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CHAPTER

1 6

VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

DYNAMICS

Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University

Plane Motion of Rigid Bodies: Forces and Accelerations

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Contents

Seventh Edition

Introduction Sample Problem 16.3 Equations of Motion of a Rigid Body Sample Problem 16.4 Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body in Plane Motion Sample Problem 16.5 Plane Motion of a Rigid Body: Constrained Plane Motion d’Alembert’s Principle Constrained Plane Motion: Noncentroi Axioms of the Mechanics of Rigid Bodies Constrained Plane Motion: Rolling Mo Problems Involving the Motion of a Rigid Body Sample Problem 16.6 Sample Problem 16.1 Sample Problem 16.8 Sample Problem 16.2 Sample Problem 16.9 Sample Problem 16.10

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16 - 2

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Introduction

• In this chapter and in Chapters 17 and 18, we will be concerned with the kinetics of rigid bodies, i.e., relations between the forces acting on a rigid body, the shape and mass of the body, and the motion produced. • Results of this chapter will be restricted to: - plane motion of rigid bodies, and - rigid bodies consisting of plane slabs or bodies which are symmetrical with respect to the reference plane. • Our approach will be to consider rigid bodies as made of large numbers of particles and to use the results of Chapter 14 for the motion of systems of particles. Specifically, F = ma and M =H

Seventh Edition

∑

∑

G

G

• D’Alembert’s principle is applied to prove that the external forces acting on a rigid body are equivalent a vector ma attached to the mass center and a couple of moment I α .

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16 - 3

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Equations of Motion for a Rigid Body

• Consider a rigid body acted upon by several external forces. • Assume that the body is made of a large number of particles. • For the motion of the mass center G of the body with respect to the Newtonian frame Oxyz, F = ma ∑ • For the motion of the body with respect to the centroidal frame Gx’y’z’, ∑ MG = HG • System of external forces is equipollent to the system consisting of ma and H G .

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16 - 4

Seventh Edition

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body in Plane Motion

• Angular momentum of the slab may be computed by n H G = ∑ ( ri′× vi′Δmi ) = ∑ [ ri′× ( ω × ri′) Δmi ] = ω ∑ ri′ 2 Δmi = Iω • After differentiation, H G = Iω = Iα • Consider a rigid slab in plane motion. • Results are also valid for plane motion of bodies which are symmetrical with respect to the reference plane. • Results are not valid for asymmetrical bodies or three-dimensional motion.

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16 - 5

Seventh Edition

i =1 n i =1

(

)

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Plane Motion of a Rigid Body: D’Alembert’s Principle

• Motion of a rigid body in plane motion is completely defined by the resultant and moment resultant about G of the external forces. ∑ Fx = ma x ∑ Fy = ma y ∑ M G = Iα • The external forces and the collective effective forces of the slab particles are equipollent (reduce to the same resultant and moment resultant) and equivalent (have the same effect on the body). • d’Alembert’s Principle: The external forces acting on a rigid body are equivalent to the effective forces of the various particles forming the body. • The most general motion of a rigid body that is symmetrical with respect to the reference plane can be replaced by the sum of a translation and a centroidal rotation.

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16 - 6

Seventh Edition

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Axioms of the Mechanics of Rigid Bodies

• The forces F and F ′ act at different points on a rigid body but but have the same magnitude, direction, and line of action. • The forces produce the same moment about any point and are therefore, equipollent external forces. • This proves the principle of transmissibility whereas it was previously stated as an axiom.

Seventh Edition

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Problems Involving the Motion of a Rigid Body

• The fundamental relation between the forces acting on a rigid body in plane motion and the acceleration of its mass center and the angular acceleration of the body is illustrated in a free-body-diagram equation. • The techniques for solving problems of static equilibrium may be applied to solve problems of plane motion by utilizing - d’Alembert’s principle, or - principle of dynamic equilibrium • These techniques may also be applied to problems involving plane motion of connected rigid bodies by drawing a freebody-diagram equation for each body and solving the corresponding equations of motion simultaneously.

