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Java Programming

Lecture 9 Java GUI


Cheng-Chia Chen

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Java GUI

Contents

1. java GUI evolution 2. Swing Components and Containing Hierarchy 3. Layout Management 4. Java Event Model and Event Handling 5. javaBeans Reference: The Java Tutorial on the trail: Creating a GUI with JFC/Swing

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Java GUI

Evolution of Java GUI

Java 1.0 AWT built in 30 days, and it shows Java 1.1 AWT significantly improved, but GUI not finished yet Java 2 Swing: very different, vastly improved This lecture cover Swing only.

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Swing/JFC is very powerful

Start with the simple approach so you can create basic applications Most of the time this will satisfy your needs If you want to modify the standard elements, you can, but...
Youll have to work harder and learn more A number of big, thick books are available

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Swing/JFC

Very easy to add keyboard accelerators, tooltips, graphics Pluggable look and feel Provides ways to change just about everything, but you must work to understand how

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Swing Components and the containment hierarchy

Borders Buttons Checkboxes ComboBoxes Image Icons Labels Layered Panes and Internal Frames (MDI) Lists and List Boxes

Menus Popup Menus Radio Buttons Progress Bars Scrolling Support Scrollbars Splitter Control Tabbed Panes

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Swing features and Conecpts

Components and the containment hierarchy Swing Components and the Containment Hierarchy Layout Management Event Handling Painting Threads and Swing More Swing Features and Concepts The Anatomy of a Swing-Based Program

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Swing Components and the Containment Hierarchy

An example:

Four components in this GUI:


a frame, or main window (JFrame) --- top-level container a panel, sometimes called a pane (JPanel) --intermediate container a button (JButton) --- atomic components a label (JLabel) --- atomic components
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the containment hierarchy for the gui:

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The code that adds the button and label to the panel, and the panel to the content pane: frame = new JFrame(...); button = new JButton(...); label = new JLabel(...); pane = new JPanel(); pane.add(button); pane.add(label); frame.getContentPane().add(pane, BorderLayout.CENTER);
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Classification of swing components

Top-Level Containers
The components at the top of any Swing containment hierarchy.

General-Purpose Containers
Intermediate containers that can be used under many different circumstances.

Special-Purpose Containers
Intermediate containers that play specific roles in the UI.

Basic Controls
Atomic components that exist primarily to get input from the user; they generally also show simple state.

Uneditable Information Displays


Atomic components that exist solely to give the user information.

Editable Displays of Formatted Information

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top-level containers

Frame ( and JFrame)

Applet (and JApplet)

Dialog ( and JDialog)

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General-Purpose Containers

Panel ( and JPanel)

JScrollPane

JToolBar

JTabbedPane JSplitPane
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Special-Purpose Containers

Root Pane

JLayeredPane

JInternalFrames

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Basic Controls

JCheckBox JRadioButton JButton

JMenu JMenuItem

List ( and JList)


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Basic Controls

Choice ( and JComboBox)

JTextField

JSlider
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Uneditable Information Displays

JProgressBar

Label ( and JLabel)

JToolTip
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Editable Displays of Formatted Information

JTree

JText

JTable

JColorChooser

FileDialog ( and JFileChooser)


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Structure of the java.awt (AWT) package.


ImageObserver

-parent -peer ComponentPeer Component {abstract} Container {abstract }

TextComponent Font

Color

-layoutMgr

TextArea

TextField

LayoutManager

Button

Canvas

Checkbox

Choice

Label

List

Scrollbar

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Layout Management

the GUIs of five programs, each of which displays five buttons.

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Common layout tasks

Identical Buttons, almost identical codes. why do they look so different?


use different layout managers to control the size and position of the buttons.

the common layout tasks:


Setting the layout manager : JPanel pane = new JPanel(); pane.setLayout(new BorderLayout()); Providing hints about a component : privide size Hints : setMinimumSize(Dimension), setPreferredSize(..), setMaximumSize(..) provide alignmentHints: setAllignmentX(float), setAlignmentY(float) Putting space between components : the layout manager : can specify hgap and vgap. putting invisible component: empty border : best for components that have no21default Transparency No.

Java GUI

Event Handling

Every time the user types a character (KeyEvent) or pushes a mouse button( MouseEvent), an event occurs. Any object can be notified of the event.
implement the appropriate interface and be registered as an event listener on the appropriate event source.

Swing components can generate many kinds of events.

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Example GUI Events

Act that results in the event type User clicks a button, presses Return while typing in a ActionListener text field, or chooses a menu item

Listener

User closes a frame (main window) WindowListener User presses a mouse button while the cursor is over a component MouseListener User moves the mouse over a component MouseMotionListener Component becomes visible Transparency No. 23

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Java Event Model

delegation ( or forwarding ) model


system: l = new EventListener() l:EventListner b:EventSource Event e1 occurs doXXXAction(e1) Event e2 occurs doXXXAction(e2)

b=new EventSource() addXXXListener(l)

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How to Implement an Event Handler

Implement and instantiate an event Listener :


public class MyClass implements XXXListener { } XXXListener l = (XXXListener) new MyClass();

Register the eventListener as an listener on event source:


aEventSource.addXXXListener( l ) ;

From now on, every time an event e occurs, the event source object will call the appropriate doXXXAction(e) from l. Threads and Event Handling :
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Java GUI

How Painting Works

1. 2. 3. 4.

background custom painting border children

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More Swing Features and Concepts

Features that JComponent provides


the ability to have borders, tool tips, and a configurable look and feel.

