Art

Definitions through Western Art History Flaudette May V. Datuin

Key terms
 Aesthetics  art  beauty  Genius  Originality

“Art”
 In

the modern period, takes its meaning from the 18th century (1700s)  original creation  produced by a highly gifted creator or genius  separate from everyday life, exists for its sake

aesthetics
 The

theoretical counterpart to Art  was coined as a new science of serious knowledge in 1735 by philosopher Alexander Baumgarten  but first delineated by Immanuel Kant

aesthetics
 How

art is defined  How art is interpreted (meaning)  How art is perceived (senses), and felt  How art is evaluated: taste, sense of beauty  How art is related to society and nature  Is art useful?

Kant
 The

first property of art is originality  originality must be exemplary  art is not governed by rules nor science  a genius is BORN with an inspiration to create  beyond the dictates of culture

aestheticism
 France

– art for art’s sake  Importance of form over meaning or content  Artist retired to his ivory tower  In poetry: symbolism by Baudelaire

Romantic notion of artist
 

Illness, pain sex scandals

Romantic notion of artist
madness

Romantic notion of artist
 

Alcoholism flamboyance

Beauty in the modern period
 

Intrinsic, good in itself separate from daily life

Malevich

Mondrian

Art
     

Master/genius white, male, dead name biography how much was it sold? WHO has it?

Art
Ancient Greek Techne Middle Renaisth ages (13 sance th th to 14 ) (15 to th 17 ) Icon: A branch religious of learning Modern th 18 to present Fine arts

Beauty
Ancient Middle ages Renaissance modern

Pleasure, The good, Order, Good in catharsis, not for harmony, itself, useful, itself proportion intrinsic efficient

Art in Classical Greek

form of knowledge or craft “techne” - capacity to do or make something

Classical Greek

all kinds of human endeavor Plato: hunting, midwifery, prophecy, math, as well as painting, sculpture useful and efficient

Art in the Middle Ages
 Skill

(Aquinas)  shoemaking, cooking, juggling, grammar,  painting, sculpture, architecture, navigation, medicine, agriculture (mechanical arts)

Art in the Middle Ages
 

Religious significance ICONS - objects through which man’s devotion can be channeled to the supreme God MANIFESTATIONS of God

Art in the middle ages

SYMBOL to man of divine nature

Art in the middle ages

beauty is good, but not for itself

Renaissance (14th and 15th C)
 Status

of artist began to change to what we know in the modern period  liberal arts: painting, sculpture, grammar, rhetoric, dialectics, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music  a branch of learning, formalized and taught in the academy

Renaissance: 1400-1600
 The

rise of the middle class: bourgeosie  Rebirth of classical antiquity  Humanism  Renaissance ideal of man  Order, harmony, proportion  Empirical fidelity

Renaissance

Leonardo Da Vinci aligned Art with scientific endeavors renaissance man: painting, poetry, sculpture, fencing, horse riding, coin collection

illusionism, aka optical or empirical fidelity, “realism,” “naturalism”

 Linear

perspective: illusion of depth  Sfumato: modeling, shadow  Chiaroscuro: play of light and dark  Contrapposto  The human figure

beauty

Order, harmony, proportion visual and empirical fidelity

Mantegna Linear perspective

Masaccio

SFUMATO Chiaroscuro Corregio

Head of Christ

Sfumato technique

Michelangelo Masterful comprehension of anatomical structure contrapposto

The Crouching Boy, 54 cm

David, 17 feet

Adam and Eve, 1504 Albrecht Dürer (German, 1471–1528) Engraving; 9 7/8 x 7 7/8 in. (25.1 x 20 cm) Fletcher Fund, 1919 (19.73.1)

Under the influence of Italian theory, Dürer became increasingly drawn to the idea that the perfect human form corresponded to a system of proportion and measurements. symmetrical idealized poses: each with the weight on one leg, the other leg bent, and each with one arm angled slightly upward from the elbow and somewhat away from the body Dürer was a complete master of engraving

Brunelleschi

Objective, mathematical standards of measurement and proportion, balance, harmony, symmetry, elegance, in accordance with the scientific spirit of the age

Fine Arts
 France

in the late 17th century  poetry, music, architecture, painting, sculpture, optics, mechanics (Charles Perraut, Cabinet of the Fine Arts)  Italy - second half of the 18th century

Neo-classic: late 1700-1800 (19th century)
 Founding

of the French academy  Veneration of antiquity and its formal discipline  Official style of the court  Reaction against ornateness  Enlightenment: reason

decadent Napoleon: neo-classic became the official style

Jacques Louis David

Coronation of Napoleon

David/Oath of the Horatii

David/Death of Socrates

David/Marat Assassinated

Romanticism
Stressed individuality emotions

Eugene Delacroix

La Barca a Dante

Delacroix/Death of Sardanapal

Delacroix/Liberty Guiding the People

Gericault

The Raft of the Medusa

Spanish

risings of the citizens of Madrid against occupying forces

Goya

Third of May, 1808

Plates from Disasters of War Series War between France and Spain

Plate 47 And This is How it Happened

Plate 09 They Do Not want To

Plate 39 Great Deeds Against the Dead

19 century Realism (French)
th
Industrial capitalism Working class Revolt against stereotyped subject matter Democratization of the subject of art

Common people in Courbet, Daumier, Millet
Not feasting and regaling themselves with drink as in the Dutch 17th century, but as victims of oppression

Millet: The Gleaners

Millet/The Man With a Hoe

Daumier

Third Class Carriage

Daumier

The Uprising

The Laundry Woman

Daumier/Writer (lithograph)

Courbet

Stone breakers

Avant-garde modernism
Challenge to tradition: avant-garde “leading the way” 19th century: politically progressive or social groups

Distinctions
 Modernity

as a historical stage  Modernization as a social process  Modernism as a cultural process that coincides with the development of capitalism

Modernism
An international “trend” - last years of the 19th C – 20th Innovation and experimentation

Experimentation in Form and Explosion of styles

Challenges to Realism
Subject matter Form
Rejection of “realism” (mimesis, optical or empirical fidelity or accuracy, etcetera)

Modernity: Context of modernism
 Radical

transformation of western experience  The city: urbanization  Technology: industrialization  Global conflict: World War 1  Challenge to and assertion of individual autonomy

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