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CHAPTER

1 7

VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

DYNAMICS

Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University

**Plane Motion of Rigid Bodies:
**

Energy and Momentum Methods

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Contents

Introduction Principle of Work and Energy for a Rigid Body Work of Forces Acting on a Rigid Body Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body in Plane Motion Systems of Rigid Bodies Conservation of Energy Power Sample Problem 17.1 Sample Problem 17.2 Sample Problem 17.3 Sample Problem 17.4 Sample Problem 17.5 Principle of Impulse and Momentum Systems of Rigid Bodies Conservation of Angular Momentum

Seventh Edition

Sample Problem 17.6 Sample Problem 17.7 Sample Problem 17.8 Eccentric Impact Sample Problem 17.9 Sample Problem 17.10 Sample Problem 17.11

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17 - 2

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Introduction

• Method of work and energy and the method of impulse and momentum will be used to analyze the plane motion of rigid bodies and systems of rigid bodies. • Principle of work and energy is well suited to the solution of problems involving displacements and velocities. T1 + U1→2 = T2 • Principle of impulse and momentum is appropriate for problems involving velocities and time. t2 t2 ( H O )1 + ∑ ∫ M O dt = ( H O ) 2 L1 + ∑ ∫ Fdt = L2

t1 t1

Seventh Edition

• Problems involving eccentric impact are solved by supplementing the principle of impulse and momentum with the application of the coefficient of restitution.

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17 - 3

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Principle of Work and Energy for a Rigid Body

• Method of work and energy is well adapted to problems involving velocities and displacements. Main advantage is that the work and kinetic energy are scalar quantities. • Assume that the rigid body is made of a large number of particles. T1 + U1→2 = T2 T1 , T2 = initial and final total kinetic energy of particles forming body U1→2 = total work of internal and external forces acting on particles of body. • Internal forces between particles A and B are equal and opposite. • In general, small displacements of the particles A and B are not equal but the components of the displacements along AB are equal. • Therefore, the net work of internal forces is zero.

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17 - 4

Seventh Edition

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Work of Forces Acting on a Rigid Body

• Work of a force during a displacement of its point of application, A2 s 2 U1→2 = ∫ F ⋅ dr = ∫ ( F cos α ) ds • Consider the net work of two forces F and − F forming a couple of moment M during a displacement of their points of application. dU = F ⋅ dr1 − F ⋅ dr1 + F ⋅ dr2 = F ds 2 = Fr dθ = M dθ U1→2 = ∫ M dθ = M (θ 2 − θ1 )

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Seventh Edition

A1

s1

θ2 θ1

if M is constant.

17 - 5

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Work of Forces Acting on a Rigid Body

Forces acting on rigid bodies which do no work: • Forces applied to fixed points: - reactions at a frictionless pin when the supported body rotates about the pin. • Forces acting in a direction perpendicular to the displacement of their point of application: - reaction at a frictionless surface to a body moving along the surface - weight of a body when its center of gravity moves horizontally • Friction force at the point of contact of a body rolling without sliding on a fixed surface. dU = F dsC = F ( vc dt ) = 0

Seventh Edition

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17 - 6

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body in Plane Motion

• Consider a rigid body of mass m in plane motion. T = 1 mv 2 + 1 ∑ Δmi vi′ 2 2 2 = 1 mv 2 + 1 2 2 = 1 mv 2 + 1 I ω 2 2 2 • Kinetic energy of a rigid body can be separated into: - the kinetic energy associated with the motion of the mass center G and - the kinetic energy associated with the rotation of the body about G. • Consider a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis through O. T = 1 ∑ Δmi vi2 + 1 ∑ Δmi ( riω ) 2 + 1 2 2 2 = 1 I Oω 2 2