Icons

Actions

Many Swing components -- notably buttons and labels -can display images. You specify these images as Icon objects. provide support for sharing data and state between two or more components that can generate action events. A single program can have any one of several looks and feels. can let the user determine the look and feel, or can specify the look and feel programatically.

Pluggable Look & Feel support

Support for assistive technologies Separate data and state models

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Using Swing Components

The JComponent Class Using Top-Level Containers Using Intermediate Swing Containers Using Atomic Components

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JComponent Container Component Tool tips: Borders


setToolTipText(String) The setBorder method allows you to specify the border that a component displays around its edges. Using the registerKeyboardAction method, you can enable the user to use the keyboard, instead of the mouse, to operate the GUI. UIManager.setLookAndFeel()

The JComponent Class

Keyboard-generated actions

Application-wide pluggable look and feel Properties


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Support for layout


get/set minimum/preferred/maximum Size(..). get/set alignmentX/Y()

Support for accessibility Double buffering Methods to increase efficiency


getX(), getY(), getWidth(), getHeight(),

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The JComponent API

Customizing Component Appearance :


get/set for properties: border, forground, background, font, opaque eg: setBorder(Border) / Border getBorder(),

Setting Component State


void setToolTipText(String) void setEnabled(boolean b) , boolean isEnabled() void setLocale(Locale l) , Locale getLocale() void setCursor(Cursor), Cursor getCursor() // mouse curser Icon void setVisible(boolean) , boolean isVisible()

Handling Events :
add/remove (component, mouse, mouseMotion, key, container, focus) Listenser get/set nextFocusComponent property requestFocus(), hasFocus() boolean contains(int x, int y), contains(Point) Transparency No. 31

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Painting Components
void repaint() , repaint(int, int, int, int), repaint(Rectangle) void revalidate() : ReLay out the component and its affected containers. void paintComponent(Graphics)

Dealing with the Containment Hierarchy


Component add(Component [, int index | Object constraint ] ) void remove(int) , void remove(Component comp) , void removeAll() JRootPane getRootPane() Container getParent() int getComponentCount()
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Laying Out Components

Getting Size and Position Information


int getWidth(), getHeight(), getX(), getY() Dimension getSize(), Dimension getSize(Dimension) Rectangle getBounds() , Rectangle getBounds(Rectangle) Point getLocation() , getLocation(Point), getLocationOnScreen(); Insets getInsets()

get/set LayoutManager property: layout get/set Dimension properties: minimumSize, preferredSize, maximumSize get/set float property: allignmentX, allignmentY

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Using Top-Level Containers

three generally useful top-level container classes:


JFrame, JDialog, and JApplet.

Each has a content pane that contains the visible components in the GUI. Can optionally add a menu bar to a toplevel container.
positioned within the top-level container, but outside the content pane.

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Adding Components to the Content Pane :


frame.getContentPane().add(yellowLabel, BorderLayout.CENTER);

Adding a Menu Bar :


frame.setJMenuBar(cyanMenuBar);

The Root Pane :

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How to Make Frames (Main Windows)

code creates and sets up the frame

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the code

public static void main(String s[]) { JFrame frame = new JFrame("FrameDemo"); frame.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() { public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {System.exit(0);} }); //...create a blank label, set its preferred size... frame.getContentPane().add(emptyLabel, BorderLayout.CENTER); frame.pack(); frame.setVisible(true);

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JFrame APIs

Constructors: JFrame(), JFrame(String) void setDefaultCloseOperation(int), int getDefaultCloseOperation()


Possible choices: DO_NOTHING_ON_CLOSE, HIDE_ON_CLOSE (the default) , DISPOSE_ON_CLOSE

void setContentPane(Container) , Container getContentPane() void setJMenuBar(JMenuBar) , JMenuBar getJMenuBar()

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Using Intermediate Swing Containers

Panel
The most flexible, frequently used intermediate container.

Scroll Pane
Provides scroll bars around a large or growable component.

Split Pane
Displays two components in a fixed amount of space, letting the user adjust the amount of space devoted to each component.

Tabbed Pane
Contains multiple components but shows only one at a time. The user can easily switch between components.
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special intermediate containers

Internal Frame
Looks like a frame and has much the same API, but must appear within another window.

Layered Pane
Provides a third dimension, depth, for positioning components. You specify the position and size of each component. One type of layered pane, a desktop pane, is designed primarily to contain and manage internal frames.

