Glass Shab | Glasses | Mirror

GLASS Glass

Prepared By: Afshan Hussain

INTRODUCTION

 A homogeneous material with a random liquid like [non crystalline] molecular structure.  Its hard, brittle and transparent.

HISTORY OF GLASS
 The first glass objects were natural glass such as obsidian and rock crystal.  The manufactured glass dates from prehistoric times in the far East India and Egypt.

PRINCIPAL CONSTITUENTS OF GLASS
 Contents of Glass:
– Silica – Potash or Soda – Chalk [lime]. In order to improve certain properties of glass other constituents like lead oxide, manganese dioxide, coloring substances etc may also be added while manufacturing glass.

COMPOSITION OF GLASS

 Not a single compound.  Very difficult to give any particular chemical formula.

PROPERTIES OF GLASS
Very hard substance when solid Extremely brittle Transparent, semi-transparent or translucent Low thermal conductivity High co-efficient of expansion Posses high resistively and electric strength at normal temperature  Can be welded by fusion  Can absorb, refract and transmit light  Good heat and sound insulating material in the form of glass wool      

Continued:
 Takes high polish.  Gets effected by alkali solutions, making the glass surface turbid.  Can be fabricated into articles of any shape.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF GLASS

   

Soda lime glass Potash lime glass Potash lead glass Common glass

SODA LIME GLASS
 Also known as soda glass or soft glass. Its mainly a mixture of sodium silicate and calcium silicate.  PROPERTIES  Available in clean and clear state  It is cheap  Easily fusible at comparatively low temperature  USES  In the manufacture of glass tubes and other laboratory apparatus, plate glass, window glass etc.

POTASH LIME GLASS
 Also known as bohemian glass or hard glass. Its mainly a mixture of potassium silicate and calcium silicate.  PROPERTIES  Fuses at high temperature  Not easily affected by water and other solvents  Does not melt so easily  USES  Used in manufacture of glass articles which have to with stand temperature such as combustion tubes etc.

POTASH LEAD GLASS
 Also known as flint glass. Mainly a mixture of potassium silicate and lead silicate.  PROPERTIES  Fuses very easily  Easily attacked by aqueous solution  Turns black and opaque if it comes in contact with reducing gases of the furnace during heating  USES  In manufacture of artificial gems, electric bulbs, lenses, prisms etc.

COMMON GLASS
 Also known as bottle glass. Prepared from cheap raw materials. Mainly a mixture of sodium silicate, calcium silicate and iron silicate.  PROPERTIES  Fuses with difficulty  Brown, green or yellow in color  Easily attacked by acids  USES  Used in manufacture of medicine bottles.

DIFFERENT USES OF GLASS
 Windows  Containers – bottles and jars  Laboratory glass wart  Cooking utensils  Light bulbs  TV tubes  Optical instruments  Glass fiber  Wash basins  Furniture glass etc…

VARIOUS TREATMENT OF GLASS

   

Bending Cutting Opaque making Silvering

BENDING
 Glass may be bent into desired shape by placing it in ovens.

CUTTING

 Glass is cut in required sizes the help of diamond or rough glasses or small wheels of hardened steel.

OPAQUE MAKING

 Glass can be made opaque by:
– Grinding the glass surface with energy. – Achieved chemically by the application of hydrofluoric acid.

SILVERING
 Applying a very thin coat of tin.  The silver is deposited on this layer.  A suitable paint is then applied to give protection against the atmospheric effects.

COLURED GLASS
 To make colored glass, the coloring pigment is added to the raw materials while preparing the batch for its manufacture. The whole mass is heated till it becomes homogeneous. Different quantities of the same substance may also impart different color to the glass. Colored glass is used for decorative purpose and is available in red, blue, white, violet, yellow and green color.

ANNEALING
 The glass articles after being manufactured are to be cooled down slowly and gradually. The process ofslow and homogeneous cooling of glass articles is known as annealing of glass. It is an important process. The two methods of annealing are Flue treatment Oven treatment

MIRROR
 It is a polished surface with a reflective coating of silver deposited on the back. The basic three types of mirror are concave, convex and plane mirror.  Mirrors are used for decorative purposes also. In interiors mirror play an important role in changing the outlook of a room.