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17 - 7

Seventh Edition

(∑ ri′2Δmi )ω 2

(∑ ri2Δmi )ω 2

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Systems of Rigid Bodies

• For problems involving systems consisting of several rigid bodies, the principle of work and energy can be applied to each body. • We may also apply the principle of work and energy to the entire system, T1 + U1→2 = T2 T1 ,T2 = arithmetic sum of the kinetic energies of all bodies forming the system U1→2 = work of all forces acting on the various bodies, whether these forces are internal or external to the system as a whole. • For problems involving pin connected members, blocks and pulleys connected by inextensible cords, and meshed gears, - internal forces occur in pairs of equal and opposite forces - points of application of each pair move through equal distances - net work of the internal forces is zero - work on the system reduces to the work of the external forces

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17 - 8

Seventh Edition

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Conservation of Energy

• Expressing the work of conservative forces as a change in potential energy, the principle of work and energy becomes T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 • Consider the slender rod of mass m. T1 = 0, V1 = 0

2 2 T2 = 1 mv2 + 1 I ω 2 2 2

Seventh Edition

= 1 m 1 lω 2 2

(

)

2

+1 2

(

1 ml 2 2 1 ml ω = ω 12 2 3

2 2

)

**V2 = − 1 Wl sin θ = − 1 mgl sin θ 2 2 T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
**

• mass m • released with zero velocity • determine ω at θ

**1 ml 2 2 1 0= ω − mgl sin θ 2 3 2 3g ω = sin θ l
**

17 - 9

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Power

• Power = rate at which work is done • For a body acted upon by force F and moving with velocity v , dU Power = = F ⋅v dt • For a rigid body rotating with an angular velocity ω and acted upon by a couple of moment M parallel to the axis of rotation, Power = dU M dθ = = Mω dt dt

Seventh Edition

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17 - 10

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.1

SOLUTION: • Consider the system of the flywheel and block. The work done by the internal forces exerted by the cable cancels. • Note that the velocity of the block and the angular velocity of the drum and flywheel are related by v = rω

2 For the drum and flywheel, I = 10.5 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s . The bearing friction is equivalent to a couple of 60 lb ⋅ ft. At the instant shown, the block is moving downward at 6 ft/s.

Seventh Edition

• Apply the principle of work and kinetic energy to develop an expression for the final velocity.

**Determine the velocity of the block after it has moved 4 ft downward.
**

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17 - 11

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.1

SOLUTION: • Consider the system of the flywheel and block. The work done by the internal forces exerted by the cable cancels. • Note that the velocity of the block and the angular velocity of the drum and flywheel are related by v 6 ft s v v v = rω ω1 = 1 = = 4.80 rad s ω2 = 2 = 2 r 1.25 ft r 1.25 • Apply the principle of work and kinetic energy to develop an expression for the final velocity.

2 2 T1 = 1 mv1 + 1 I ω1 2 2

Seventh Edition

=

1 240 lb ( 6 ft s ) 2 + 1 (10.5 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s )( 4.80 rad s ) 2 2 32.2 ft s 2 2

= 255 ft ⋅ lb

2 2 T2 = 1 mv2 + 1 I ω 2 2 2

1 240 2 1 v 2 = v2 + 10.5 2 = 7.09v2 2 32.2 2 1.25

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17 - 12

2

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.1

2 2 T1 = 1 mv1 + 1 I ω1 = 255 ft ⋅ lb 2 2 2 2 2 T2 = 1 mv2 + 1 I ω 2 = 7.09v2 2 2

Seventh Edition

• Note that the block displacement and pulley rotation are related by s 4 ft θ2 = 2 = = 3.20 rad r 1.25 ft Then, U1→ 2 = W ( s2 − s1 ) − M (θ 2 − θ1 )

= ( 240 lb )( 4 ft ) − ( 60 lb ⋅ ft )( 3.20 rad ) = 768 ft ⋅ lb

**• Principle of work and energy: T1 + U1→ 2 = T2
**

2 255 ft ⋅ lb + 768 ft ⋅ lb = 7.09 v2

v2 = 12.01ft s

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v2 = 12.01ft s

17 - 13

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.2

SOLUTION: • Consider a system consisting of the two gears. Noting that the gear rotational speeds are related, evaluate the final kinetic energy of the system. • Apply the principle of work and energy. Calculate the number of revolutions m A = 10 kg k A = 200 mm required for the work of the applied mB = 3 kg k B = 80 mm moment to equal the final kinetic energy of the system. The system is at rest when a moment • Apply the principle of work and energy to of M = 6 N ⋅ m is applied to gear B. a system consisting of gear A. With the final kinetic energy and number of Neglecting friction, a) determine the number of revolutions of gear B before revolutions known, calculate the moment and tangential force required for the its angular velocity reaches 600 rpm, indicated work. and b) tangential force exerted by gear B on gear A.

