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• Musical works and their composers are usually described as belonging to a specific era • These terms serve as a sort of shorthand to tell us that the music shares aspects of style with other pieces written at roughly the same time. • These eras of music, however, relate to more than just the sounds of the pieces. They reflect broad changes in society and culture
Antiquity / Medieval Period
(450 – 1450)
• The Spread of Christianity The Christian religion began as an underground sect of messianic Judaism in the first century C.E. • Its practitioners were first persecuted, then tolerated; finally Christianity was accepted as the official religion of the Roman Empire. • After the fall of the Western Empire, it emerged as the central unifying force in medieval Europe.
• The development of a European culture • After the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century, the former Roman lands were ruled by various barbarian lords. • These lands were eventually united by the Frankish kings, culminating in the crowning of Charlemagne (742-814) as Holy Roman Emperor.
• The influence of Islamic culture
• As the followers of the prophet Mohammed (570?-632) expanded their territory through the Middle East and the Mediterranean, they preserved and built on the knowledge of the ancient Greeks and Romans. • Through conflict (the Crusades) and coexistence (the multicultural Iberian Peninsula), Europe gained much from its contacts with this rich culture
• The Music of the Church • Music was an integral part of Christian worship. The daily liturgy provided innumerable texts, all set to music in the style we call Gregorian chant. • The church served as an important patron of the arts, specifically of music • Throughout the period, the majority of composers were associated with and supported by the church.
• Saint Gregory is credited with organizing the huge repertory of chant that developed during the first centuries of the Christian church, hence the term Gregorian chant. He was pope from 590 to 604, and the Medieval era continued into the 1400s, so this period consists of almost a millennium's worth of music.
• The Beginning of Musical Notation • As in many non-Western cultures, music in early medieval Europe did not have a system of notation. It was not until perhaps the ninth century that a basic system of notation was developed. • Notating music was a difficult and time-consuming process. It was only in the cathedrals and monasteries that such work could be done on a regular basis. • Therefore, nearly all the music preserved (until the twelfth century) was written for the church. • The advent of notation also produced a markedly stable body of music, one of the features of Western musical culture.
• The Birth of Polyphony • Music that has two or more independent melodies woven together.
• • • •
Descriptions of polyphonic singing date back to the ninth century, but the practice actually began earlier in improvised performances. Polyphony is a distinctive feature of Western music. Its development became the primary focus for composers from the thirteenth century on. Complex polyphony demanded specialized training for composers. The composition of plainchant was primarily an activity of the monastery and convent, but by the fourteenth century, composers were more often members of the university-trained elite of the church. This change explains, in part, the lack of female composers of polyphony.
• Plainchant / Plainsong - the only type of music allowed in Christian churches. - music = individuals = spirituality / reflection - music that consists of only one melodic line without accompaniment. -> monophonic - No actual composers
• Polyphonic - music where two or more melodic lines are heard simultaneously, did not exist (or was not notated) until the 11th century. - Unlike chant, polyphony required the participation of a composer to combine the melodic lines in a pleasing manner. - Although most Medieval polyphonic music is anonymous-the names of the composers were either lost or never written down at all--there are composers whose work was so important that their names were preserved along with their music.
MUSIC MEDIEVAL GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT Hildegard Von Bingen, Heavenly Revelations
• The rise of Secular Music
– 14th century : composers began to create music with non-religious themes – Freer forms – Guillaume de Mauchaut who wrote both sacred and secular music
-Pope Gregory - Gregorian Chants -Saint Augustine -Boethius- Important Theorist -Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) -Perotin (c. 1155-1377) -Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300-1377) -John Dunstable (c. 1385-1453) -Guillaume Dufay (c. 1400-1474)
(1450 – 1600)
• A rebirth of Classical learning The rediscovery and re-evaluation of writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans suggested a "rebirth". Nineteenth-century historians seized on the idea to create our present image of "The Renaissance". The gradual change from the feudal system to the modern state Starting in northern Italy, the hierarchical state -- led by either the urban bourgeoisie or despotic nobles -- replaced the fluid and often chaotic feudal system of the Middle Ages. For this reason, some historians refer to the Renaissance as the Early Modern Era.
• A change in the views of the earth and the cosmos Christopher Columbus (1451?-1506) and Ferdinand Magellan (c.14801521) expanded Europe's view of the world. The astronomical studies of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) -- later championed by Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) -- called into question the old earth-centered view of the universe.
• Increased Interest in Humanist Learning The arts became an important measure of learning and culture. • Music moved from the science of number to an expressive art viewed as an equal to rhetoric. • The rise and rapid spread of music printing increased access to music and books about music. • Increased Patronage of Music The rich courts and civic governments of the Renaissance supported music to a degree not previously seen. This level of musical support was also provided by the religious institutions of the day.
