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# Turning Effect of Forces

## 1.5(c) Define moment of a force about a point

The moment of a force about a point is the turning effect of the force and it is calculated by the product of force and the perpendicular distance of its line of action from the point. Moment of a force about a point = Force x distance of its line of action from the point

## 1.5(c) Clockwise Moment of a force

Clockwise moments about pivot = F x distance from pivot = 5 x 2 = 10 Nm

2m

5N

## 1.5(c) Anti-clockwise Moment of a force

Anti-clockwise moments about pivot = F x distance from pivot

= 4 x 3 = 12 Nm

3m

4N

## 1.5(c) Anti-clockwise Moment of a force

Anti-clockwise moments about pivot = F x distance from pivot= 4x 3 = 12 Nm

## 1.5(c) Anti-clockwise Moment of a force

Anti-clockwise moments about pivot = F x distance from pivot= 4x 3 = 12 Nm

## 1.5(c) Anti-clockwise Moment of a force

Anti-clockwise moments about pivot = F x distance from pivot= 4x 3 = 12 Nm

1.5(c) State the Principle of Moments When a body is in equilibrium, the sum of the anti-clockwise moments about any point is equal to the sum of the clockwise moments.

d4
d3 d2

d1

F4

F3

F2

F1

knife edge

d1

d2

## W1 W2 To verify the Principle of Moments

1.5(c) Experiment to verify the Principle of Moments (1) Set up the apparatus as shown in the next slide, with the knife edge at the 50 cm mark. (2) Balance the system by adjusting the distances d1 and d2 . (3) Vary d1 and change d2 so that the system is balanced for 5 sets of d1 and d2 . (4) Calculate the anticlockwise moments W1 x d1 and the clockwise moments W2 x d2 and tabulate as shown in the next slide.

## Experiment to verify the Principle of Moments

W1 d1 W2 d2 W1d1 W2d2

1.5(c) Experiment to verify the Principle of Moments Observation From the table, the anticlockwise moments given by W1 x d1 are found to be equal to the clockwise moments given by W2 x d2 for each set of d1 and d2 Conclusion The results for the moments of the forces on each side of the metre rule showed that when the anticlockwise moments are equal to the clockwise moments, the ruler is balanced, thus verifying the Principle of Moments.

1.5(c) Worked example 1 on Principle of Moments The diagram in the next slide shows a wheel of mass 15 kg and radius 1 m being pulled by a horizontal force F against a step 0.4 m high. What initial force is just sufficient to turn the wheel so that it will rise over the step ?

## Weight of the wheel = mg = 15 x 10 =150 N

0.6 m

1m

0.8 m
By the Principle of Moments

## Clockwise moments = anti-clockwise moments

F x 0.6 =150 x 0.8 ; F = 150 x 0.8/0.6 = 200 N

## 1.5(c) Worked example 1 on Principle of Moments

1.5(c) Solution to worked example 1 on Principle of Moments By the Principle of Moments, when the body is in equilibrium, sum of clockwise moments about pivot = sum of anti-clockwise moments about the same pivot Clockwise moment about pivot = anticlockwise moment about pivot F x 0.6 =150 x 0.8 ; F = 150 x 0.8/0.6 = 200 N