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16 - 8

Seventh Edition

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.1

SOLUTION: • Calculate the acceleration during the skidding stop by assuming uniform acceleration. • Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. At a forward speed of 30 ft/s, the truck • Apply the three corresponding scalar brakes were applied, causing the wheels equations to solve for the unknown to stop rotating. It was observed that the normal wheel forces at the front and rear truck to skidded to a stop in 20 ft. and the coefficient of friction between the wheels and road surface. Determine the magnitude of the normal reaction and the friction force at each wheel as the truck skidded to a stop.

Seventh Edition

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16 - 9

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.1

SOLUTION: • Calculate the acceleration during the skidding stop by assuming uniform acceleration.

2 v 2 = v0 + 2a ( x − x0 )

Seventh Edition

ft v0 = 30 s

x = 20 ft

ft 0 = 30 + 2a ( 20 ft ) s

2

a = −22.5

ft s

• Draw a free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. • Apply the corresponding scalar equations.

∑ Fy = ∑ ( Fy ) eff

N A + NB − W = 0 − µk ( N A + N B ) = − FA − FB = − ma − µ kW = − ( W g ) a

∑ Fx = ∑ ( Fx ) eff

µk =

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

a 22.5 = = 0.699 g 32.2

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.1

• Apply the corresponding scalar equations.

Seventh Edition

∑ M A = ∑ ( M A ) eff

− ( 5 ft )W + (12 ft ) N B = ( 4 ft ) ma 1 W W a 5W + 4 a = 5 + 4 12 g 12 g N B = 0.650W NB = N A = W − N B = 0.350W N rear = 1 N A = 1 ( 0.350W ) 2 2 Frear = µ k N rear = ( 0.690 )( 0.175W ) N rear = 0.175W Frear = 0.122W N front = 0.325W

N front = 1 NV = 1 ( 0.650W ) 2 2

**F front = µ k N front = ( 0.690 )( 0.325W ) F front = 0.0.227W
**

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16 - 11

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.2

SOLUTION: • Note that after the wire is cut, all particles of the plate move along parallel circular paths of radius 150 mm. The plate is in curvilinear translation. • Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. The thin plate of mass 8 kg is held in place as shown. Neglecting the mass of the links, determine immediately after the wire has been cut (a) the acceleration of the plate, and (b) the force in each link. • Resolve into scalar component equations parallel and perpendicular to the path of the mass center. • Solve the component equations and the moment equation for the unknown acceleration and link forces.

Seventh Edition

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16 - 12

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.2

SOLUTION: • Note that after the wire is cut, all particles of the plate move along parallel circular paths of radius 150 mm. The plate is in curvilinear translation. • Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. • Resolve the diagram equation into components parallel and perpendicular to the path of the mass center.

Seventh Edition

∑ Ft = ∑ ( Ft ) eff

W cos 30° = ma mg cos 30° = a = 9.81m/s 2 cos 30° a = 8.50 m s 2

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(

)

60o

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.2

• Solve the component equations and the moment equation for the unknown acceleration and link forces.

Seventh Edition

∑ M G = ( ∑ M G ) eff

( FAE sin 30°)( 250 mm ) − ( FAE cos 30°)(100 mm ) ( FDF sin 30°)( 250 mm ) + ( FDF cos 30°)(100 mm ) = 0

38.4 FAE + 211.6 FDF = 0 FDF = −0.1815 FAE

∑ Fn = ∑ ( Fn ) eff

a = 8.50 m s 2 60o FAE + FDF − W sin 30° = 0 FAE − 0.1815 FAE − W sin 30° = 0 FAE = 0.619( 8 kg ) 9.81m s 2 FDF = −0.1815 ( 47.9 N )

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

(

)

FAE = 47.9 N T FDF = 8.70 N C

16 - 14

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.3

SOLUTION: • Determine the direction of rotation by evaluating the net moment on the pulley due to the two blocks. • Relate the acceleration of the blocks to the angular acceleration of the pulley. • Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces on the complete pulley plus blocks system.

Seventh Edition

A pulley weighing 12 lb and having a radius of gyration of 8 in. is connected to • Solve the corresponding moment two blocks as shown. equation for the pulley angular Assuming no axle friction, determine the acceleration. angular acceleration of the pulley and the acceleration of each block.

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16 - 15

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.3

SOLUTION: • Determine the direction of rotation by evaluating the net moment on the pulley due to the two blocks.