Root Pane :
Provides behind-the-scenes support to top-level containers.
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How to Use Panels

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Setting the Layout Manager :


JPanel aPanel = new JPanel(); aPanel.setLayout(new BorderLayout());

Adding Components
aFlowPanel.add(aComponent); aFlowPanel.add(anotherComponent); aBorderPanel.add(aComponent, BorderLayout.CENTER); aBorderPanel.add(anotherComponent, BorderLayout.SOUTH);

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The JPanel API

Constructors: JPanel() , JPanel(LayoutManager) void add(Component [, Object ] [, int ]), void add(String, Component) int getComponentCount() Component getComponent(int) Component[] getComponents() Component getComponentAt( [int, int | Point] ) void remove(Component), void remove(int) , void removeAll() void setLayout(LayoutManager), Transparency No. 43 LayoutManager getLayout()

Java GUI

How to Use Scroll Panes

textArea = new JTextArea(5, 30); JScrollPane scrollPane = new JScrollPane(textArea); ... contentPane.setPreferredSize(new Dimension(400, 100)); ...
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How to use Split Pane

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the code

//Create a split pane with the two scroll panes in it. splitPane = new JSplitPane(JSplitPane.HORIZONTAL_SPLIT, listScrollPane, pictureScrollPane); splitPane.setOneTouchExpandable(true); splitPane.setDividerLocation(150); //Provide minimum sizes for the two components in the split pane Dimension minimumSize = new Dimension(100, 50); Transparency No. 46

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How to Use Tool Bars

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public ToolBarDemo() { ... JToolBar toolBar = new JToolBar(); addButtons(toolBar); ... JPanel contentPane = new JPanel(); contentPane.setLayout(new BorderLayout()); ... contentPane.add(toolBar, BorderLayout.NORTH); contentPane.add(scrollPane, BorderLayout.CENTER);
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protected void addButtons(JToolBar toolBar) { JButton button = null; //first button button = new JButton(new ImageIcon("images/left.gif")); ... toolBar.add(button); //second button button = new JButton(new ImageIcon("images/middle.gif")); ... toolBar.add(button); //third button button = new JButton(new ImageIcon("images/right.gif")); ... toolBar.add(button); } Other methods:
isFloatable(), setFloatable(boolean)
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Using Atomic Components

The following atomic components exist primarily to get input from the user: Button, Check Box, Radio Button
Provides easy-to-use, easy-to-customize button implementations.

Combo Box
Provides both uneditable and editable combo boxes -buttons that bring up menus of choices.

List
Displays a group of items that the user can choose.

Menu
Includes menu bar, menu, and menu item implementations, including specialized menu items such as check box menu items.

Slider
Lets the user choose one of a continuous range of values.
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Some atomic components exist only to give information: Label : Presents some text, an icon, or both. Progress Bar : Displays progress toward a goal. Tool Tip : Brings up a small window that describes another component. The rest of the atomic components provide formatted information and a way of editing it: Color Chooser : A UI for choosing colors; can be used inside or outside a dialog. File Chooser :A UI for choosing files and directories. Table: An extremely flexible component that displays data in a grid format. Text Support : A framework including everything from simple text components, such as text fields, to
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How to Use Buttons, Check Boxes, and Radio Buttons

ImageIcon leftButtonIcon = new ImageIcon("images/right.gif") b1 = new JButton("Disable middle button", leftButtonIcon); b1.setVerticalTextPosition(AbstractButton.CE NTER);
position of the text relative to the icon

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// can use setText(<html> <.html>) for multiFonts text b1 = new JButton("<html><font size=-1> <b><u>D</u>isable</b> + " middle button</font>", leftButtonIcon);

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How to Use Check Boxes

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the code

//In initialization code: chinButton = new JCheckBox("Chin"); chinButton.setMnemonic(KeyEvent.VK_C); chinButton.setSelected(true); glassesButton = new JCheckBox("Glasses"); glassesButton.setMnemonic(KeyEvent.VK_G ); glassesButton.setSelected(true); // Register a listener for the check boxes. CheckBoxListener myListener = new CheckBoxListener();
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How to use RadioButtons

Radio buttons are groups of buttons in which, by convention, only one button at a time can be selected. Swing release supports radio buttons with the JRadioButton and ButtonGroup classes.

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//In initialization code: // Create the radio buttons. JRadioButton birdButton = new JRadioButton(birdString); birdButton.setMnemonic(KeyEvent.VK_B); birdButton.setActionCommand(birdString); birdButton.setSelected(true); // Group the radio buttons. ButtonGroup group = new ButtonGroup(); Transparency No. 57 group.add(birdButton);

Java GUI

// Register a listener for the radio buttons. RadioListener myListener = new RadioListener(); birdButton.addActionListener(myListener); catButton.addActionListener(myListener); dogButton.addActionListener(myListener); rabbitButton.addActionListener(myListener); pigButton.addActionListener(myListener); ... class RadioListener implements ActionListener ... { public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { picture.setIcon(new ImageIcon("images/" + e.getActionCommand() + ".gif")); Transparency No. 58 }

Java GUI

The event listener

class CheckBoxListener implements ItemListener { public void itemStateChanged(ItemEvent e) { ... Object source = e.getItemSelectable(); if (source == chinButton) { //...make a note of it... } else if (source == glassesButton) { //...make a note of it... } else if (source == hairButton) { //...make a note of it... } else if (source == teethButton) { //...make a note of it... } if (e.getStateChange() == ItemEvent.DESELECTED) //...make a note of it...
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ColorChooser