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17 - 14

Seventh Edition

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.2

SOLUTION: • Consider a system consisting of the two gears. Noting that the gear rotational speeds are related, evaluate the final kinetic energy of the system.

Seventh Edition

ωB =

( 600 rpm )( 2π rad

rev )

60 s min r 0.100 ω A = ω B B = 62.8 = 25.1rad s rA 0.250

= 62.8 rad s

2 I A = m Ak A = (10kg )( 0.200m ) 2 = 0.400 kg ⋅ m 2 2 I B = mB k B = ( 3kg )( 0.080m ) 2 = 0.0192 kg ⋅ m 2 2 2 T2 = 1 I Aω A + 1 I Bω B 2 2

= 1 ( 0.400 )( 25.1 ) 2 + 1 ( 0.0192 )( 62.8) 2 2 2 = 163.9 J

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17 - 15

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.2

• Apply the principle of work and energy. Calculate the number of revolutions required for the work. T1 + U1→ 2 = T2 0 + ( 6θ B ) J = 163.9J

Seventh Edition

θ B = 27.32 rad

θB =

27.32 = 4.35 rev 2π

• Apply the principle of work and energy to a system consisting of gear A. Calculate the moment and tangential force required for the indicated work. r 0.100 θ A = θ B B = 27.32 = 10.93 rad rA 0.250

2 T2 = 1 I Aω A = 1 ( 0.400 )( 25.1 ) 2 = 126.0 J 2 2

T1 + U1→ 2 = T2

0 + M A (10.93 rad ) = 126.0J M A = rA F = 11.52 N ⋅ m F=

11.52 = 46.2 N 0.250

17 - 16

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.3

SOLUTION: • The work done by the weight of the bodies is the same. From the principle of work and energy, it follows that each body will have the same kinetic energy after the change of elevation. • Because each of the bodies has a different centroidal moment of inertia, the distribution of the total kinetic energy between the linear and rotational components will be different as well.

Seventh Edition

A sphere, cylinder, and hoop, each having the same mass and radius, are released from rest on an incline. Determine the velocity of each body after it has rolled through a distance corresponding to a change of elevation h.

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17 - 17

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.3

SOLUTION: • The work done by the weight of the bodies is the same. From the principle of work and energy, it follows that each body will have the same kinetic energy after the change of elevation. v With ω = r v T2 = 1 mv + 1 I ω = 1 mv + 1 I 2 2 2 2 r I = 1 m + 2 v 2 2 r

2 2 2 2

Seventh Edition

**T1 + U1→ 2 = T2 I 0 + Wh = 1 m + 2 v 2 2 r 2Wh 2 gh v2 = = m + I r 2 1 + I mr 2
**

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17 - 18

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.3

• Because each of the bodies has a different centroidal moment of inertia, the distribution of the total kinetic energy between the linear and rotational components will be different as well. 2 gh v2 = 1 + I mr 2 Sphere : Hoop : Cylinder : I = 1 mr 2 2 I = mr 2

2 I = 5 mr 2

Seventh Edition

v = 0.845 2 gh v = 0.816 2 gh v = 0.707 2 gh

NOTE: • For a frictionless block sliding through the same distance, ω = 0, v = 2 gh • The velocity of the body is independent of its mass and radius. • The velocity of the body does depend on 2 I =k 2 mr 2 r

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17 - 19

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.4

SOLUTION: • The weight and spring forces are conservative. The principle of work and energy can be expressed as T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 • Evaluate the initial and final potential energy. • Express the final kinetic energy in terms of the final angular velocity of the rod.

Seventh Edition

A 30-lb slender rod pivots about the point O. The other end is pressed against a spring (k = 1800 lb/in) until the spring is compressed one inch and the rod is in a horizontal position.