Seventh Edition

∑ M G = (10 lb )( 6 in ) − ( 5 lb)(10 in ) = 10 in ⋅ lb

rotation is counterclockwise. note: I = mk 2 = W 2 k g

2

12 lb 8 = ft 2 32.2 ft s 12 = 0.1656 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

**• Relate the acceleration of the blocks to the angular acceleration of the pulley.
**

a A = rAα = ( 10 ft )α 12 aB = rBα

6 = ( 12 ft )α

16 - 16

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.3

• Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces on the complete pulley and blocks system. • Solve the corresponding moment equation for the pulley angular acceleration.

Seventh Edition

∑ M G = ∑ ( M G ) eff

6 6 (10 lb) ( 12 ft ) − ( 5 lb ) ( 10 ft ) = Iα + mB aB ( 12 ft ) − m Aa A ( 10 ft ) 12 12 6 10 6 6 5 (10) ( 12 ) − ( 5) ( 10 ) = ( 0.1656)α + ( 32.2 )( 12 α )( 12 ) − ( 32.2 )( 10 )( 10 ) 12 12 12

a A = ( 10 α ) ft s 2 12 aB = (

6α 12

I = 0.1656 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

α = 2.374 rad s 2

Then, a A = rAα aB = rBα = ( 10 ft ) 2.374 rad s 2 12

6 = ( 12 ft ) 2.374 rad s 2

) ft s

2

( (

) )

a A = 1.978 ft s 2 aB = 1.187 ft s 2

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© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.4

SOLUTION: • Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces on the disk. • Solve the three corresponding scalar equilibrium equations for the horizontal, vertical, and angular accelerations of the disk. • Determine the acceleration of the cord by evaluating the tangential acceleration of the point A on the disk.

Seventh Edition

A cord is wrapped around a homogeneous disk of mass 15 kg. The cord is pulled upwards with a force T = 180 N. Determine: (a) the acceleration of the center of the disk, (b) the angular acceleration of the disk, and (c) the acceleration of the cord.

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16 - 18

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.4

SOLUTION: • Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces on the disk. • Solve the three scalar equilibrium equations.

Seventh Edition

∑ Fx = ∑ ( Fx ) eff ∑ Fy = ∑ ( Fy ) eff

T − W = ma y T − W 180 N - (15 kg ) 9.81m s 2 ay = = m 15 kg 0 = ma x ax = 0

(

)

∑ M G = ∑ ( M G ) eff

− Tr = I α =

a y = 2.19 m s 2

α =−

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2T 2(180 N ) =− (15 kg )( 0.5 m ) mr

( 12 mr 2 )α

α = 48.0 rad s 2

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.4

• Determine the acceleration of the cord by evaluating the tangential acceleration of the point A on the disk. acord = ( a A ) t = a + a A G

Seventh Edition

(

)t

= 2.19 m s 2 + ( 0.5 m ) 48 rad s 2

(

)

acord = 26.2 m s 2

ax = 0

a y = 2.19 m s 2

α = 48.0 rad s 2

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16 - 20

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.5

SOLUTION: • Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces on the sphere. • Solve the three corresponding scalar equilibrium equations for the normal reaction from the surface and the linear A uniform sphere of mass m and radius and angular accelerations of the sphere. r is projected along a rough horizontal • Apply the kinematic relations for surface with a linear velocity v0. The uniformly accelerated motion to coefficient of kinetic friction between determine the time at which the the sphere and the surface is µk. tangential velocity of the sphere at the Determine: (a) the time t1 at which the surface is zero, i.e., when the sphere sphere will start rolling without sliding, stops sliding. and (b) the linear and angular velocities of the sphere at time t1.

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16 - 21

Seventh Edition

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.5

SOLUTION: • Draw the free-body-diagram equation expressing the equivalence of external and effective forces on the sphere. • Solve the three scalar equilibrium equations.

Seventh Edition

∑ Fy = ∑ ( Fy ) eff

N −W = 0 ∑ Fx = ∑ ( Fx ) eff − F = ma − µ k mg =

N = W = mg

a = −µk g

∑ M G = ∑ ( M G ) eff

5 µk g 2 r NOTE: As long as the sphere both rotates and slides, its linear and angular motions are uniformly accelerated.

