Dry Gas Seals

Examples of Your Seals
© 2003 John Crane EAA

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© 2003 John Crane EAA

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Dry Gas Seals

© 2003 John Crane EAA

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Dry Gas Seals
Commissioning Procedure
© 2003 John Crane EAA

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Commissioning Procedure
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General preparation
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Ensure free shaft rotation with coupling disconnected

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Ensure Bursting Discs have been replaced

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Check buffer gas system - is it on and functioning?
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Commissioning Procedure
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Static Tests
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Inboard seal
x x x x

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Open primary leakage line valve Pressurise casing incrementally to 5 bar g maximum Measure & record leakage at each increment (Page 23) Pressurise casing to 7 bar g (If below operating pressure) Leakage should rise quickly – indicates static lift-off  Close valve in primary leakage line Pressurise casing to 5 bar g maximum Measure & record interspace pressure (Page 23)
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Outboard seal
x x x

Will gradually rise if outboard seal operating correctly 22

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Depressurise outboard seal before compressor casing

Commissioning Procedure
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Dynamic test
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Fully open primary vent valve Commence normal start-up procedures Gradually close primary vent valve to obtain interspace pressure of 0.5 bar g Record inboard leakage rates (Page 25) Compare against guaranteed values (Page 8) Rejection criteria is 3 times guaranteed Continue recording leakage for 4 hours (at half hour intervals)
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Commissioning Procedure
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Operation & Maintenance
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Virtually no maintenance required Continue monitoring leakage (daily) Check for oil in atmospheric vent lines (monthly) During prolonged shutdown / staorage, blank all connecting ports
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Examination – Test Number 2
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And now for the examination! It is a multiple choice test paper Points
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Time allowed: 45 minutes

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1 correct 0 don’t know -1 incorrect

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There may be more than one correct answer - tick them all

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Dry Gas Seals
Installation Test

© 2003 John Crane EAA

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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
1. What should be used to lubricate the bore of the compressor housing? A. Silicone grease B. Anti-seize compound C. Nothing 2. What should be used to lubricate the compressor shaft/rotor? A. Silicone grease B. Anti-seize compound C. Nothing
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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
3. During installation, seal setting plate screws should be: A. Tight B. Slackened by 1/8 turn C. Very loose D. Removed 4. Compressor rotor should be set: A. In normal running position B. Towards non-drive end C. Towards drive end
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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
5. The seal should be “exercised” A. Before installation in compressor B. After installation in the compressor C. It must NOT be exercised 6. A reference dimension between compressor rotor and compressor casing should be taken or checked: A. Before seal installation only B. After seal installation only C. Before, during and after installation D. Reference dimension not important

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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
7.If the installation tool jacking nuts become tight: A. Use a longer spanner to give better leverage B. Undo nuts and try to withdraw seal C. Stop, think, investigate, then take action 8. A failed seal should be: A. Jacked out quickly as it is stopping production B. Removed with more care than with the installation of a new seal.

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Dry Gas Seals

© 2003 John Crane EAA

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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
1. What should be used to lubricate the bore of the compressor housing? A. Silicone grease B. Anti-seize compound C. Nothing 2. What should be used to lubricate the compressor shaft/rotor? A. Silicone grease B. Anti-seize compound C. Nothing
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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
1. What should be used to lubricate the bore of the compressor housing? A. Silicone grease B. Anti-seize compound – very small amount C. Nothing 2. What should be used to lubricate the compressor shaft/rotor? A. Silicone grease B. Anti-seize compound C. Nothing 33

Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
1. What should be used to lubricate the bore of the compressor housing? A. Silicone grease B. Anti-seize compound – very small amount C. Nothing 2. What should be used to lubricate the compressor shaft/rotor? A. Silicone grease B. Anti-seize compound – very small amount

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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
3. During installation, seal setting plate screws should be: A. Tight B. Slackened by 1/8 turn C. Very loose D. Removed 4. Compressor rotor should be set: A. In normal running position B. Towards non-drive end C. Towards drive end
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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
3. During installation, seal setting plate screws should be: A. Tight B. Slackened by 1/8 turn C. Very loose D. Removed 4. Compressor rotor should be set: A. In normal running position B. Towards non-drive end C. Towards drive end
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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
3. During installation, seal setting plate screws should be: A. Tight B. Slackened by 1/8 turn C. Very loose D. Removed 4. Compressor rotor should be set: A. In normal running position B. Towards non-drive end C. Towards drive end
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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
5. The seal should be “exercised” A. Before installation in compressor B. After installation in the compressor C. It must NOT be exercised 6. A reference dimension between compressor rotor and compressor casing should be taken or checked: A. Before seal installation only B. After seal installation only C. Before, during and after installation D. Reference dimension not important