• Based on the free-body-diagram equation, solve for the reactions at the pivot. If the rod is released from this position, determine its angular velocity and the reaction at the pivot as the rod passes through a vertical position.

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17 - 20

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.4

SOLUTION: • The weight and spring forces are conservative. The principle of work and energy can be expressed as T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 • Evaluate the initial and final potential energy.

2 V1 = Vg + Ve = 0 + 1 kx1 = 1 (1800 lb in.)(1in.) 2 2 2

Seventh Edition

= 900 in ⋅ lb = 75 ft ⋅ lb

1 I = 12 ml 2

**V2 = Vg + Ve = Wh + 0 = ( 30 lb )(1.5 ft ) = 45 ft ⋅ lb • Express the final kinetic energy in terms of the angular velocity of the rod.
**

2 2 2 T2 = 1 mv2 + 1 I ω 2 = 1 m( rω 2 ) 2 + 1 I ω 2 2 2 2 2

1 30 lb ( 5 ft ) 2 = 12 32.2 ft s 2 = 1.941lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

=

1 30 2 2 (1.5ω 2 ) 2 + 1 (1.941)ω 2 = 2.019ω 2 2 2 32.2

17 - 21

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.4

From the principle of work and energy, T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

2 0 + 75 ft ⋅ lb = 2.019ω 2 + 45 ft ⋅ lb

Seventh Edition

ω 2 = 3.86 rad s

• Based on the free-body-diagram equation, solve for the reactions at the pivot. 2 2 2 an = 22.3 ft s 2 an = r ω 2 = (1.5 ft )( 3.86 rad s ) = 22.3 ft s at = rα at = rα

∑ Fy = ∑ ( Fy )eff

∑ M O = ∑ ( M O ) eff ∑ Fx = ∑ ( Fx ) eff

0 = I α + m( r α ) r Rx = m ( r α ) R y − 30 lb = − man =− 30 lb

α =0

Rx = 0

(22.3ft s2 ) 32.2 ft s 2

R = 9.22

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R y = 9.22 lb

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.5

SOLUTION: • Consider a system consisting of the two rods. With the conservative weight force, T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 • Evaluate the initial and final potential energy. • Express the final kinetic energy of the Each of the two slender rods has a system in terms of the angular velocities of mass of 6 kg. The system is released the rods. from rest with β = 60o. • Solve the energy equation for the angular Determine a) the angular velocity of velocity, then evaluate the velocity of the o rod AB when β = 20 , and b) the point D. velocity of the point D at the same instant.

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17 - 23

Seventh Edition

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.5

SOLUTION: • Consider a system consisting of the two rods. With the conservative weight force, T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 • Evaluate the initial and final potential energy. V1 = 2Wy1 = 2( 58.86 N )( 0.325 m ) = 38.26 J V2 = 2Wy2 = 2( 58.86 N )( 0.1283 m ) = 15.10 J

Seventh Edition

W = mg = ( 6 kg ) 9.81m s 2 = 58.86 N

(

)

17 - 24

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.5

• Express the final kinetic energy of the system in terms of the angular velocities of the rods. v AB = ( 0.375 m )ω Since vB is perpendicular to AB and vD is horizontal, the instantaneous center of rotation for rod BD is C. CD = 2( 0.75 m ) sin 20° = 0.513 m BC = 0.75 m and applying the law of cosines to CDE, EC = 0.522 m Consider the velocity of point B vB = ( AB )ω = ( BC )ω AB ω BD = ω vBD = ( 0.522 m )ω For the final kinetic energy,

1 1 I AB = I BD = 12 ml 2 = 12 ( 6 kg )( 0.75 m ) 2 = 0.281kg ⋅ m 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 T2 = 12 mv AB + 1 I ABω AB + 12 mvBD + 1 I BDω BD 2 2 1 1 = 12 ( 6 )( 0.375ω ) 2 + 1 ( 0.281)ω 2 + 12 ( 6 )( 0.522ω ) 2 + 1 ( 0.281)ω 2 2 2

Seventh Edition

= 1.520ω 2

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17 - 25

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.5

• Solve the energy equation for the angular velocity, then evaluate the velocity of the point D. T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 0 + 38.26 J = 1.520ω 2 + 15.10 J ω = 3.90 rad s

Seventh Edition

ω AB = 3.90 rad s

vD = ( CD )ω

= ( 0.513 m )( 3.90 rad s ) = 2.00 m s vD = 2.00 m s

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 - 26

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

• Method of impulse and momentum: - well suited to the solution of problems involving time and velocity - the only practicable method for problems involving impulsive motion and impact.