( µ k mg ) r = ( 2 mr 2 )α 3

Fr = I α

α=

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16 - 22

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.5

• Apply the kinematic relations for uniformly accelerated motion to determine the time at which the tangential velocity of the sphere at the surface is zero, i.e., when the sphere stops sliding. v =v 0 + a t =v 0 + ( − µ k g ) t 5µ g ω = ω 0 + αt = 0 + k t 2 r a = −µk g

Seventh Edition

**At the instant t1 when the sphere stops sliding,
**

v1 = rω1 5 µk g v0 − µ k gt1 = r t1 2 r 5µ g 5 µ g 2 v0 ω1 = k t1 = k 2 r 2 r 7 µ k g 5v v1 = rω1 = r 0 7 r t1 = 2 v0 7 µk g 5 v0 7 r

α=

5 µk g 2 r

ω1 =

5 v1 = 7 v0

16 - 23

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Constrained Plane Motion

• Most engineering applications involve rigid bodies which are moving under given constraints, e.g., cranks, connecting rods, and non-slipping wheels. • Constrained plane motion: motions with definite relations between the components of acceleration of the mass center and the angular acceleration of the body. • Solution of a problem involving constrained plane motion begins with a kinematic analysis. • e.g., given θ, ω, and α, find P, NA, and NB. - kinematic analysis yields ax and a y . - application of d’Alembert’s principle yields P, NA, and NB.

Seventh Edition

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16 - 24

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Constrained Motion: Noncentroidal Rotation

• Noncentroidal rotation: motion of a body is constrained to rotate about a fixed axis that does not pass through its mass center. • Kinematic relation between the motion of the mass center G and the motion of the body about G, at = r α an = r ω 2

Seventh Edition

• The kinematic relations are used to eliminate at and an from equations derived from d’Alembert’s principle or from the method of dynamic equilibrium.

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16 - 25

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Constrained Plane Motion: Rolling Motion

• For a balanced disk constrained to roll without sliding, x = r θ → a = rα • Rolling, no sliding: F ≤ µs N a = rα Rolling, sliding impending: F = µs N a = rα Rotating and sliding: a, rα independent F = µk N • For the geometric center of an unbalanced disk, aO = rα The acceleration of the mass center, aG = aO + aG O = aO + aG O + aG O

Seventh Edition

(

)t (

)n

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16 - 26

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.6

SOLUTION: • Draw the free-body-equation for AOB, expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces.

mE = 4 kg k E = 85 mm mOB = 3 kg

Seventh Edition

The portion AOB of the mechanism is actuated by gear D and at the instant shown has a clockwise angular velocity of 8 rad/s and a counterclockwise angular acceleration of 40 rad/s2. Determine: a) tangential force exerted by gear D, and b) components of the reaction at shaft O.

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• Evaluate the external forces due to the weights of gear E and arm OB and the effective forces associated with the angular velocity and acceleration. • Solve the three scalar equations derived from the free-body-equation for the tangential force at A and the horizontal and vertical components of reaction at shaft O.

16 - 27

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.6

SOLUTION: • Draw the free-body-equation for AOB. • Evaluate the external forces due to the weights of gear E and arm OB and the effective forces. WE = ( 4 kg ) 9.81m s 2 = 39.2 N WOB = ( 3 kg ) 9.81m s 2 = 29.4 N = 1.156 N ⋅ m mE = 4 kg k E = 85 mm mOB = 3 kg

Seventh Edition

(

(

)

)

2 I Eα = mE k Eα = ( 4kg )( 0.085 m ) 2 40 rad s 2

(

) )

α = 40 rad s 2 ω = 8 rad/s

mOB ( aOB ) t = mOB ( r α ) = ( 3 kg )( 0.200 m ) 40 rad s 2 = 24.0 N

(

**mOB ( aOB ) n = mOB r ω 2 = ( 3 kg )( 0.200 m )( 8 rad s ) 2 I OBα =
**

1 1 (12 mOB L2 )α = 12 ( 3kg )( 0.400 m) 2 (40 rad s2 )

16 - 28

( )

= 38.4 N

= 1.600 N ⋅ m

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.6

• Solve the three scalar equations derived from the freebody-equation for the tangential force at A and the horizontal and vertical components of reaction at O.

