Introduction to Teaching iBT TOEFL

Maranatha Christian University
July 8-9, 2008

Megan Moriarty

Skills students need to develop:
• Interaction with peers and instructors in the classroom • Natural speech in expressing opinions • Ability to synthesize information and draw conclusions

A checklist for the spoken response:
• Delivery
well-paced intelligible speech is clear, sustained, and fluid how much listener effort is required?

• Language Use
automatic and effective use of grammar and vocabulary errors do not interfere with meaning

• Topic Development
well-developed and coherent conveys relevant information/ideas required by the task relationship/progression of ideas is clear includes appropriate details and elaboration complete and accurate with respect to content

Classroom Activities for Speaking Tasks One and Two
• • • • • • • • • • • Sentence Completion/Unfinished Sentences Mini-debates Interviews and Surveys Opinion speeches Picture Stories Describing people/places/objects Give students strips with sentences. Have them use transitions to add a sentence of their own. Create a class story. Start with one sentence; each student adds a sentence – use transitions in the sentences. Listen in on native speaker conversations Use key point summaries (from TOEFL texts or teacher-prepared) to give a response. Give students incomplete responses to Task 1 and 2. Have them add a topic statement, supporting point, or examples and details.

Assessing Progress:
• • • • • Pre-, mid-, and post-tests Instructor review Self-assessment Peer review Progress charts

Activities:
• • • • • • In-class listening summarizing analyzing predicting Note taking Timed practice

Strategies for Reading:
• Skim the passage for important ideas • Recognize a paraphrase – usually the paraphrase is shorter than the original statement • Summarize important ideas • Distinguish major and minor ideas

Strategies for Listening:
• Summarize the conversation Ask the following: • Why does the conversation take place? • What details are important? who, what, where, when, why, how questions • What facts are stated? • What inferences can you make? • What might happen next?

Strategies for Integrated Speaking:
Read, Listen, Speak Ask: • • • • • • What is the issue or the problem? What is the speaker’s opinion? What reasons does he/she give? Summarize the conversation Organize your response Time your response

Listen and Speak • Organize notes major points, examples, details • Summarize • Connect information coherence devices, transitions

Strategies for Integrated Writing:
• Summarize identify major points in the lecture how are these points supported? • Connect ideas and information compare/contrast lecture and reading • Organize ideas and information use coherence devices and transitions

Comparison Chart for TOEFL Tests
iBT PBT

Skills

Listening Speaking Reading Writing 4 hours Yes Yes Instructions for answering questions are given within each section; no computer tutorial No

Listening Grammar Reading Writing (optional) 3 hours (with writing) No No No

Time Integrated Tasks Note-taking Computer Tutorials Computer Adaptive

No

Comparison Chart for TOEFL Tests
iBT Listening 4-6 lectures; some with classroom discussion •3-5 minutes long; 6 questions each 2-3 conversations •3 minutes long; 5 questions each Introduction of additional native English accents Time: 60-90 minutes Score scale: 0-30 6 Tasks •2 independent tasks – express an opinion on a familiar topic •4 integrated tasks – speak based on what is read or heard Up to 30 seconds to prepare a response Up to 1 minute to respond Time: 20 minutes Score scale: 0-4; converted to a 0-30 scale PBT 30 short dialogues 2 short conversations •60-90 seconds •3-5 questions 2-3 short talks •60-90 seconds •3-5 questions Time: 30-35 minutes Score scale: 31-68 None

Speaking

Comparison Chart for TOEFL Tests
iBT
Reading

PBT 5 passages from academic texts •250-300 words long •9-11 questions per passage (total 50) Time: 55 minutes Score scale: 31-67

3-5 passages from academic texts; each approximately 700 words long 12-14 questions for each passage Glossary to define key words Time: 60-100 minutes Score Scale: 0-30 2 tasks: must be typed •integrated task – write based on what is read and heard •independent task – support an opinion on a topic Time: 50 minutes; 20 minutes for the integrated task and 30 minutes for the independent task Score scale: 0-5; converted to a 0-30 scale Evaluated through speaking and writing tasks 0-120

Writing

1 task •independent task – support an opinion on a topic Time: 30 minutes Score scale: 0-6; reported separately on score report Handwriting only

