What do you see?

Now what do you see?

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005




and other sensory stimuli and transmit them to the brain. sensory information that has registered in the brain but has not been interpreted • Perception – The process by which sensory information is actively organized and interpreted by the brain – A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.Sensation and Perception • Sensation – The process through which the senses pick up visual. . auditory.







the French philosopher René Descartes ) .“I think. therefore I am” (17th century.

Our Social Interactions…. ..

Our social interactions define our behavior • TA is a model for explaining why and how: – People think like they do – People act like they do – People interact/communicate with others • Based on – Games People Play (Dr.…. .You’re OK (Dr. Thomas Harris) • Transactional analysis is a theory about personality. The ideas of transactional analysis (TA) were developed by Eric Berne and popularized through his books. personality development and communication. Eric Berne) – I’m OK .. • TA provides models to observe and understand communication in everyday interaction.

Transactional Analysis Ego States  Ego State Problems  Transactions  Four Life Positions  Life Scripts (Games)  .

Our Brain (according to Berne) • • Determines what we think and how we act Acts like a tape recorder while recording 1) Events 2) Associated feelings • Has 3 distinct parts or ego states 1) Parent 2) Adult 3) Child .

comforting. reality-centered Child Natural . soothing. Adapted (Compliant) . forbidding. considerate Critical . not under influence of internal parent. Rebel (strong-willed) . . calm.Stern. blaming Adult Logical. decisive.Transactional Analysis Ego States Parent Nurturing .listening to and attempting to please the internal parent.fun loving.Acting to oppose the internal parent.

.Dr. and neither one can be recalled without the other. Thomas Harris Both the event and the feelings experienced during that event are stored in the brain. The event and the feelings are locked together. I feel the same way now" ."I not only remember how I felt.

And it is these collisions and interactions between these personality factions(groups) that manifest themselves as an individual's thoughts. . and behaviors. feelings.

condescending views) .Parent Ego State • Thoughts. always and never • Prejudicial views (not based on logic or facts) on things such as: religion dress salespeople traditions work products money raising children companies • Nurturing views (sympathetic. oughts and ought nots. feelings. caring views) • Critical views (fault finding. judgmental. attitudes. behavioral patterns based on messages or lessons learned from parents and other „parental‟ or authoritarian sources • Shoulds and should nots.

probabilities. computations. facts) • Make decisions based on logic. (not emotion) . behavioral patterns based on objective analysis of information (data. etc. feelings.Adult Ego State • Thoughts. attitudes.

Child Ego State • Thoughts. attitudes. feelings. feelings we have experienced • Child-like examples Impulsive Self-centered Angry Fearful Happy Pleasure seeking Rebellious Happy Curious Eager to please . behavioral patterns based on child-like emotions. impulses.

Human Interaction Analysis • • • • A transaction = any interaction or communication between 2 people People send and receive messages out of and into their different ego states How people say something (what others hear?) just as important as what is said Types of communication. interactions 1) Complementary 2) Crossed 3) Ulterior .

Transaction Stimulus Transaction Response P A C P A C 27 possible combinations .Transactional Analysis Transactions A transaction is either a verbal or non-verbal exchange between two or more individuals.

7% The Way words are delivered (tone.) . the listener focuses on the following three types of communication: Actual Words .55% .38% Facial expressions . etc. accents on certain words.when an individual is speaking.

Example 1: #1 What is the time now ? #2 11:15. actions regarded as appropriate and expected from another person. communication continues. responses.Complementary „Transactions‟ • Interactions. • Parallel communication arrows. P A C P A C .

Complementary „Transactions‟ cont‟d Example 2: P A P A #1 #2 You’re late again! I’m sorry. C C . It won’t happen again.

communication breakdown.Crossed „Transactions‟ • Interactions. Example 1 #1 #2 P What is the time now ? There‟s a clock on the wall. • Crossed communication arrows. responses. actions NOT regarded as appropriate or expected from another person. why don‟t you figure it out yourself? P A C A C .

I had a flat tire.Crossed „Transactions‟ cont‟d Example 2 #1 #2 You‟re late again! Yeah. I know. P A P A C C .

actions which are different from those explicitly stated Example Customer: “And. responses. what is the price for this tie?” Salesman: “Oh. that does not suit your taste Sir. you cannot afford this expensive attire) P P A C A C .Ulterior „Transactions‟ • Interactions.” (You Cheapo.