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final JLabel banner = new JLabel("Welcome to the Tutorial Zone!", JLabel.CENTER); banner.setForeground(Color.yellow); ... final JColorChooser tcc = new ColorChooser ( banner.getForeground()); // initial selected color ... getContentPane().add(tcc, BorderLayout.CENTER); A color chooser uses an instance of ColorSelectionModel to contain and manage the current selection, which fires a change event whenever the user changes the color
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The example program registers a change listener with the color selection model so that it can update the banner at the top of the window. The following code registers and implements the change listener: tcc.getSelectionModel().addChangeListener ( new ChangeListener() { public void stateChanged(ChangeEvent e) { Color newColor = tcc.getColor(); banner.setForeground(newColor);
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File Chooser

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//Create a file chooser final JFileChooser fc = new JFileChooser(); ... // Event Handler for the OpenFile button public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { // container int returnVal = fc.showOpenDialog(FileChooserDemo.this); //= fc.showDialog(FileChooserDemo.this, OK) // other: fc.ShowSaveDialog() if (returnVal == JFileChooser.APPROVE_OPTION) { // other possibilities: CANCEL_OPTION, ERROR_OPTION File file = fc.getSelectedFile(); //this is where a real application would open the file.
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Label

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ImageIcon icon = new ImageIcon("images/middle.gif"); ... // 2nd arg sets the position of contents relative to label label1 = new JLabel("Image and Text", icon, JLabel.CENTER); //Set the position of the text, relative to the icon: label1.setVerticalTextPosition(JLabel.BOTTOM); label1.setHorizontalTextPosition(JLabel.CENTER); label2 = new JLabel("Text-Only Label"); label3 = new JLabel(icon); //Add labels to the JPanel. add(label1); add(label2);

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Java GUI

Using HTML on a Label

The action listener for the button executes this single line of code: theLabel.setText(htmlTextArea.getText());
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Combo Boxes

very different forms: uneditable and editable. Uneditable Combo Box: Editable Como Box

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String[] petStrings = { "Bird", "Cat", "Dog", "Rabbit", "Pig" }; // Create the combo box, select item at index 4. // Indices start at 0, so 4 specifies the pig. JComboBox petList = new JComboBox(petStrings); petList.setSelectedIndex(4); ... petList.addActionListener(new ActionListener() { public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { JComboBox cb = (JComboBox)e.getSource(); String petName = (String)cb.getSelectedItem(); picture.setIcon(new ImageIcon("images/" + petName + ".gif")); } Transparency No. 69 });

Java GUI

String[] patternExamples = { "dd MMMMM yyyy", "dd.MM.yy", "MM/dd/yy", "yyyy.MM.dd G 'at' hh:mm:ss z", "EEE, MMM d, ''yy", "h:mm a", "H:mm:ss:SSS", "K:mm a,z", "yyyy.MMMMM.dd GGG hh:mm aaa" }; ... JComboBox patternList = new JComboBox(patternExamples); patternList.setEditable(true); patternList.addActionListener(...); ... Transparency No. 70

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How to Use Lists

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//...where member variables are declared: static Vector imageList; // not limited to Strings // Create the list of images and put it in a scroll pane JList list = new JList(imageList); list.setSelectionMode(ListSelectionModel.SI NGLE_SELECTION); ... JScrollPane listScrollPane = new JScrollPane(list); possible selection modes:
SINGLE_SELECTION
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JList fires list selection events whenever the selection changes. You can process these events by adding a list selection listener to the list with the addListSelectionListener method. A list selection listener must implement one method: valueChanged.

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public void valueChanged(ListSelectionEvent e) { if (e.getValueIsAdjusting()) return; JList theList = (JList)e.getSource(); if (theList.isSelectionEmpty()) { picture.setIcon(null); } else { int index = theList.getSelectedIndex(); ImageIcon newImage = new ImageIcon("images/" + (String)imageList.elementAt(index)); picture.setIcon(newImage); picture.setPreferredSize(new Dimension( newImage.getIconWidth(), newImage.getIconHeight() )); picture.revalidate(); Transparency No. 74

Java GUI

Adding Items to and Removing Items from a List

ListModel listModel = new DefaultListModel(); listModel.addElement("Alison Huml"); listModel.addElement("Kathy Walrath"); listModel.addElement("Lisa Friendly"); listModel.addElement("Mary Campione"); list = new JList(listModel);

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public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { int index = list.getSelectedIndex(); // or int[ ] getSelectedIndecies() listModel.remove(index); int size = listModel.getSize(); //Nobody's left, disable firing if (size == 0) { fireButton.setEnabled(false); //Adjust the selection } else { //removed item in last position if (index == listModel.getSize()) index--; //otherwise select same index list.setSelectedIndex(index);
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How to Use Menus ( with JMenu and JMenuBar)

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The Menu Component Hierarchy

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Creating Menus

//in the constructor for a JFrame subclass: JMenuBar menuBar; JMenu menu, submenu; JMenuItem menuItem; JCheckBoxMenuItem cbMenuItem; JRadioButtonMenuItem rbMenuItem; ... //Create the menu bar. menuBar = new JMenuBar(); setJMenuBar(menuBar);

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//Build the first menu. menu = new JMenu("A Menu"); menu.setMnemonic(KeyEvent.VK_A); menu.getAccessibleContext().setAccessibleDescripti on( "The only menu in this program that has menu items"); menuBar.add(menu); //a group of JMenuItems
menuItem = new JMenuItem("A text-only menu item", KeyEvent.VK_T); menuItem.setAccelerator(KeyStroke.getKeyStroke( KeyEvent.VK_1, ActionEvent.ALT_MASK));
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Java GUI