Seventh Edition

Sys Momenta1 + Sys Ext Imp1-2 = Sys Momenta2

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 - 27

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

• The momenta of the particles of a system may be reduced to a vector attached to the mass center equal to their sum, L = ∑ vi Δmi = mv and a couple equal to the sum of their moments about the mass center, H G = ∑ ri′ × vi Δmi • For the plane motion of a rigid slab or of a rigid body symmetrical with respect to the reference plane, H G = Iω

Seventh Edition

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 - 28

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

• Principle of impulse and momentum for the plane motion of a rigid slab or of a rigid body symmetrical with respect to the reference plane expressed as a free-body-diagram equation,

Seventh Edition

• Leads to three equations of motion: - summing and equating momenta and impulses in the x and y directions - summing and equating the moments of the momenta and impulses with respect to any given point

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17 - 29

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

• Noncentroidal rotation: - The angular momentum about O I Oω = I ω + ( mv ) r = I ω + ( mr ω ) r = I + mr 2 ω - Equating the moments of the momenta and impulses about O, I Oω1 + ∑ ∫ M O dt = I Oω 2

t1 t2

Seventh Edition

(

)

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 - 30

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Systems of Rigid Bodies

• Motion of several rigid bodies can be analyzed by applying the principle of impulse and momentum to each body separately. • For problems involving no more than three unknowns, it may be convenient to apply the principle of impulse and momentum to the system as a whole. • For each moving part of the system, the diagrams of momenta should include a momentum vector and/or a momentum couple. • Internal forces occur in equal and opposite pairs of vectors and do not generate nonzero net impulses.

Seventh Edition

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17 - 31

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Conservation of Angular Momentum

• When no external force acts on a rigid body or a system of rigid bodies, the system of momenta at t1 is equipollent to the system at t2. The total linear momentum and angular momentum about any point are conserved, ( H 0 )1 = ( H 0 ) 2 L1 = L2 • When the sum of the angular impulses pass through O, the linear momentum may not be conserved, yet the angular momentum about O is conserved,

Seventh Edition

( H 0 )1 = ( H 0 ) 2

• Two additional equations may be written by summing x and y components of momenta and may be used to determine two unknown linear impulses, such as the impulses of the reaction components at a fixed point.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 - 32

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.6

SOLUTION: • Considering each gear separately, apply the method of impulse and momentum. • Solve the angular momentum equations for the two gears simultaneously for the unknown time and tangential force.

m A = 10 kg k A = 200 mm mB = 3 kg k B = 80 mm

Seventh Edition

The system is at rest when a moment of M = 6 N ⋅ m is applied to gear B. Neglecting friction, a) determine the time required for gear B to reach an angular velocity of 600 rpm, and b) the tangential force exerted by gear B on gear A.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 - 33

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.6

SOLUTION: • Considering each gear separately, apply the method of impulse and momentum. moments about A: 0 − FtrA = − I A ( ω A ) 2 Ft ( 0.250 m ) = ( 0.400 kg ⋅ m )( 25.1rad s ) Ft = 40.2 N ⋅ s

Seventh Edition

**( 6 N ⋅ m ) t − Ft ( 0.100 m ) = (0.0192 kg ⋅ m 2 )( 62.8 rad s )
**

• Solve the angular momentum equations for the two gears simultaneously for the unknown time and tangential force. t = 0.871 s F = 46.2 N

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 - 34

moments about B: 0 + Mt − FtrB = I B ( ω B ) 2

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.7

SOLUTION: • Apply principle of impulse and momentum to find variation of linear and angular velocities with time. • Relate the linear and angular velocities when the sphere stops sliding by noting that the velocity of the point of contact is zero at that instant. • Substitute for the linear and angular velocities and solve for the time at which sliding stops. • Evaluate the linear and angular velocities at that instant. Determine a) the time t2 at which the sphere will start rolling without sliding and b) the linear and angular © 2003 The of the sphere at Inc. All . velocitiesMcGraw-Hill Companies,time t rights reserved.