Grammar

40 questions Time: 25 minutes Score scale: 31-68 310-677

Score

Learning Objectives for Reading Reading to Find Information • Find key facts and important information in a reading passage • Effectively scan textual material for information • Increase reading fluency and rate

Learning Objectives for Reading Reading for Basic Comprehension • Understand the main idea of a passage • Understand key facts and important information • Recognize logical sequencing of written material • Understand vocabulary meaning • Correctly identify the pronouns and the nouns they refer to in a text • Make inferences, form generalizations, and draw conclusions based on what is implied in a passage

Learning Objectives for Reading Reading to Learn • Recognize the organization and purpose of a passage • Recognize cause-and-effect relationships, compare-andcontrast relationships, and arguments • Create a mental framework, such as a category chart or an outline/summary, for organizing and recalling major points and important details • Distinguish between major and minor points or information • Recognize and create accurate paraphrases of information from a text • Understand why an author explains concepts in a certain way

Learning Objectives for Listening

Listening for Basic Comprehension • Understand main idea or purpose of a conversation or lecture • Understand major points and important details of a conversation or lecture

Learning Objectives for Listening Listening for Pragmatic Understanding • Recognize the speaker’s attitude • Recognize the speaker’s degree of certainty • Recognize the speaker’s purpose or motivation • Recognize how stress and intonation help convey the speaker’s intended meaning

Learning Objectives for Listening Connecting and Synthesizing Information • Recognize organization of information presented • Understand relationships between information presented and (cause-and-effect, compare-and-contrast, steps in a process) • Make connections between or among pieces of information in a conversation or lecture • Recognize topic changes, exemplifications, digressions, or aside statements in lectures and conversations; recognize introductory and concluding remarks in lectures • Make inferences, form generalizations, predict an outcome, and draw conclusions based on what is implied

Learning Objectives for Speaking

Independent Speaking • Describe familiar persons, places, and objects • Express and justify likes, dislikes, values, preferences • Recount events and actions • Express an opinion and support • Take a position and defend it • Make a recommendation and justify it

Learning Objectives for Speaking
Integrated Speaking (Academic and University Social Situations) • Take and use notes to organize information before speaking • Identify and summarize major points and important details from written and spoken sources • Paraphrase information from written and spoken sources • Synthesize information from written and spoken sources • Recognize and convey a speaker’s attitude and intent • Connect concrete information with abstract concepts • Express an opinion in relation to what has been read or heard and support it • Take a position and defend it • Make a recommendation and justify it

Learning Objectives for Speaking Independent and Integrated Speaking • Use a variety of signal words and phrases • Use idiomatic speech appropriately • Use vocabulary (new and previously learned) with precision • Use a range of grammatical structures with precision • Produce intelligible speech • Sustain speech at an even pace for a short time (45-60 seconds) • Use stress, intonation, and pauses to convey meaning effectively

Learning Objectives for Writing • Independent Writing • Articulate and justify an opinion about an important issue or personal preference, supporting one’s own opinions based on one’s own knowledge and experience • Take the knowledge of the intended audience into account; do not assume the reader is familiar with the topic

Learning Objectives for Writing Integrated Writing • Take notes on major points and important details from written and spoken sources and use these notes to organize information before writing • Paraphrase and cite information from sources accurately • Summarize major points and important details from sources • Select and present in writing the ways that the information from one source (e.g. what’s heard in class) relates to the information from another source (e.g. the reading passage) • Take the knowledge of the intended audience into account; do not assume the reader is familiar with the source material

Learning Objectives for Writing
Independent and Integrated Writing • Think about and list all ideas related to a topic or task before writing (pre-writing) • Identify one main idea and some major points to support that idea, and plan how you want to communicate them (outline) • Create a focused thesis statement and use it to develop al the ideas presented in the essay • Develop the essay by using appropriate explanation and detail • Express information in an organized manner, displaying unity of thought and coherence • Use effective transitions to help the reader understand the flow of ideas • Use a range of grammar and vocabulary for effective expression • Use vocabulary and grammar accurately; use idiomatic words and expressions appropriately • Follow the conventions of spelling, punctuation, and layout