These observations from the child program a way to view the world that becomes our “life position” in a given situation. Attitudes are formed about others and oneself based on the displayed behaviors and attitudes of parents in our early childhood.Transactional Analysis Transactions Life Positions We adopt behavior and attitudes from the day we are born. The OK Corral YOU’RE OK Get on with Get away from I’M OK Get rid of Get nowhere with I’M NOT OK YOU’RE NOT OK .

. Rich Brown -. I don’t know Rich Brown. Besides.Oh. sir.even though we need all the funds we can get -. I don’t believe in handouts! Solicitor YOU’RE OK Man A I’M OK B I’M NOT OK Solicitor C D Man YOU’RE NOT OK Solicitor Well. door opens) Yes. what can I do for you? Good evening. I hope I’m not interrupting anything. (Interrupting) I support my family and that’s all I’ve got time for. . .Life Positions Situation Man (Doorbell. by the way. (Interrupting) Brown who? Why. I’m Fred Forrest of the Brown for President Campaign and we are in the neighborhood for the . if it’s money you want. footsteps.what we need is your support . and you ARE interrupting my favorite TV show. .Transactional Analysis Transactions . I’m not here for the purpose of campaign contributions -. so GOOD NIGHT! (door slams) Man .

is there something wrong? I’m Officer Tom Hanlon of the Police Department and while I was driving by. Fine. and I assure you it won’t happen again. I noticed that a car was blocking the driveway and wanted to ask if you would like us to have it towed away for you. . Officer. that's my car. Thank you. (nervously) Why. (nervously) You mean . YOU’RE OK Man A I’M OK B I’M NOT OK Policeman C D Man YOU’RE NOT OK Policeman Man Policeman . Officer. not in front of your own driveway or anyone else’s driveway. here’s a parking ticket. and good evening. You have one week to pay the fine for illegal parking.Life Positions Situation Man Policeman (Nervously) Yes. Sir. I’ll move my car right away. I can’t park in front of my own driveway? No.Transactional Analysis Transactions . .

Games can be classified according to life positions.Transactional Analysis Transactions . . or to fulfill basic life positions and to ensure the maintenance of the life script.Games Games are used to avoid authenticity. to structure time.

Look what your doing to me . It’s your fault. Are you so blind that you can’t see how valuable I am.Games Purpose: To prove YOU’RE NOT OK Blaming Others I could get some work done. 1. Look how hard I’ve tried 5.Transactional Analysis Transactions . my recent divorce. not mine. See the bags under my eyes. Uproar 4. A shouting. accusing game. If it weren’t for you 2. Now see what you made me do 3.

.. Did you try . Why don’t you . Yes. Why didn't you ask Bill to.Games Saving Others 1.Transactional Analysis Transactions .. but etc. I’m only trying to help you Are you so dumb that you won’t follow my advice. so that wouldn’t have worked.. I’m so valuable -.? I could have but then I would have to . What would you do without me? 3. 2. but I couldn’t because Bill ..Yes. but .you’d probably just shrivel up and die.. Why didn’t you plan ahead? Yes...

Blemish Corner .Transactional Analysis Transactions . Now I want you to make sure that you do this extra work.Games Finding Fault Mine’s better My idea. but you missed a comma on page 15. my house. You have all this work to do with rigid time schedules that you couldn’t possibly meet. my car. Your report was fine. my job. my spouse. etc. or I’ll have to find someone who can. Bob.

. embezzlement.. petty thievery.. you said. Stupid Cops and robbers Debtor . but . Jones.. you know that urgent letter that you needed mailed last Friday? I just found it right here in my desk. Oh Mr.Transactional Analysis Transactions . Extortion. hacking I know my third payment is past due.Games Purpose: To prove I’M NOT OK Kick me Provoking Put-Downs You didn’t say the report was due Friday.

. I don’t like me either. I’m so depressed I need a drink and I’m always so hung-over I can’t be effective..Transactional Analysis Transactions . but we’re all stuck with it.Games Enjoying Misery Poor me I’ve got so much work to do and no one to help and now my car broke down and my kids are giving me fits and . You’ll have to take me as I am Lush .

when one person recognizes another person either verbally or non verbally. is better than no strokes at all. . • Any stroke. • recognition-hunger as a requirement of adults to receive strokes. be it positive or negative.Stroking • A stroke is a unit of recognition.

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