Seventh Edition

Uniform sphere of mass m and radius r is projected along a rough horizontal surface with a linear velocity v1 and no angular velocity. The coefficient of kinetic friction is µk .

17 - 35

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.7

SOLUTION: • Apply principle of impulse and momentum to find variation of linear and angular velocities with time. • Relate linear and angular velocities when sphere stops sliding by noting that velocity of point of contact is zero at that instant. Sys Momenta1 + Sys Ext Imp1-2 = Sys Momenta2 y components: Nt − Wt = 0 x components: mv1 − Ft = mv2 mv1 − µ k mgt = mv2 moments about G: Ftr = I ω 2 v2 = v1 − µ k gt N = W = mg • Substitute for the linear and angular velocities and solve for the time at which sliding stops. v2 = rω 2 5 µk g v1 − µ k gt = r t 2 r t= 2 v1 7 µk g

Seventh Edition

2 ( µ k mg ) tr = ( 5 mr 2 )ω 2

ω2 =

5 µk g t 2 r

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17 - 36

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.7

• Evaluate the linear and angular velocities at that instant. 2 v1 v2 = v1 − µ k g 7 µ g k 5 v2 = v1 7 Sys Momenta1 + Sys Ext Imp1-2 = Sys Momenta2 y components: x components: moments about G: v2 = rω 2 5 µk g v1 − µ k gt = r t 2 r t= 2 v1 7 µk g

17 - 37

Seventh Edition

N = W = mg v2 = v1 − µ k gt

ω2 =

5 µ k g 2 v1 2 r 7 µk g

ω2 =

5 µk g t 2 r

ω2 =

5 v1 7r

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.8

SOLUTION: • Observing that none of the external forces produce a moment about the y axis, the angular momentum is conserved. • Equate the initial and final angular momenta. Solve for the final angular velocity. • The energy lost due to the plastic impact is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the system.

Seventh Edition

Two solid spheres (radius = 3 in., W = 2 lb) are mounted on a spinning horizontal rod ( I R = 0.25 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2 , ω = 6 rad/sec) as shown. The balls are held together by a string which is suddenly cut. Determine a) angular velocity of the rod after the balls have moved to A’ and B’, and b) the energy lost due to the plastic impact of the spheres and stops.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 - 38

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.8

SOLUTION: • Observing that none of the external forces produce a moment about the y axis, the angular momentum is conserved. • Equate the initial and final angular momenta. Solve for the final angular velocity.

Seventh Edition

Sys Momenta1 + Sys Ext Imp1-2 = Sys Momenta2

2[ ( ms r1ω1 ) r1 + I S ω1 ] + I Rω1 = 2[ ( ms r2ω 2 ) r2 + I S ω 2 ] + I Rω 2

ω 2 = ω1

**ms r12 + I S + I R ms r22 + I S + I R
**

I R = 0.25 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

2 5

ω1 = 6 rad s

2 ma 2 5

** 2 2 ft = 0.00155 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2 IS = = 2 32.2 ft s 12 2 2 2 2 5 2 2 25 mS r1 = = 0.0108 mS r2 = = 0.2696 32.2 12 32.2 12 2 lb
**

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

ω 2 = 2.08 rad s

17 - 39

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.8

• The energy lost due to the plastic impact is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the system.

