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INTRODUCTION COLLISION AVOIDANCE ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL IMAGING TECHNOLOGY NAVIGATIONAL AIDS OTHER FEATURES INVOLVED IN “SMART” VEHICLES HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE VOLVO`S “SCC” FUTURE EVOLUTION OF SMART VEHICLES CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION Smart vehicles use a vision system to detect other vehicles, respond to traffic signals, and avoid pedestrians and obstacles. This also includes information on road and weather conditions, route directions, vehicle diagnostics, anti-collision warnings, the driver's physiological status, etc.
Technologies related to smart cars
Technologies related to smart cars and modern technologies to improve safety. These technologies are broken down into four broad, distinct classifications of devices: Collision avoidance adaptive cruise control Imaging Navigational aids
Various systems combines an eye tracker, which checks where the driver is looking, and differential global positioning system, which is designed to allow the system to keep track of its location both on the planet and in relation to other similarly equipped vehicles.
John Pierowicz and his team at Veridian are working on a device that warns drivers of upcoming stop signs. Their device integrates 3 separate radars to detect traffic signs; a unit and a map database of the roads determine relative position, a Heads-Up-Display, and a secondary braking system.
Other safety innovations that are now in testing include automatic collision notification systems, which will immediately signal for help if a vehicle's air bag deploys, and drowsy-driver warning systems that will keep drivers from falling asleep at the wheel.
ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL
Adaptive cruise control is a new concept that is being explored by many automakers and researchers for the Intelligent Vehicles Initiative. These systems seek to allow a car to not only maintain its speed, like traditional cruise control, but also its distance from cars in front of it. A perfect example is the system being developed for the Jaguar line of cars. To use it, the driver simply enters a speed and a distance (in seconds) to keep between themselves and the car in front of them.
A competing adaptive cruise control concept, called the Platoon system, is also being developed by the University of California. Two kinds of sensors were responsible for keeping the vehicles bearings- 9 sensors monitored speed and engine performance, while actuators controlled the throttle and brakes. An antenna mounted on each car allowed it to communicate with the front few vehicles.
Another area of study is how to enhance the vision of humans in situations where they may not be able to see very clearly. Few companies are testing a concept similar to that used in Night Vision Goggles, where sensors process differences between roadside temperatures and those of objects ahead. The sensors send this information to a central computer, which converts the information and uses it to put together images of the surrounding roadside that are updated several times a second; this processed composite image then shows up on a screen built into the dashboard.
It will be integrated within a communicating navigation unit that automatically tracks the actual location of the car and can reveal it if necessary. So far, such systems have been used to track stolen cars and calculate traffic flows. The latter option is still rather unpopular. From the driver's point of view, a communicating navigation system is convenient because it dynamically chooses the best route by tracking the actual location of the car.
In other words, instead of theoretically suggesting the best way from point A to point B, the system constantly gets information about road conditions and traffic jams and uses it to suggest the most practical way from the car's current position to its destination. With the help of Internet-based services, the navigation system can also tell the driver about free parking lots or the cheapest nearby gas station. And for safety reasons, such systems will announce this information through speakers instead of showing it on a displ
MULTIFUNCTIONAL SMART CARD CAR KEYS
The idea that a personal smart card could replace your car keys is not futuristic. Mercedes CL owners can already open their car with a contact less smart card developed by Siemens. The motor starts after pushing a little ignition button, but only if the card is inside the vehicle. Without it, no hairpin or fake key can help a thief start the car. The system also prevents drivers from locking the car with the card inside, making it impossible to lock oneself out.
OTHER FEATURES INVOLVED IN “SMART” VEHICLES
Smart vehicles use a vision system to detect other vehicles, respond to traffic signals, and avoid pedestrians and obstacles. Researchers at DaimlerChrysler Research (Ulm, Germany) have built a smart-vehicle-theory demonstrator called the Urban Traffic Assistant (UTA). The DaimlerChrysler research team has demonstrated that by using a multitude of algorithms it can maintain separation from the vehicle ahead, see and respond to traffic signals, and avoid pedestrians and obstacles while moving through urban traffic situations at normal driving speeds under the supervision of a human driver.
Goodyear recently announced its intention to build such tires for most cars. But the really big shift will be when most new cars come with tires that can keep on going even after a complete loss of air. They can't run indefinitely, but can be used for about the same distance and at similar speeds as today's compact spares. When automakers use these tires, it will eliminate the need for a spare tire, saving cargo space and weight while improving fuel economy.
Anti-lock brakes (ABS) have been touted as being a major asset in the fight against accidents, preventing cars from skidding on slippery surfaces. But ABS has not proven as effective as its engineers had hoped. The problem is that people still don't know how to use them. In many cases, people fail to push the brake pedal firmly enough at first. Braking is less effective and a car travels quite a bit of extra distance.
HANDS OFF COMMUNICATION
NEW SAFETY FEATURES
While this is a concept that has yet to be developed, special scanners in a car can already locate the position of passengers and their heads (using rather rough biometric patterns) and optimize the use of airbags. The lifesavers go off only if it is really necessary, because the new mechanism recognizes when passengers are at risk of a collision. Unnecessary, expensive airbag activation is avoided without reducing passenger safety. Other sensors check tire pressure or the distance to the next car and warn the driver or react with a slight automatic reduction of speed. Such intelligent safety features can reduce the number of accidents and injuries.
A pair of video cameras serves as the eyes for the vehicle. The cameras are mounted on a horizontal bar near the rear-view mirror. The horizontal scan lines of both cameras must be tightly aligned and strictly parallel to the line joining their optical axes. The UTA uses an Imaging Technology Inc. IMPCI frame grabber and a commercial monitor with 1024 x 786-pixel resolution.
Information from a car may be provided through data servers, which are in turn connected to a centralized computer which gets all the information about the vehicle. By using this kind of loop, any urgent information or direction can be provided to the vehicle using wireless, and a tragedy can be avoided
One of the more interesting concept cars to appear lately is Volvos Safety Concept Car (SCC). The hallmark of the SCC is “superior vision” – that is, improving the sightlines for the driver and providing more visual information.
Active rear view mirrors:Sensors in rear of the car alert the driver when a car is in driver’s “blind spot”.
To enhance rear visibility further the Volvo SSC has several rear facing cameras mounted in the back the car. Images are displayed on a video monitor in the instrument panel.
Adaptive headlights:The headlights monitor the car’s road speed and steering wheel movements and adjust accordingly
Night vision:Volvo proposes using infrared night vision in the SSC.
Collision warning sensors:If the distance to the car in front is too short, or the gap is closing too fast, the SSC’s driver is alerted via a red warning light.
FUTURE EVOLUTION OF SMART VEHICLES
Capabilities of Individual In-Vehicle Systems Will Improve Driver-Vehicle Interface Will Become Increasingly Sophisticated Intelligent Vehicles Will Communicate With Other Vehicles and With a Smart Infrastructure
Smart vehicals makes driving safer and comfertable. As an engineer we must try to reduce fetalities caused by accedents. Slow reaction times, distractions, misjudgments, all are costly reasons due to which accidents occur, There would be much less fatalities if we provide automations as well as safety features.
Our job is to introduce new safety and automation technologies smart vehicles that are advanced in various features like safety, efficiency, and economy.The development in technologies will prove invaluable in man’s search for safer ,comfortable and an enjoyable drive.
http://www.ce.unipr.it/people http: //www.vision-systems.com http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/ http://www.howstuffworks.com
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