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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
5. The seal should be “exercised” A. Before installation in compressor B. After installation in the compressor C. It must NOT be exercised 6. A reference dimension between compressor rotor and compressor casing should be taken or checked: A. Before seal installation only B. After seal installation only C. Before, during and after installation D. Reference dimension not important

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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
5. The seal should be “exercised” A. Before installation in compressor B. After installation in the compressor C. It must NOT be exercised 6. A reference dimension between compressor rotor and compressor casing should be taken or checked: A. Before seal installation only B. After seal installation only C. Before, during and after installation D. Reference dimension not important

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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
7.If the installation tool jacking nuts become tight: A. Use a longer spanner to give better leverage B. Undo nuts and try to withdraw seal C. Stop, think, investigate, then take action 8. A failed seal should be: A. Jacked out quickly as it is stopping production B. Removed with more care than with the installation of a new seal.

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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
7.If the installation tool jacking nuts become tight: A. Use a longer spanner to give better leverage B. Undo nuts and try to withdraw seal C. Stop, think, investigate, then take action 8. A failed seal should be: A. Jacked out quickly as it is stopping production B. Removed with more care than with the installation of a new seal.

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Dry Gas Seal Installation - Test
7.If the installation tool jacking nuts become tight: A. Use a longer spanner to give better leverage B. Undo nuts and try to withdraw seal C. Stop, think, investigate, then take action 8. A failed seal should be: A. Jacked out quickly as it is stopping production B. Removed with more care than with the installation of a new seal – it may stick!

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Dry Gas Seals
Dismantling and Re-assembling
© 2003 John Crane EAA

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Hands-on Exercise 3
S/38644
T28AT+Laby

S/39397
T28AT

S/38006
Small T28AT

S/39923
T28XP

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1. Disassemble and re-assemble seal (Only disassemble/clean/assemble inboard seal unit) 2. Install one new tolerance strip in bore of main sleeve 3. Re-assemble seal
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Seal Failure Analysis

© 2003 John Crane EAA

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Failure Statistics - Returned Seals
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80% - significant contamination
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50% - contaminant was hydrocarbon
liquid from process gas x lube oil from bearings
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10% - solids / particulates
from pipework x from process gas (incorrect filtration)
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4% - chloride based from the process gas ® 2% - free water from the process gas ® 14% - unknown contaminants
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Hydrocarbon Contamination
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Oil from bearings
Ensure barrier seal is fitted between seal and bearings ® Ensure barrier gas is switched on before oil system (30 minute delay) ® Ensure oil system is switched off before barrier gas system (30 minute delay)
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Problem
High temperature from shearing liquid mating ring fracture ® Burnt oil deposits block grooves and/or cause hang-up of balance diameter seal
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Hydrocarbon Contamination
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Hydrocarbons from Process Gas
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Efficient coalescing filters Heat the filtered gas to overcome the Joule-Thompson effect

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Other Contaminants
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Water - corrosion of metal and carbide
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drop-out from process gas, often at pressurised stand-still conditions

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Chloride Corrosion
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salt water entrained in process gas

All can be designed for - these were all unexpected contaminants
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Liquid Contamination

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Other Causes of Failure
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Reverse Rotation
face contact can occur ® bi-directional seal (Type 28BD) can be supplied ® occasional low speed acceptable with Type 28AT and Type 28XP
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Reverse Pressure
face contact can occur ® at high speeds - mating ring fracture ® can be designed for static reverse pressure ® consider pressurised double seal
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Other Causes of Failure
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Incorrect Fitting
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axial alignment (working length ± 0.5 mm)
rotor in correct position x accurate shims
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contamination from fitting lubricants ® incorrectly fitted tolerance rings ® damaged o-rings / polymer rings
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O-ring damage during running
chemical attack ® thermal attack ® explosive decompression
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Mating Rings
Contact Damage