Seventh Edition

ω1 = 6 rad s

I R = 0.25 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2 mS r12 = 0.0108 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

ω 2 = 2.08 rad s

I S = 0.00155 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2 mS r22 = 0.2696 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

T = 2 1 m S v 2 + 1 I S ω 2 + 1 I Rω 2 = 1 2 m S r 2 + 2 I S + I R ω 2 2 2 2 2 T1 = 1 ( 0.275)( 6 ) 2 = 4.95 ft ⋅ lb 2 T2 = 1 ( 0.792)( 2.08) 2 = 1.71ft ⋅ lb 2 ΔT = T2 − T1 = 1.71 − 4.95

(

)

(

)

∆T = −3.24 ft ⋅ lb

17 - 40

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Eccentric Impact

Seventh Edition

( u A ) n = ( uB ) n Period of deformation Impulse = ∫ Rdt Period of restitution Impulse = ∫ Pdt

• Principle of impulse and momentum is supplemented by ∫ Rdt e = coefficient of restitution = ∫ Pdt

( v′B ) n − ( v′A ) n = ( v A ) n − ( vB ) n

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 - 41

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.9

SOLUTION: • Consider a system consisting of the bullet and panel. Apply the principle of impulse and momentum. • The final angular velocity is found from the moments of the momenta and impulses about A. A 0.05-lb bullet is fired into the side of a 20-lb square panel which is initially at rest. Determine a) the angular velocity of the panel immediately after the bullet becomes embedded and b) the impulsive reaction at A, assuming that the bullet becomes embedded in 0.0006 s.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 - 42

Seventh Edition

• The reaction at A is found from the horizontal and vertical momenta and impulses.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.9

SOLUTION: • Consider a system consisting of the bullet and panel. Apply the principle of impulse and momentum. • The final angular velocity is found from the moments of the momenta and impulses about A.

2

Seventh Edition

moments about A: mB v B v2 =

9 (14 ft ) + 0 =m P v2 (12 ft ) + I Pω2 12

9 (12 ft )ω2

1 20 18 2 I P = 1 mP b 2 = = 0.2329 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 6 6 32.2 12 20 9 9 (14 ) = 32.2 (12 ω2 )(12 ) + 0.2329ω2 12

0.05 (1500 ) 32.2 v2 =

ω 2 = 4.67 rad s

9 (12 )ω2 = 3.50 ft s

ω 2 = 4.67 rad s

17 - 43

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.9

• The reactions at A are found from the horizontal and vertical momenta and impulses.

9 (12 )ω2 = 3.50 ft s

Seventh Edition

ω 2 = 4.67 rad s

v2 =

**x components: mB vB + Ax ∆ t = m p v2 0.05 (1500) + Ax ( 0.0006) = 20 ( 3.50) 32.2 32.2 Ax = −259 lb y components: 0 + Ay ∆ t = 0 Ay = 0
**

17 - 44

Ax = 259 lb

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.10

SOLUTION: • Consider the sphere and rod as a single system. Apply the principle of impulse and momentum. • The moments about A of the momenta and impulses provide a relation between the final angular velocity of the rod and velocity of the sphere. • The definition of the coefficient of restitution provides a second relationship between the final angular velocity of the rod and velocity of the sphere. • Solve the two relations simultaneously for the angular velocity of the rod and velocity of the sphere.

17 - 45

Seventh Edition

A 2-kg sphere with an initial velocity of 5 m/s strikes the lower end of an 8kg rod AB. The rod is hinged at A and initially at rest. The coefficient of restitution between the rod and sphere is 0.8. Determine the angular velocity of the rod and the velocity of the sphere immediately after impact.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.10

SOLUTION: • Consider the sphere and rod as a single system. Apply the principle of impulse and momentum. • The moments about A of the momenta and impulses provide a relation between the final angular velocity of the rod and velocity of the rod.