THICKNESS OF GLASS

 A glass thickness of 4mm is the proven standard for achieving the requisite breaking strength.  A thickness of 5mm is recommended for edge areas exposed.

DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF GLASS  Bullet proof glass
 Fiber glass  Foam glass  Glass blocks  Heat excluding glass  Obscured glass  Perforated glass  Safety glass  Shielding glass  Soluble glass  Structural glass  Ultra violet ray glass  Wired glass

BULLET PROOF GLASS
 Bullet resistant glass is constructed of laminated glass layers and is built from glass sheets bounded together with polyvinyl butyral or polyurethane.

 It is composed of minute glass rods and each glass rod resembles the parent material.  Is soft to touch and it is flexible in nature.  Does not absorb water and it is fire proof.  Can be prepared either in the form of continuous strands or in the staple form just like wool.  Is used as a reinforcing agent for many polymers products.

FIBRE GLASS

FLOAT GLASS
 The molten glass coming out of the furnace is allowed to float on the molten tin. The glass thus is formed is known as float glass and it is then further annealed to remove all the smashes.  It is widely used for residential building, commercial, complex, furniture articles etc.  It is superior to ordinary sheet glass. It is also suitable for fixed and opening windows above waist height.

FOAM GLASS
 It is made when finely ground glass and carbon is mixed and the mixture is melted in furnace.  It floats in water and it can be cut like wood.  It is a fire proof and a good insulator also.  It can also be used for refrigerators.

GLASS BLOCKS
 These are partially evacuated and completely sealed hollow units which are formed by fusing together two – halves of pressed glass. The edges are coated with a grit bearing plastic material so that permanent and effective bond with the mortar is ensured. It is used as an architectural element in underground parking garages, washrooms, municipal swimming baths and other areas where privacy or visual obstruction is desired while admitting light.

HEAT EXCLUDING GLASS
 This glass allows light to pass through it, but eliminates heat.  It is used for windows of coaches of higher class in railways, in window panels of important buildings etc.

OBSCURED GLASS
 Obscured glass is produced by the acid etching of clear sheet glass or sand blasting.  It has the effect of rendering the glass translucent, obscuring the view while still passing light.

PERFORATED GLASS
 In this type of glass, the perforations are made in sheet glass with the help of rollers.  The perforations may be made during the manufacture or after the manufacture. It is used for panels in ventilators.

SAFETY GLASS
 This glass is formed by placing celluloid between two sheets of the plate glass and then applying glue to make a single unit. If glass breaks the flying of splinters does not occur. It is also known as the shatter proof glass.

SHIELDING GLASS
 This is a special variety of glass and it contains heavy elements like lead oxide etc.  It is used for windows through which high radiation is observed. Depending upon the type of radiation is observed, the quality of shielding glass is determined.

SOLUBLE GLASS
 It is prepared by melting quartz sand grinding and thoroughly mixing it with soda ash, sodium sulphate or potassium carbonate.  This glass under normal conditions is soluble in water and is a form of silicate lumps.

STRUCTURAL GLASS
 These are in the form of glass - crete squares or lenses which are set in cement concrete and reinforced with steel frames. Popularly known as the glass bricks.  The semi-prisms formed on the underside of these bricks collect light and project it on the other dark side.  These bricks can be used as light structural members also. They are widely used for pavement lights, partitions, lantern lights etc.

ULTRA VIOLET RAY GLASS
 This glass transmits effectively ultra violet rays even though it is not in the direction of the rays of sun.  It is made from the raw mixture with minimum admixtures of iron, titanium and chrome. Such a glass transmits 75% of ultra violet radiation which is far more than common glass.  Widely used in windows of schools, hospitals etc.

WIRED GLASS
 In this glass a wire mesh is placed in glass during the rolling operation.  If this glass breaks the pieces of glass are held together in place by the wire.  It is also fire resistant and is used for roofs, skylight and fire doors.

ANY QUERIES…???

Thank You:
Afshan Hussain Roll No. : IIFD

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