Not acceptable. Must be replaced. Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Mating Rings

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Mating Rings

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Mating Ring Contact - Causes

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Mating Ring Contact - Causes

No lift

Forced contact
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Mating Ring Contact - Causes
Typical Example of a Failure Analysis Root Causes Tree
Check control system Why/How? Blocked filter Wrong filter size No filter Start-up procedures Before start-up. Settle-out pressure Labyrinth or Type 82 Misalignment Buffer gas supply & timing Clearances Bal. diameter wear Dew point Thermal attack Bal. diameter o-ring Chemical attack Bal. diameter o-ring Installation (Exercise?) Hang-up Dirt Thrust worn

Joule-Thompson? Bearing Oil Coke Condensate

Dirt

Blocked grooves

No lift

Forced contact
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Mating Ring Contact - Causes
Typical Example of a Failure Analysis Root Causes Tree
Was rotor in running position when seals were installed? Check DE/NDE bias Check position and condition Shim size & position Seal at correct end? Thrust bearing Assembly Installation Thermal Growth Reverse rotation Reverse pressure Hang-up Check flare pressure Check operating procedures Check buffer gas pressure

Driver reversal Turbining

Wrong seal

No lift

Forced contact
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Mating Rings
Chips x x

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Not acceptable, especially with Silicon Carbide. Must be replaced. Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Mating Rings
Heat Checking

Very rare, but can be seen on tungsten carbide. Not acceptable. Must be replaced. Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Mating Rings

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Mating Rings
Pitting

Tungsten carbide can be attacked by contaminants. Can sometimes be relapped. In most cases, will have to be replaced. Investigate HOW / WHY?

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Mating Rings
Chloride attack on Tungsten Carbide

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Mating Rings - Chloride Attack

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Mating Rings
Groove Deposits

Can be cleaned, but usually needs re-lapping and re-grooving. Check for heat-crazing and contact. Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Cosmetic Marks

Again for comparison, surface marking of no significant depth, which is cosmetic and acceptable
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Primary Ring
Contact

Contact is unacceptable. Can cause excessive heat, melting the metal filler in the carbon. Must be replaced. Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Primary Ring
Showing Inside Diameter Primary Ring/Mating Ring Contact

Not acceptable. Replace Primary Ring. Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Primary Ring Damage

Showing large particle marking. The face must be lapped back to remove all trace, checked for thickness and re-processed. Probably needs replacing.

Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Cosmetic Marks

Showing light gramaphoning with no depth, due to particles. Cosmetic, and acceptable.
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Primary Ring
Normal Wear

Acceptable “scuffing” marks. Radial scratches must be lapped out.
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Cosmetic Marks

Showing light circumferential marks caused by particles trapped between seal and face
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Cosmetic Marks

This shows an exposed particle which has been pulled out of the surface and has caused a ring of contact. This is cosmetic and acceptable
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Cosmetic Marks

Showing scuffing where particles have passed through the seal. This is acceptable.

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Cosmetic Marks

Showing surface discolouration which is due to the manufacture of the primary ring blank. This is acceptable. (Not to be confused with oil blistering). 77

Primary Ring
Radial Cracks

This is rare. Check that it is a crack and not a scratch. Must be replaced. Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Primary Ring
Chipping
Blend

Very small chips on the ID of the carbon are acceptable provided they can be blended in. Small chips on the OD are acceptable provided they can be blended in. Large chips require the primary ring to be replaced. Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Chips

Showing a small chip which may be blended out and accepted.

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Chips

Showing a larger chip encroaching onto the sealing dam. Primary Ring must be replaced. Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Primary Ring
Oil Blisters

Not acceptable. Must be replaced. Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Labyrinth – Chloride Attack

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Type 28XP Carrier - Contact

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O-Rings
Nicks and Cuts

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O-Rings
Explosive Decompression

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O-Rings
Thermal Damage

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O-Rings
Compression Set (More common with Perfluoroelastomer material)

(1 hour at 200°C)

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Polymer Seals
Better explosive decompression and corrosion resistance
They require careful handling.

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Polymer Seals
Sliding Damage

Typical of damage to be found on seal OD polymer rings in Type 28XP seals. Must be replaced. Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Polymer Seals
Damaged Spring
Spring holds seal open to enable pressure to energise the seal. Must be replaced. Investigate HOW / WHY?