//a group of radio button menu items menu.addSeparator(); ButtonGroup group = new ButtonGroup(); rbMenuItem = new JRadioButtonMenuItem("A radio button menu item"); rbMenuItem.setSelected(true); rbMenuItem.setMnemonic(KeyEvent.VK_R); group.add(rbMenuItem); menu.add(rbMenuItem); rbMenuItem = new JRadioButtonMenuItem("Another one"); rbMenuItem.setMnemonic(KeyEvent.VK_O); group.add(rbMenuItem);
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//a group of check box menu items menu.addSeparator(); cbMenuItem = new JCheckBoxMenuItem("A check box menu item"); cbMenuItem.setMnemonic(KeyEvent.VK_C); menu.add(cbMenuItem); cbMenuItem = new JCheckBoxMenuItem("Another one"); cbMenuItem.setMnemonic(KeyEvent.VK_H); menu.add(cbMenuItem);
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//a submenu menu.addSeparator(); submenu = new JMenu("A submenu"); submenu.setMnemonic(KeyEvent.VK_S); menuItem = new JMenuItem("An item in the submenu"); menuItem.setAccelerator(KeyStroke.getKeyStroke( KeyEvent.VK_2, ActionEvent.ALT_MASK)); submenu.add(menuItem); menuItem = new JMenuItem("Another item"); submenu.add(menuItem); menu.add(submenu); //Build second menu in the menu bar. menu = new JMenu("Another Menu"); menu.setMnemonic(KeyEvent.VK_N);
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Handling Events from Menu Items

To detect when the user selects a JMenuItem, you can listen for action events (just as you would for a JButton). To detect when the user selects a JRadioButtonMenuItem, you can listen for either action events or item events. For JCheckBoxMenuItems, you generally listen for item events public class MenuDemo ... implements ActionListener, ItemListener { ...
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Bringing Up a Popup Menu

//Create the popup menu. JPopupMenu popup = new JPopupMenu(); menuItem = new JMenuItem("A popup menu item"); menuItem.addActionListener(this); popup.add(menuItem); menuItem = new JMenuItem("Another popup menu item"); menuItem.addActionListener(this); popup.add(menuItem); //Add listener to components that can bring up popup menus. MouseListener popupListener = new PopupListener();
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class PopupListener extends MouseAdapter { public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) { maybeShowPopup(e); } public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent e) { maybeShowPopup(e); } private void maybeShowPopup(MouseEvent e) { if (e.isPopupTrigger()) { popup.show(e.getComponent(), e.getX(), e.getY()); } } }
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Using Text Components

JTextComponent Hierarchy

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An Example of Using Each Text Component

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// An Example of Using a Text Field JTextField textField = new JTextField(10); textField.setActionCommand(textFieldString); textField.addActionListener(this); //An Example of Using a Password Field JPasswordField passwordField = new JPasswordField(10); passwordField.setActionCommand(passwordFieldStrin g); passwordField.addActionListener(this); // Event handler for both components public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { if (e.getActionCommand().equals(textFieldString)) { JTextField source = (JTextField)e.getSource(); actionLabel.setText(prefix + source.getText() Transparency No. 89

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Using Text Area

JTextArea textArea = new JTextArea( "This is an editable JTextArea " + "that has been initialized with the setText method. " + "A text area is a \"plain\" text component, " + "which means that although it can display text " + "in any font, all of the text is in the same font." ); textArea.setFont( new Font("Serif", Font.ITALIC, 16)); Transparency No. 90

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JEditorPane

the foundation for Swing's styled text components and provides the mechanism through which you can add support for custom text formats. Using an Editor Pane to Display Text from a URL: JEditorPane editorPane = new JEditorPane(); editorPane.setEditable(false); ...//create a URL object for the TextSamplerDemoHelp.html file... try { editorPane.setPage(url);
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Using a Text Pane

JTextPane textPane = new JTextPane(); String[] initString = { /* ... fill array with initial text ... */ }; String[] initStyles = { /* ... fill array with names of styles ... */ }; //Create the styles we need. initStylesForTextPane(textPane); Document doc = textPane.getDocument(); //Load the text pane with styled text. try { for (int i=0; i < initString.length; i++) { doc.insertString(doc.getLength(), initString[i], textPane.getStyle(initStyles[i])); } } catch (BadLocationException ble) { System.err.println("Couldn't insert initial Transparency No. 92

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How to Use Border

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Layout components within a container

Probably different than other GUIs youve used All code, no resources Components are placed on panel using layout manager based on the order in which you add( ) the components Size, shape and placement quite different depending on layout manager Applet and application window size also affects layout
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Types of Layouts

FlowLayout BorderLayout GridLayout CardLayout GridBagLayout BoxLayout NullLayout

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FlowLayout

Components flow onto form left-to-right and top-to-bottom Components take on normal size

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The Code

Container contentPane = getContentPane(); contentPane.setLayout(new FlowLayout()); contentPane.add(new JButton("Button 1")); contentPane.add(new JButton("2")); contentPane.add(new JButton("Button 3")); contentPane.add(new JButton("LongNamed Button 4")); Transparency No. 97 contentPane.add(new JButton("Button