Seventh Edition

moments about A: ′ ms vs (1.2 m ) = ms v′ (1.2 m ) + mR vR ( 0.6 m ) + I ω ′ s ′ vR = r ω ′ = ( 0.6 m ) ω ′

1 1 I = 12 mL2 = 12 ( 8 kg )(1.2 m ) 2 = 0.96 kg ⋅ m 2

( 2 kg )( 5 m s )(1.2 m ) = ( 2 kg ) v′s (1.2 m ) + ( 8 kg )( 0.6 m )ω ′( 0.6 m )

+ 0.96 kg ⋅ m 2 ω ′ 12 = 2.4 v′ + 3.84ω ′ s

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 - 46

(

)

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.10

• The definition of the coefficient of restitution provides a second relationship between the final angular velocity of the rod and velocity of the sphere. Moments about A: 12 = 2.4 v′ + 3.84ω ′ s Relative velocities: v′ − v′ = e( vB − vs ) B s (1.2 m )ω ′ − v′s = 0.8( 5 m s ) Solving, ω ′ = 3.21rad/s v′ = −0.143 m s s • Solve the two relations simultaneously for the angular velocity of the rod and velocity of the sphere.

Seventh Edition

ω ′ = 3.21rad/s

v′ = 0.143 m s s

17 - 47

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.11

SOLUTION: • Apply the principle of impulse and momentum to relate the velocity of the package on conveyor belt A before the impact at B to the angular velocity about B after impact. A square package of mass m moves down conveyor belt A with constant velocity. At the end of the conveyor, the corner of the package strikes a rigid support at B. The impact is perfectly plastic. Derive an expression for the minimum velocity of conveyor belt A for which the package will rotate about B and reach conveyor belt C. • Apply the principle of conservation of energy to determine the minimum initial angular velocity such that the mass center of the package will reach a position directly above B. • Relate the required angular velocity to the velocity of conveyor belt A.

Seventh Edition

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 - 48

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.11

SOLUTION: • Apply the principle of impulse and momentum to relate the velocity of the package on conveyor belt A before the impact at B to angular velocity about B after impact.

Seventh Edition

Moments about B:

( mv1 ) ( 1 a ) + 0 = ( mv2 ) ( 2

1 1 2 2 2

) + Iω ( mv ) ( a ) + 0 = m( aω )( a ) + (

2 a 2 2 2 2 2

v2 =

1 ma 2 6

( a )ω

2 2

2

I = 1 m a2 6

)ω2

17 - 49

v1 = 4 aω 2 3

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 17.11

• Apply the principle of conservation of energy to determine the minimum initial angular velocity such that the mass center of the package will reach a position directly above B. T2 + V2 = T3 + V3

2 2 T2 = 1 mv2 + 1 I ω 2 2 2

Seventh Edition

**h2 = ( GB ) sin ( 45° + 15°) =
**

2 2

=

( a ) sin 60° = 0.612a

1 m 2 aω 2 2 2

(

)

2

+1 2

( 1 ma2 )ω22 = 1 ma2ω22 6 3

**V2 = Wh2 T3 = 0 V3 = Wh3
**

1 ma 2ω 2 2 3 2 ω2 =

(solving for the minimum ω2)

+ Wh2 = 0 + Wh3

3W ma

( h3 − h2 ) = 3g ( 0.707a − 0.612a ) = 2 2

a

0.285 g a

h3 =

2 a 2

= 0.707 a

v1 = 4 aω 2 = 4 a 0.285 g a 3 3

v1 = 0.712 ga

17 - 50

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

- Dynamics - Chapter 14 [Beer7]
- Dynamics - Chapter 16 [Beer7]
- Dynamics - Chapter 18 [Beer7]
- Dynamics - Chapter 15 [Beer7]
- Dynamics - Chapter 12 [Beer7]
- Dynamics Chapter 19 Beer7
- Dynamics - Chapter 13 [Beer7]
- Dynamics - Chapter 11 [Beer7]
- Chapt 1
- Cap 03
- Midterm Preparation
- Lecture+Notes+Chapter+1
- Cap 01
- Cap 09
- chapt05_lecture_updated
- Cap 02
- Cap 04
- Cap 07
- Cap 06
- ch08
- BeerJohnston-Vector Mechanics For Engineers-Dynamics
- Homework #4
- Dynamics Ch13
- Vector Mechanics for Engineers - 9th Edition
- Chapt 4
- ch01-Introduction
- Chapt 3
- Vector Mechanics by Johnson
- cap09-2
- Vector Mechanics for Engineers; Dynamics 8th edition Beer Johnston

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