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Metal Parts
Scored Bore
Check critical areas (o-ring grooves, tolerance ring grooves and landings). Polish out marks with fine emery paper, but do not damage edges of tolerance strip grooves. Check compressor shaft and clean up carefully. Check that correct lubricant is being used, and used sparingly.

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Metal Parts
Galling
Often caused by misalignment during fitting or removal. Check condition of compressor shaft and take remedial action. Repair may be possible, but distortion may cause problem to reoccur. Replacement is generally advised
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Metal Parts
Dents, bumps, hammer marks, distortion
Parallel

Square Bore must be perfectly round

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Metal Parts
Fretting and Pitting

Contaminants in the gas can cause pitting. The balance diameter is critical and pitting is not acceptable. Must be replaced. Investigate HOW / WHY?
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Dry Gas Seals

C leanliness A ccuracy Time
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Dry Gas Seals

When: 3. 4. 5. 6. Installing a seal Removing a seal Disassembling a seal Assembling a seal

STOP if anything starts to get tight
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Dry Gas Seals

C leanliness A ccuracy Time Stop!!
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Apply “CATS” and you can . . .

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Produced by John Blaber

Technology Developments
Materials

© 2003 John Crane EAA

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Cranite Primary Ring Material
Desirable Attributes
Silicon Existing Carbide Carbon

High Modulus Good dry friction Homogeneous material Good Thermal conductivity Lower internal stresses Higher Stability Fracture Toughness

      

      

Diamond like coating

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Cranite Material - Attributes
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Composite of Silicon Carbide & Carbon High elastic modulus
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Reduced radial and toroidal deflections Reduced thermal distortions Negligible residual distortion Retains excellent carbon performance
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High thermal conductivity
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High stability
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Good dry friction
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Cranite 2000
Desirable Attributes
Silicon Existing Cranite Carbide Carbon 2000

High Modulus Good dry friction Homogeneous material Good Thermal conductivity Lower internal stresses Higher Stability Fracture Toughness

      

      

      

Diamond like coating

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Cranite 2000 - Benefits
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Higher pressure capability
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Controlled face distortion Controlled radial deflections Reduced operating gap Stiffer fluid film Highly stable, repeatable at any pressure

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Reduced leakage
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Excellent stop/start face performance
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No need for coating

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CTrans Analysis
Static Leakage up to 250 bar
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Leakage ( l/min ); Pressure ( x 10 bar )

120 100 80 60 Cranite 40 Pressure 20 0 0 5 10 Carbon

Time (sec)

15

20

25

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Dynamic Tests - Leakage Comparison
Cranite 2000 Development
Dynamic IB leakages, cranite versus carbon faces @ 6000 rpm.

140 Leakages / l.min 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 80 120 Pressure / bar g. 160 200
Cranite 2000 Carbon
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Cranite / ADC Dynamic Test
Leakage ( l/min ) Pressure ( bar ) ; Temp (C)
250 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 Leakage Pressure Temp

Speed x 100

Time (min)

150

200

250

300

350

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Cranite Stop-Start & Slow Roll Tests
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Over 2100 stop-start cycles ( spring load ) Over 50 hrs slow-roll @ 100 rpm

Speed (rpm)

4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 5 10 Time (min) 15

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Improved Silicon Carbide Material
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Increased TRS - 25% Increased fracture toughness - 40% Improved availability Adopted as Preferred Standard SiC Q1/99

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Large Diameter Cranite Seal Tests
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10.375” seal for Nam Groningen

> Cranite Faces > Improved seat material

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Improved Carbon
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6 Month Development program
Carbons tested to 250 bar ® Residual distortion measured ® Improved grade reduced distortion by 70 %
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Residual distortion Level

5.437"

7.125"

Carbon 1

Carbon 2

Carbon 3

Original Carbon

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Improved Carbon Material
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Improved processing
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Reduced Prepressurisation

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Less residual distortion
More uniform presentation angle ® Higher Stability ® Reduced sensitivity
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Improved reliability
More stable leakage ® Face shadowing eliminated
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Improved Carbon
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Tested on pilot jobs Q3/98 Introduced on high pressure jobs Q4/98 Adopted as standard for all seals Q1/99 Improved production process
Prepressurisation offline ® Cycle time reduced from 3 days to 3 hours
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