Seventh Edition

∑ M O = ( ∑ M O ) eff

F ( 0.120m ) = I Eα + mOB ( aOB ) t ( 0.200m ) + I OBα = 1.156 N ⋅ m + ( 24.0 N )( 0.200m ) + 1.600 N ⋅ m F = 63.0 N

∑ Fx = ( ∑ Fx ) eff

WE = 39.2 N WOB = 29.4 N I Eα = 1.156 N ⋅ m mOB ( aOB ) t = 24.0 N mOB ( aOB ) n = 38.4 N I OBα = 1.600 N ⋅ m

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Rx = mOB ( aOB ) t = 24.0 N

Rx = 24.0 N

**R y − F − WE − WOB = mOB ( aOB ) R y − 63.0 N − 39.2 N − 29.4 N = 38.4 N R y = 24.0 N
**

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∑ Fy = ( ∑ Fy )eff

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.8

SOLUTION: • Draw the free-body-equation for the sphere, expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. • With the linear and angular accelerations related, solve the three scalar equations derived from the free-body-equation for the angular acceleration and the normal A sphere of weight W is released with and tangential reactions at C. no initial velocity and rolls without • Calculate the friction coefficient required slipping on the incline. for the indicated tangential reaction at C. Determine: a) the minimum value of • Calculate the velocity after 10 ft of the coefficient of friction, b) the uniformly accelerated motion. velocity of G after the sphere has rolled 10 ft and c) the velocity of G if • Assuming no friction, calculate the linear acceleration down the incline and the the sphere were to move 10 ft down a corresponding velocity after 10 ft. frictionless incline.

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16 - 30

Seventh Edition

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.8

SOLUTION: • Draw the free-body-equation for the sphere, expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. • With the linear and angular accelerations related, solve the three scalar equations derived from the free-bodyequation for the angular acceleration and the normal and tangential reactions at C.

Seventh Edition

∑ M C = ∑ ( M C ) eff

a = rα

(W sin θ ) r = ( ma ) r + Iα 2 = ( mrα ) r + ( 5 mr 2 )α

W 2W 2 = rα r + r α g 5 g a = rα =

α=

5 g sin θ 7r

5 32.2 ft s 2 sin 30° = 7

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(

5 g sin 30° 7

)

a = 11.50 ft s 2

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.8

• Solve the three scalar equations derived from the freebody-equation for the angular acceleration and the normal and tangential reactions at C. ∑ Fx = ∑ ( Fx ) eff W sin θ − F = ma W 5 g sin θ = g 7 2 F = W sin 30° = 0.143W 7 N − W cosθ = 0 ∑ Fy = ∑ Fy

Seventh Edition

( )eff

α=

5 g sin θ 7r

N = W cos 30° = 0.866W

a = rα = 11.50 ft s 2

• Calculate the friction coefficient required for the indicated tangential reaction at C. F = µs N F 0.143W = N 0.866W

µs =

µ s = 0.165

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16 - 32

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.8

• Calculate the velocity after 10 ft of uniformly accelerated motion.

2 v 2 = v0 + 2a ( x − x0 )

Seventh Edition

= 0 + 2 11.50 ft s 2 (10 ft )

(

)

v = 15.17 ft s

• Assuming no friction, calculate the linear acceleration and the corresponding velocity after 10 ft.

∑ M G = ∑ ( M G ) eff

α=

5 g sin θ 7r

0 = Iα

α =0

∑ Fx = ∑ ( Fx ) eff

W W sin θ = ma = a g a = 32.2 ft s 2 sin 30° = 16.1ft s 2

a = rα = 11.50 ft s 2

2 v 2 = v0 + 2a ( x − x0 )

(

)

= 0 + 2 16.1ft s 2 (10 ft )

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

(

)

v = 17.94 ft s

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**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.9

SOLUTION: • Draw the free-body-equation for the wheel, expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. • Assuming rolling without slipping and therefore, related linear and angular accelerations, solve the scalar equations for the acceleration and the normal and tangential reactions at the ground.