TOEFL Reading
Main Idea: of a passage or paragraph To find the main idea of a passage, students can generally look at the first and last sentence of the first paragraph and the first sentence of subsequent paragraphs – along with the final sentence of the passage – to find the information. 1-L – 1 – 1 – 1-L 1st par./middle par./last par. To find the main idea of a paragraph, students should read the first and last sentence of the paragraph. Key words to identify the question: This passage/paragraph mainly discusses; the topic of the passage is; the Vocabulary:this passage/paragraph is main idea of The word will be highlighted in the passage and followed by four synonyms to choose from. For the vocabulary, often there are context clues, such as the part of speech, root, prefix, or suffix, and surrounding words to help the student narrow the choice down to two. However, this is not always the case; sometimes the vocabulary is expected to be familiar enough to the student that he/she should recognize the synonym without clues. Key words to identify the question: The word _____ in line ___ is closest in meaning to which of the following; the highlighted word in paragraph ___ can best be replaced by which of the following

TOEFL Reading
Reference: This question usually asks what a pronoun refers to in a particular sentence. The pronoun is highlighted in the passage. This is one of the easier question types for the students; most can make logical linguistic connections. In the few cases where it is a challenge, you need to help them look at the grammar (singular/plural agreement) and the context of the words in the sentence. Key words to identify the question: The pronoun ____ in questions ask about specific details in thein paragraphtest Detail: These line ______ refers to; the highlighted ____ passage to ___ refers to comprehension. The questions and answers contain key words, for overall dates, or other information that students can scan for in the passage. Along with vocabulary questions, this is one of the most prevalent question types on the test. Oftentimes, specific question words are used to introduce the question. Key words to identify the question: Negative Detail: These questions ask the following is; what is According to the passage; which of students to find information not found in or supported by the passage. This question can be easily identified by a negative word in caps (NOT, BUT, EXCEPT, etc.). Usually three of the answer choices are found in the passage, with the remaining choice as the correct answer. Occasionally, however, the “exception” answer is stated as the exception in the passage. Key words to identify the question: All of the following EXCEPT; Which of the following is LEAST likely; The author states all of the following BUT

TOEFL Reading
Inference: These questions ask students to draw conclusions based on information stated in the passage. The answers are implied rather than directly stated. There are several types of inference questions on the TOEFL. Some ask students to infer on a detail level. Others ask students to assimilate information based on the entire passage. And others ask students to predict preceding or subsequent paragraphs. Key words to identify the question: The passage suggests; the passage implies; it can be inferred; which of the following is supported by the passage; *the preceding/following paragraph probably discusses *for questions that ask about the preceding or following paragraph(s), the clue to the answer is found in the first line of the passage (preceding paragraph) or the last line of the paragraph (following paragraph) Organization: These questions ask students to identify how a passage or paragraph is organized. These questions usually refer to a chronological or categorical organization of a paragraph or passage. This might come in the form of a more detailed question, in which students have to match several organizational points. Keys words to identify the question: The passage/paragraph is organized by/in; The structure of the passage/paragraph is

TOEFL Reading
Overview: These questions ask students to determine the tone of a passage, the author’s intent in including certain information, or a point the passage most likely supports. This is a type of inference question; students are expected to determine an answer based on indirect information found throughout the passage. Key words to identify the question: The tone of the passage suggests…; The passage probably supports…; The Paraphrasing: These questions are sometimes referred to as sentence author most likely agreesThey ask students to choose the best restatement of simplification questions. with… a particular sentence or section of a passage. Students need to discern the main idea and most important supporting points of a sentence. Knowledge of synonymous words/structures is also helpful. Key words to identify the question: Which of the followingQuestions: These questions ask studentsin the Sentence Insertion best expresses the essential information to insert a highlighted section?the sentence that it best corresponds with. Generally, one sentence in front of of the sentences has a reference which indicates where the other sentence fits. Key words to identify the question: Look at the four squares…where would the sentence best fit?

