of learning. d) Every pupil has his own native ability and his learning is limited to this native ability.

• Research shows that you begin learning in the womb and go right on learning until the moment you pass on. Your brain has a capacity for learning that is virtually limitless, which makes every human a potential genius. • ~ Michael J. Gelb ~

The human brain has adapted to:
• Interact with a complex environment. • Abstract patterns from the complexity in that environment. • Modify itself so that it functions more effectively in that environment. • Solve "real" problems it perceives in that environment. • Attend to that which it finds personally relevant or interesting.

• Brains that have adapted to solve complex problems relevant to self being denied the opportunity to identify those problems and forced to solve predefined problems with predefined answers. we find: • Brains that require complexity being bombarded with simplified basics. .As we examine today's schools. • Brains that require interaction with the environment to activate their innate processes receiving their "experience" second hand through the words (and perceptions) of a teacher.

Interactive teaching elements • Orchestrated immersion • Relaxed alertness • Active processing .

c) Make them realize that failure is a part of life. b) Convince them that genuine motivation is the only factor that matters for a person to succeed.113. . d) Make them realize that both success and failure are more a function of internal causes.” Based on this finding. Research says: “People tend to attribute their successes to internal causes and their failures to external causes. what should be taught to students for them to be genuinely motivated to succeed? a) Tell them that the research finding when applied will make them genuinely motivated.

. such as bad teaching or bad luck.  When learners succeed at an academic task. they will want to attribute their failure to factors over which they have no control.  They will attribute their successes or failures to factors that will enable them to feel as good as possible about themselves.  but when they fail.  The basic principle of attribution theory as it applies to motivation is that a person's own perceptions or attributions for success or failure determine the amount of effort the person will expend on that activity in the future.Attribution Theory  Important assumption: People will interpret their environment in such a way as to maintain a positive selfimage. they are likely to want to attribute this success to their own efforts or abilities.

factors over which they have control (e.  if they attribute their failures to internal.g.Students will be most persistent at academic tasks under the following circumstances:  if they attribute their academic successes to either:  internal.. stable.. effort) or  internal. factors over which they have little control but which may sometimes be disrupted by other factors (e. unstable.g. unstable factors over which they have control (e.. ability disrupted by occasional bad luck).g. effort). .

Be interactive in approach. how would you teach? a) b) c) d) Begin with the abstract.114. Begin with the concrete. Do direct instruction. Applying Bruner’s theory. . Bruner’s theory on intellectual development moves from enactive to iconic and symbolic stages.

Bruner’s Constructivist Theory • The instructor's task is to "translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner's current state of understanding" and organize it in a spiral manner "so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned.“ .

as Kearsley (1994b) surmises. by applying the following principles: • Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn (readiness). . • Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student (spiral organization). • Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given).Bruner’s constructivist theory can be applied to instruction.

The following terms are related to learning disabilities.115. Which of the following pairs is NOT correct? a) b) c) d) Dyslexia – reading disability Discalcula – disability in math Dysgraphia – perceptual ability Aphasia – loss of language .

Learning Disabilities • classification including several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner. usually caused by an unknown factor or factors. • affect the brain’s ability to receive and process information .

or visual and aural information processing . • involve impairments or difficulties in concentration or attention. language development.Learning Disabilities • conditions that cause a discrepancy between potential and actual levels of academic performance as predicted by the person's intellectual abilities.

Dyslexia • type of reading disability • a common disorder that means students see words and shapes differently than other students • can make learning to read and write near impossible without intervention .

usually by using a keyboard rather than pen and pencil for answers • Teachers can also modify curricula so that students may give answers orally or in multiplechoice form. and remember how to make letters.Dysgraphia • difficulties with handwriting • the inability to write legibly. or keep the size of letters consistent • many of these students may also be helped. produce letters consistently. .

difficulty memorizing math facts. difficulty organizing numbers. place value. and time). and understanding how problems are organized on the page • People with Dyscalculia are often referred to as having poor "number sense” .Dyscalculia • a math disability can cause such difficulties as learning math concepts (such as quantity.

aphasia suggests the total impairment of language ability. and dysphasia a degree of impairment less than total .Aphasia • an acquired language disorder in which there is an impairment of any language modality • may include difficulty in producing or comprehending spoken or written language • In technical terms.

Aphasia • Some people with aphasia have trouble using words and sentences (expressive aphasia). • Some have problems understanding others (receptive aphasia). . • Others with aphasia struggle with both using words and understanding (global aphasia).

For more questions • lizamarie.olegario@gmail.com .

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