Seventh Edition

A cord is wrapped around the inner hub of a wheel and pulled • Compare the required tangential reaction horizontally with a force of 200 N. to the maximum possible friction force. The wheel has a mass of 50 kg and a • If slipping occurs, calculate the kinetic radius of gyration of 70 mm. friction force and then solve the scalar Knowing µs = 0.20 and µk = 0.15, equations for the linear and angular determine the acceleration of G and accelerations. the angular acceleration of the wheel.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 - 34

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.9

SOLUTION: • Draw the free-body-equation for the wheel,. • Assuming rolling without slipping, solve the scalar equations for the acceleration and ground reactions. ∑ M C = ∑ ( M C ) eff

Seventh Edition

**( 200 N )( 0.040 m ) = ma ( 0.100 m ) + Iα 8.0 N ⋅ m = ( 50 kg )( 0.100 m ) 2α + (0.245 kg ⋅ m 2 )α
**

a = ( 0.100 m ) 10.74 rad s 2 = 1.074 m s 2

I = mk 2 = ( 50 kg )( 0.70 m ) 2 = 0.245 kg ⋅ m 2 Assume rolling without slipping, a = rα = ( 0.100 m )α

α = +10.74 rad s 2

(

)

∑ Fx = ∑ ( Fx ) eff

F + 200 N = ma = ( 50 kg ) 1.074 m s 2 F = −146.3 N N −W = 0

(

)

∑ Fx = ∑ ( Fx ) eff

N = mg = ( 50kg ) 1.074 m s 2 = +490.5 N

(

)

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16 - 35

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.9

• Compare the required tangential reaction to the maximum possible friction force. Fmax = µ s N = 0.20( 490.5 N ) = 98.1 N F > Fmax , rolling without slipping is impossible. Without slipping, F = −146.3 N N = 490.5 N • Calculate the friction force with slipping and solve the scalar equations for linear and angular accelerations. F = Fk = µ k N = 0.15( 490.5 N ) = 73.6 N

Seventh Edition

∑ Fx = ∑ ( Fx ) eff

200 N − 73.6 N = ( 50 kg ) a a = 2.53 m s 2

**∑ M G = ∑ ( M G ) eff ( 73.6 N )( 0.100 m ) − ( 200 N )( 0.0.060 m )
**

= 0.245 kg ⋅ m 2 α

(

)

α = −18.94 rad s 2

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

α = 18.94 rad s 2

16 - 36

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.10

SOLUTION: • Based on the kinematics of the constrained motion, express the accelerations of A, B, and G in terms of the angular acceleration. • Draw the free-body-equation for the rod, expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. • Solve the three corresponding scalar equations for the angular acceleration and the reactions at A and B.

Seventh Edition

The extremities of a 4-ft rod weighing 50 lb can move freely and with no friction along two straight tracks. The rod is released with no velocity from the position shown. Determine: a) the angular acceleration of the rod, and b) the reactions at A and B.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 - 37

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.10

SOLUTION: • Based on the kinematics of the constrained motion, express the accelerations of A, B, and G in terms of the angular acceleration. Express the acceleration of B as aB = a A + aB A With aB A = 4α , the corresponding vector triangle and the law of signs yields a A = 5.46α aB = 4.90α

Seventh Edition

The acceleration of G is now obtained from a = a G = a A + aG A where aG A = 2α Resolving into x and y components, a x = 5.46α − 2α cos 60° = 4.46α a y = −2α sin 60° = −1.732α

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 - 38

**Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
**

Sample Problem 16.10

• Draw the free-body-equation for the rod, expressing the equivalence of the external and effective forces. • Solve the three corresponding scalar equations for the angular acceleration and the reactions at A and B.

Seventh Edition

∑ M E = ∑ ( M E ) eff

**( 50)(1.732) = ( 6.93α )( 4.46) + ( 2.69α )(1.732) + 2.07α
**

α = +2.30 rad s 2

1 I = 12 ml 2 =

α = 2.30 rad s 2

1 50 lb ( 4 ft ) 2 12 32.2 ft s 2

= 2.07 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2 I α = 2.07α 50 ( 4.46α ) = 6.93α ma x = 32.2 50 ma y = − (1.732α ) = −2.69α 32.2

**∑ Fx = ∑ ( Fx ) eff RB sin 45° = ( 6.93)( 2.30 )
**

RB = 22.5 lb

∑ Fy = ∑ ( Fy )eff

RB = 22.5 lb

45o

**RA + ( 22.5) cos 45° − 50 = −( 2.69 )( 2.30) RA = 27.9 lb
**

16 - 39

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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