Java GUI

The FlowLayout API

Three constructors:
public FlowLayout() public FlowLayout(int alignment) public FlowLayout(int alignment, horizontalGap, int verticalGap)

int

The alignment argument must have one of the values :


FlowLayout.LEFT, FlowLayout.CENTER, FlowLayout.RIGHT.

horizontalGap and verticalGap specify the number of pixels to put between components.
default gap value = 5 pixels.
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BorderLayout

Container divided into five regions: West, North, East, South, Center.
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Example

public class BorderLayout1 extends JApplet { public void init() { Container cp = getContentPane(); cp.setLayout(new BorderLayout()); // default is FlowLayout cp.add(new JButton("North") , BorderLayout.NORTH); // cp.add(BorderLayout.NORTH, new JButton("North")); // also ok! // cp.add(new JButton("North"), North); // also ok! cp.add(BorderLayout.SOUTH, new JButton("South")); cp.add(BorderLayout.EAST, new JButton("East")); cp.add(BorderLayout.WEST, new JButton("West")); cp.add(BorderLayout.CENTER, new Transparency No. 100

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Additional properties of BorderLayout

(Horizontal and Vertical ) Gaps between components constructor:


BorderLayout(int hgap, int vgap)

methods:
void setHgap(int) void setVgap(int)

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GridLayout

Organized in rows & columns

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The code

Container contentPane = getContentPane(); contentPane.setLayout(new GridLayout(3,2)); contentPane.add(new JButton("Button 1")); contentPane.add(new JButton("2")); contentPane.add(new JButton("Button 3")); contentPane.add(new JButton("LongNamed Button 4")); contentPane.add(new JButton("Button 5")); APIs: public GridLayout(int rows, int columns [, int hgap, int vgap ])
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CardLayout

Use JTabbedPane instead. import java.awt.*; public class main extends JApplet implement ActionListner { CardLayout cards = new CardLayout(); JButton b1 = new JButton(one), , b3 = new JButton(three); b1.addActionListner( this); ; b3.addActionListner(this) public void init() { setLayout( cards ); add( new Button("one"), "one" ); add( new Button("two"), "two" ); add( new Button("three"), "three" ); } public void actionPerformed( ActionEvent e) No. 104 flip Transparency { //

Java GUI

CardLayout API

void void void void void

first(Container) next(Container) previous(Container) last(Container) show(Container, String cardID)

show card identified by cardID.

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GridBagLayout

Flexible layout manager that aligns components horizontally and vertically, without requiring that the components be the same size Quite a mess to program
Must use GridBagConstraints This is what happens without resources

You can accomplish a lot by combining other layout managers. To make it easier, Swing has BoxLayout
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BoxLayout

Place all components in a row or in a column. Much of the benefit of GridBagLayout without the pain Has helper class Box which uses BoxLayout and builds components for you Transparency No. 107

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BoxLayout

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The Layout structure

JPanel(BoxLayout(V))

label

rigidArea(0,5)

Center

JScrollPane South

HorizontalGlue JPanel (BorderLayout)

JButton

JButton JPanel(BoxLayout(H)) rigidArea(10,0)


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The Code

JScrollPane listScroller = new JScrollPane(list); listScroller.setPreferredSize(new Dimension(250, 80)); listScroller.setMinimumSize(new Dimension(250, 80)); listScroller.setAlignmentX(LEFT_ALIGNMENT); ... //Lay out the label and scroll pane from top to bottom. JPanel listPane = new JPanel(); listPane.setLayout(new BoxLayout(listPane, BoxLayout.Y_AXIS)); JLabel label = new JLabel(labelText); listPane.add(label); listPane.add(Box.createRigidArea(new Dimension(0,5)));
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// Lay out the buttons from left to right. JPanel buttonPane = new JPanel(); buttonPane.setLayout(new BoxLayout(buttonPane, BoxLayout.X_AXIS)); buttonPane.setBorder(BorderFactory.createEmptyB order(0, 10, 10, 10)); buttonPane.add(Box.createHorizontalGlue()); buttonPane.add(cancelButton); buttonPane.add(Box.createRigidArea(new Dimension(10, 0))); buttonPane.add(setButton); // Put everything together, using the content pane's BorderLayout. Transparency No. 111

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Box Layout Features

the box layout takes the components alignments and minimum, preferred, and maximum sizes into account. Respect each component's requested minimum and maximum heights. Use preferred height ( or weight ) as default. layout principles:
tries to make all of its container's components equally wide -- as wide as the largest preferred width. container wider => make all the components as wide as the container. If the components aren't all the same width then Transparency No. 112

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Container wider than maximumSize

All componentss AllignmentX are LEFT_ALLIGNMENT(0.0) All componentss AllignmentX are CENTER_ALLIGNMENT(0.5) All componentss AllignmentX are RIGHT_ALLIGNMENT(1.0)

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Components have different allignmentXs: 0.0, 0.5, 1.0.

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When no component has maximumSize

same allignmentX => made as wide as their container. different allignmentX :


components with an X alignment of 0.0 (left) or 1.0 (right) will be smaller. components with an intermediate X alignment will be as wide as their container

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Using Invisible Components as Filler

to have space between components:


add an empty border to one or both components, or insert invisible components to provide the space. use Box class to create invisible components.