Territorial Expansion and Increased Wealth As a result of colonial expansion, great wealth flowed into European cities and courts. Travel and the resulting musical exchange became a driving force for the creation of a more international musical style.
• The composers of the Renaissance concerned themselves with three different areas of music: Sacred music: Composers continued to work with the older forms such as the motet and Mass. It is in this music that we find the clearest international style. Secular music: Composers created new forms that reflected national trends, such as the Italian madrigal and the French chanson. Instrumental music: The rise of music printing encouraged the spread of instrumental music for amateurs, and more specific types emerged.
• During this time, artists and musicians produced works that displayed more artistic freedom and individualism. • Their art forms rediscovered the ancient Greek ideals • Imitation - was a method that composers used to make elaborate music more coherent and to give the listener a sense of arrangement. • - one melodic line shares, or "imitates" the same musical theme as a previous melodic line • Imitative polyphony can be easily heard in the music of Byrd, Gibbons, and Gabrieli.
GIOVANNI DA PALESTRINA SALVE REGINA Monteverde Orfeo 04 Muse Onor
• -sacred forms -music was used for worship -mass was a popular form -a mass is a church service (from Catholicism) -all music is written for the theme of the service 1. Kyrie- The first part of a mass -Kyrie is Lord have mercy, Christ have mercy, Lord have mercy -(Forgive me) 2. Gloria- The second part of the mass. -(Godis great) 3. Credo- The third part of a mass. -(Statement of beliefs.) 4. Sanctus- The fourth part of a mass -Holy, Holy -(bread and wine turn into Christ’s blood.) 5. Agnus Dei- The fifth part of a mass -lamb of God -(Have mercy) 6. Communion 7. Benedictus- The sixth part of a mass -Go in peace. -(You’re OK)
• • • • • • • SACRED FORMS MASS -plain song mass- composers rewrite monophonicchant into polyphonic setting (add parts) -parody mass- composers take any existing music and put it into a polyphonic setting. -cantus firmus- one melody or chant was used for everything in the whole mass MOTET a type of form -separate part of sacred music. -It is not part of the mass. -Text comes from other stuff. -Accompanied by instruments -Isorhythmic Motet-rhythmic pattern repeated over and over by the instrument HYMN- another type of sacred form -sung by congregation -homophonic
• -Secular form -Madrigal -basically English -polyphonic -sung after feast - a type of secular vocal music composition, written during the Renaissance and early Baroque eras. Throughout most of its history it was polyphonic and unaccompanied by instruments, with the number of voices varying from two to eight, but most frequently three to six.
Important Composers Palestrina- wrote a ton of music (c. 1525-1594) -some people think he was the greatest composer of the Renaissance Monteverdi- He did a lot of instrumental work. -He laid the ground work for Opera. Gesualdo- Most people thought he was possessed by Satin (1560-1613) -extremely ahead of his time -not afraid to use dissonance Giovanni Gabrielli (c. 1554-1612) John Dowland (1563-1626) Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625)
(1600 – 1750)
The increasing importance of scientific investigation Scientists such as Galileo Galilei (1564-1622) and Isaac Newton (1642-1727) broke away from the older model of science, whose purpose was the proof of an a priori assumption. Instead, through observation and experimentation, scientists devised hypotheses about why things happened. The culmination of royal despotism A small group of leaders (kings, queens, and emperors) wielded enormous power in Europe. Such was their power that Louis XIV (1638-1715) was to declare, "L'état ç'est moi" ("I am the state").
Development of the New World The English, French and Spanish holdings in the New World continued to supply Europe with wealth. But as the generations passed, colonists began to feel a growing allegiance to their new homes. Ultimately, such feelings would lead to the independence of these lands. Artificiality and marvelous effect were valued in the arts Sculptors, building on the techniques of artists such as Giovanni Bernini (1598-1680), found ways to create the illusion of energetic and even violent movement in their works. Painters created larger and more crowded canvases. Virtuosity was highly prized in all the arts.
A Time of Experimentation Musicians embraced the idea that music could move the listener in a real and physical way. Opera, with its blend of music and drama, was the full realization of this ideal. In instrumental music, no less than in opera, composers experimented with ways of creating impressive effects. Expanding Roles for Music Music continued to be used as an important tool of statecraft. The new and extravagant styles served as a rich adornment to religious services in both Catholic and Protestant traditions. Music, especially opera, was as an important source of entertainment to the growing merchant and landed classes.
• • • • Claudio Monteverdi (1567 – 1643) Henry Purcell (1659 – 1695) Antonio Vivaldi (1678 – 1741) Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 – 1750)
Summer Finale from the Four Seasons, Antonio Vivaldi
Johann Sebastian Bach - Toccata E Fuga (BWV 565)