Do 1- L-1-1- L: Read: • 1- the first sentence of the first paragraph • L- the last sentence of the first paragraph • 1- the first sentence of the second paragraph • 1- the first sentence of each remaining paragraph • L- the last sentence of the final paragraph

After 1-L-1-1-L, answer the following question types: • • • • • • Vocabulary Pronoun Detail questions Negative questions (NOT, EXCEPT, LEAST) Inference Overview (including insertion, simplification, and reading to learn questions)

Basic way to answer questions: 1. 2. 3. Identify question type Figure out order Find key word(s) (Key words or their synonyms can be found directly in the passage)

Note: Chronological Order: ETS arranges most questions in the order in which they appear in the text. Always remember where (what line) the previous question was answered to help locate the possible answer to the following question.

Integrated Speaking Warm-up • Have the students speak in pairs or into the computer about a general topic to get them thinking and speaking in English – they should speak for 30-45 seconds – the topic should be an opinion topic • Pronunciation – review a pronunciation point from the previous class

Pronunciation section • spend about ten minutes per class on pronunciation – either do pronunciation at the beginning of class or after students have done some speaking practice. • At the beginning of class – take a lesson from a TOEFL book or other source • After students have given a spoken response – choose 2-3 points you noticed from the response and focus on those

Identify the speaking task • use visuals to help illustrate the explanation* • explain/elicit the target of the question • explain/elicit the structure of the answer – include essential components – thesis – supporting idea #1 • relevant detail – supporting idea #2 • relevant detail – opinion – reasons • include a breakdown of the timing
* Visuals include checklists, charts, note taking diagrams, and so on

Model the speaking task • have the students listen to the material relevant to the question (reading; listening) • have the students summarize the key points of the relevant material – address vocabulary and problem words • have the students listen to a model response – either the teacher’s or the text’s • have the students analyze the response for content and structure

Assess the speaking task • have the students prepare and give their own response to the question (if necessary review/replay the relevant material) • have students listen to one another’s responses as you listen to individual students • assess the responses with the ETS rubric • Listen to/play each response for the class • analyze responses for content and structure • address syntax and pronunciation errors

Word Stress for TOEFL – Lesson 1 Look at the list of words below. Each word has a different stress pattern, depending on whether it functions as a noun or a verb. In general, when the words below function as nouns, the stress falls on the first syllable. When they function as verbs, the stress falls on the last syllable. However, as you will see below, there are some exceptions to this rule. contest (N) – A game or competition in which someone wins a prize contest (V) – To argue or protest against a decision someone has made contract (N) – A legal agreement between two or more people (V) – To make a legal – usually written- agreement between two or more people contract (V) – To get smaller and tighter object (N) – A thing; an item object (V) – To disagree with or disapprove of something. present* (N) – A gift present (V) – To provide information or a demonstration of something in a formal, public environment. project (N) – An assignment or task that is carefully planned project (V) – To use information you have now to make a prediction *Please note that present is also used as an adjective, meaning in attendance.

Listen to each sentence. Circle the word that shows the correct stress pattern. All of the sentences for a single word (i.e. present ) should not appear in a group. They should be mixed with the other words I received a special birthday present from my parents. He will present the results of the study next month. Can you present this information to the entire committee? Tina wants to choose a present for her husband. The contest was over two hours ago. I am planning to contest this ticket in court. The winner of the contest chose a trip to Hawaii as his prize.contest My partner contested the decision, but it did no good. The lawyers will draw up the contracts for us to sign. I decided to contract my uncle’s company to build the house. Muscles generally contract when cold and relax when warm. The contract will be void if we don’t finish by this week. Which firm should they contract with to represent their son? We have designed this model to contract at the push of a button. present present present present contest contest contest contest contract contract contract contract contract contract present present present present contest contest contest contract contract contract contract contract contract

There are several objects on this tray. Frank objects to the way he is being treated. I found a strange object under my chair. There will be time to object to the proposal after the presentation. This project is more complicated than I originally thought. The economic advisor projects a strong year for the company. The manager has a few projects left to assign. We used this information to project future sales.

object object object object project project project project

object object object object project project project project

Now listen to a sample answer to a TOEFL question. Using the numbers, circle the stress pattern that you hear.