Creating invisible components with Box Type SizeConstrai HowToCreate and Box.Filler.
nt rigidArea horizont al vertical custom Box.createRigidArea(s ize) Box.createHorizontalG lue() Box.createVerticalGlu e() new
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glue

Java GUI

Rigid area

Use this when you want a fixed-size space between two components. container.add(firstComponent); container.add(Box.createRigidArea(new Dimension(5,0))); container.add(secondComponent);

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Glue

container.add(firstComponent);

container.add(Box.createHorizontalGlue()); container.add(secondComponent);

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Custom Box.Filler

// ensure 5~100 pixels b/t components and 100 px height container.add(firstComponent); Dimension minSize = new Dimension(5, 100); Dimension prefSize = new Dimension(5, 100); Dimension maxSize = new Dimension(Short.MAX_VALUE, 100); container.add(new Box.Filler(minSize, prefSize, maxSize)); container.add(secondComponent);

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change the minimum, preferred, and maximum sizes in two ways: Invoking setXxxSize method ( defined by the JComponent class).

Specifying Component Sizes

Overriding getXxxSize method:

comp.setMinimumSize(new Dimension(50, 25)); comp.setPreferredSize(new Dimension(50, 25)); comp.setMaximumSize(new Dimension(Short.MAX_VALUE, Short.MAX_VALUE )); ...//in a subclass of a component class: public Dimension getMaximumSize() { size = getPreferredSize(); size.width = Short.MAX_VALUE; return size;
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The Box and BoxLayout API

Constructors:

Constructors or methods creating Space Fillers

BoxLayout(Container, int axis) Box(int axies) // create a Box : subclass of Container but not JComponent static Box createHorizontalBox() // = new Box(BoxLayout.X_AXIS) static Box createVerticalBox()

Component createRigidArea(Dimension) Create a rigid lightweight component. Component createHorizontalGlue() Component createVerticalGlue() Component createGlue() Create a glue lightweight component. Horizontal glue and vertical glue can be very useful. Component createHorizontalStrut() Component createVerticalStrut() Create a "strut" Transparency No. 121

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Null Layout (absolute Positioning)

setLayout(null); Programmers are responsible for setting the size and position of each component. ( via setBounds(x, y, witdth, height))

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The code

public class NoneWindow extends JFrame { ... private boolean laidOut = false; private JButton b1, b2, b3; public NoneWindow() { Container contentPane = getContentPane(); contentPane.setLayout(null); b1 = new JButton("one"); contentPane.add(b1); b2 = new JButton("two"); contentPane.add(b2); b3 = new JButton("three"); contentPane.add(b3); Insets insets = contentPane.getInsets(); b1.setBounds(25 + insets.left, 5 + insets.top, 75, 20);
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Event Handling

Not limited to ActionListener


InputEvent: KeyEvent, MouseEvent, MouseMotionEvent, ContainerEvent, ComponentEvent,

Each type of event represented by a class Component responds to an event by making an event object and calling each listener registered for that event An event listener implements a particular listener interface using an inner class addXXXListener( ) adds a listener to your component, removeXXXListener( ) unregisters it
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Java Event Model

delegation ( or forwarding ) model


system: l = new EventListener() l:EventListner b:EventSource Event e1 occurs doXXXAction(e1) Event e2 occurs doXXXAction(e2)

b=new EventSource() addXXXListener(l)

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Event, listener interface and add-and remove-methods ActionEvent ActionListener ; addActionListener( ) removeActionListener( )

Components supporting this event Button, List, TextField, MenuItem, CheckboxMenuItem, Menu and PopupMenu

AdjustmentEvent Scrollbar, Anything you create that implements AdjustmentListener ; addAdjustmentListener( ) Adjustable removeAdjustmentListener( ) ComponentEvent ComponentListener addComponentListener( )

Component and its derivatives, including


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Event, listener interface and add-and remove-methods ContainerEvent ContainerListener addContainerListener( ) removeContainerListener( ) FocusEvent FocusListener addFocusListener( ) removeFocusListener( )

Components supporting this event

Java GUI

Container and its derivatives, including

Panel, Applet, ScrollPane, Window, Dialog, FileDialog and Frame

Component and its derivatives, including Button,


Canvas, Checkbox, Choice, Container, Panel, Applet, ScrollPane, Window, Dialog, FileDialog, Frame Label, List, Scrollbar, TextArea and TextField

KeyEvent KeyListener

Component and its Transparency No. 127 derivatives, including Button,

Java GUI

Event, listener interface and add-and remove-methods

Components supporting this event

MouseEvent (for both clicks and Component and its motion) derivatives, including Button, MouseListener; Canvas, Checkbox, Choice, addMouseListener( ) Container, Panel, Applet, ScrollPane, Window,Dialog,FileDialog,Frame,Label, removeMouseListener( )
List, Scrollbar, TextArea and TextField MouseEvent (for both clicks and motion)

MouseMotionEvent MouseMotionListener addMouseMotionListener( ) removeMouseMotionListener( )

Component and its derivatives, including Button,

Canvas, Checkbox, Choice, Container, Panel, Applet, ScrollPane, Window,Dialog,FileDialog,Frame,Label, List, Scrollbar, TextArea and TextField

WindowEvent WindowListener

Window and its


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Event type: ItemEvent

Event type: TextEvent

listener interface: ItemListener add-and-remove-methods : addItemListener( ), removeItemListener( ) Components supporting this event : Checkbox, CheckboxMenuItem, Choice, List and anything that implements ItemSelectable. listener interface: TextListener add-and-remove-methods : addTextListener( ), removeTextListener( )

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Listener interface/ adapter Methods in interface ActionListener actionPerformed(ActionEvent) AdjustmentListener adjustmentValueChanged(AdjustmentEvent) ComponentListener, componentHidden(ComponentEvent) ComponentAdapter componentShown(ComponentEvent) componentMoved(ComponentEvent) componentResized(ComponentEvent)
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Subinterfaces of EventListner and their methods

Java GUI

Subinterfaces of EventListner and their methods

Listener interface w/ adapter Methods in interface KeyListener, keyPressed(KeyEvent) KeyAdapter keyReleased(KeyEvent) keyTyped(KeyEvent) MouseListener, MouseAdapter mouseClicked(MouseEvent) mouseEntered(MouseEvent) mouseExited(MouseEvent) mousePressed(MouseEvent) mouseReleased(MouseEvent)

MouseMotionListener, mouseDragged(MouseEvent) MouseMotionAdapter mouseMoved(MouseEvent)


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Subinterfaces of EventListner and their methods

Listener interface w/ adapter in interface WindowListener, windowOpened(WindowEvent) WindowAdapter windowClosing(WindowEvent) windowClosed(WindowEvent) windowActivated(WindowEvent)

Methods

windowDeactivated(WindowEvent)
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And more in Swing:

AncestorListner CaretListner, CellEditorListner ChangeListner HyperlinkListner InternalFrameListner ListDataListner ListSelectionListner MenuDragMouseListner, MenuKeyListner,,MenuListner PopupMenuListner TreeExpansionListner, TreeSelectionListner, TreeWillExpandListner java.bean.propertyChangeListner, vetoableChangeListner

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JavaBeans

Component programming model True power in visual programming Must be able to instantiate, query and configure objects at design time Java 1.1 reflection provides method and field information on a live object
Methods, arguments, return values

Beans specifies a naming convention


Identifies design-time fields, event handlers
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What is a Bean?

Just a class (thus easy to learn & use) Supports three concepts:
Properties Events Methods

Follows naming convention to identify these


Java call this convention a design pattern

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Properties, Methods, Events

For a property named xxxx of type T, create two methods:


pubic T getXxxx( ) // capitalize the first char public void setXxxx(T ). (First letter automatically capitalized). boolean property: may also use is instead of get. boolean isXxxx() Ordinary methods are public

Events use the same Listeners, with add- and remove- methods like before
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A Simple Bean

class Spots {} public class Frog { private int jumps; private Color color; private Spots spots; private boolean jmpr; public int getJumps() { return jumps; } public void setJumps(int js) { jumps = js; } public Color getColor() { return color; } public void setColor(Color c) { color = c; } public Spots getSpots() { return spots; } public void setSpots(Spots newSpots) { spots = newSpots; }
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public boolean isJumper() { return jmpr; } public void setJumper(boolean j) { jmpr = j; } public void addActionListener(ActionListener l) { //... } public void removeActionListener(ActionListener l) { // ... } public void addKeyListener(KeyListener l) { // ... } public void removeKeyListener(KeyListener l) { // ... } // An "ordinary" public method: public void croak() { System.out.println("Ribbet!"); } }
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Introspection

Introspector automatically analyzes a Bean for properties, events & methods

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Summary

Listener event model and Beans are a big step forward Swing is the best UI library Ive seen All Swing components are JavaBeans Numerous application builders use Beans Beans enable RAD environments Beans support more sophistication than shown here

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Summary

Java GUI has gone through a lot of design changes Enough of an intro to get you started Use a GUI builder for serious development Other references:
Core Java 2 by Horstmann & Cornell, Prentice-Hall Online help

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Problem 4

1. Create an JFrame with a text field and 3 buttons. When you press each button, make some different text appear in the text field. 2. Add a check box to your JFrame,capture the event and insert different text into the text field. 3. Add a set of radio buttons which change the text in the text field. 4. Add a menu that changes the text field when any of its menu item is selected.

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More Java topics

Not detailed:
JDBC, RMI, JavaBeans advanced Swing :Jtree, JTable, JText,

Not covered:
Java Security model Internationalization ( i18n, l10n ) Native Methods, Java 2D, Java 3D, Java mulitmedia framework (JMF) XML, JavaMail

J2EE:
JDBC, RMI, Servlet and JavaServer page, java IDL (Corba), Java Transaction service (JTS), RMI over IIOP, Java Message Queue(JMQ), JNDI, Enterprise JavaBeans

J2ME:
KVM, Configuration: CLDP, profile: MIDP
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J2ME

a virtual machine ( KVM, thirdParty: Colored KVM, J9 ) and a set of APIs suitable for providing tailored runtime environments for consumer and embedded electronics. Configurations: low-level APIs and optimized virtual machines targeted at two broad categories of devices: 180K ~512K(CLDC: Connection limited device configuration), and 512K+ profile: a specification that details the JavaTM technology APIs, built on top of and utilizing the
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Java 2 platform targeted at consumer electronics and embedded devices. consists of

two primary kinds of components