Some movies are serious, designed to make the audience think. Other movies are designed primarily to amuse and entertain. Which type of movie do you prefer? Give specific examples and details to support your opinion. I think there should be an unwritten (1) contract between moviemakers and moviegoers that the film will make you think, even if you (2) object to the ideas being (3) presented. For example, I recently saw a movie about a boxing (4) contest between two American fighters. The movie was more about racism and discrimination in sports. People (5) projected the winner based on his race, and the moviegoers had to choose how they felt about this. Seeing this movie helped me to think about issues that face Americans. (1) contract (2) object (3) present (4) contest (5) project contract object present contest project

A person you know is planning to move to your town or city. What do you think this person would like about living in your town or city? Why? Use specific reasons or details to support your answer.

Listen to the response. Can you identify the stressed words? I believe the most attractive aspect of living in my city is the opportunity to see many celebrities. The city I live in has several famous television and movie stars. It is pretty easy to run into one of them if you know where to look. For example, there are a few supermarkets in the more prosperous neighborhoods where the stars always shop. There are also a lot of parties and other events where you can meet these famous people. Anyone would enjoy living in a city where they could meet the stars they admire most.

Listen to the statements. Each statement will be spoken twice. Circle the words that you think are stressed words. • • • • • • I believe the most attractive aspect of living in my city is the opportunity to see many celebrities. The city I live in has several famous television and movie stars. It is pretty easy to run into one of them if you know where to look. For example, there are a few supermarkets in the more prosperous neighborhoods where the stars always shop. There are also a lot of parties and other events where you can meet these famous people. Anyone would enjoy living in a city where they could meet the stars they admire most.

Integrated Writing Warm-up • Have the students write 1-2 sentences/paragraphs – they should write for 5-10 minutes – the topic should be an opinion topic • Grammar point – Do a 5-10 minute review of a grammar/syntax point covered in a previous class

Grammar Section • spend about 20-30 minutes on a grammar point – either do grammar at the beginning of class or after students have done some writing practice*. – choose a point/points that you think should be covered based on what you have seen of the students’ writing – use a grammar/writing book as a reference and present a lesson – give students practice drills that are relevant to the style of writing they need for the iBT
*This writing lesson is separate from the warm-up/review at the beginning of class

Identify the writing task • use visuals to help illustrate the explanation* • explain/elicit the target of the question • explain/elicit the structure of the answer – include essential components – thesis (explains that the listening supports/contrasts the reading) – summary of the reading passage – summary of the listening passage – conclusion (reinforces that the listening supports/contrasts the reading) • include a breakdown of the timing – total time to complete the task is 20 minutes * Visuals include checklists, charts, note taking diagrams, and so on

Model the writing task • have the students read the passage – on the test, they have three minutes to read the passage • have the students summarize the key points of the reading – address vocabulary and problem words • have the students listen to the lecture • have the students summarize the key points of the lecture • model note taking techniques for the students and have them take notes

Assess the writing task • have the students write their own response to the question (if necessary review/replay the relevant material) – students are allowed to reference the reading material on the test • have the students look at a model response – either the teacher’s or the text’s • have the students analyze the response for content and structure • have the students look at one another’s responses as you look at individual responses • assess the responses with the ETS rubric • choose 3-4 responses (depending on time) to share with the class • analyze responses for content and structure • address syntax and grammar errors

Writing - Introduction
Thesis statement: Addresses the question; can contain the supporting ideas for the body paragraphs • I believe dogs are better pets than cats. • Dogs are better pets than cats because they are loyal animals and they are helpful around the house.

Body Paragraph one topic sentence: Unlike cats which are known to disappear for days at a time, dogs are generally considered to be faithful (they are loyal) and for that reason people call them “man’s best friend”. Paragraph two topic sentence: Dogs can actually assist (they are helpful) around the home in many different ways whereas cats are completely indifferent to everything and everyone around them.

Conclusion Restatement of thesis statement: For the simple fact that dogs aid their masters and are always devoted companions, one must consider a canine as a pet far superior to felines.

Question: If you could change one thing about your hometown, what would it be? Give specific details and examples to support your answer. Intro - If I could change one thing about my hometown, I would decrease the number of factories and large companies that are there.

B1 - The factories have caused a rise in pollution in recent years, destroying air in my hometown.

B2 - Big corporations have taken over the city, and have ruined its historical beauty.

Concl. - In conclusion, a reduction in the number of businesses and manufacturers would be my primary desire in improving my native city.

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