Introduction to Object Oriented Programming

Course Name: Object Oriented Programming using Java  Faculty: Mukhtaj Khan and Ms Sidra  Credit Hours: (3+1) 4  Teaching Methodology: (1). 3 hrs Lecturers (2). 3 hrs Labs  Lecturers: (i). 2 hrs and (ii) 1 hrs

Cont……
 


  

Marks Distribution: (i). Mid Term: 25% (ii). Labs / Assignments : 10% (iii). Quizzes : 10% (vi). Project : 15% (v). Final Exam: 40%

Course Contents
         

Chapter 1 : Introduction to Java Programming Chapter 2: Elementary Programming Chapter 3: Selections Statement Chapter 4: Loops Chapter 5: Methods Chapter 6: Arrays Chapter 7: Object and Classes Chapter 8: Strings and Text I/O Chapter 9: Thinking in Objects Chapter 10: Inheritance and Polymorphism

Deitel  (ii).com/group/ee112_oop  .M. by David H Friedel  Group: http://groups. Java programming language handbook 1 & 2. H. Deitel and P. Java Programming Complete Reference  (iii).google.J. by Y. Daniel Liang (Soft Copy Available for Students)  Reference Books:  (i) Java How to Program 6th Edition.Text and Reference Books Text Book: Introduction to Java Programming 6th Edition.

 To distinguish the terms API.6).  To know Java’s advantages (§1.11).8). and run Java programs (§1. compile.7).  To understand the relationship between Java and the World Wide Web (§1. Objectives .12).  5 Chapter I: Introduction to Java Prog. and JDK (§1.Introduction to Computer Programming languages. IDE.  To know the basic syntax of a Java program (§1.  To display output on the console and on the dialog box (§1.  To write a simple Java program (§1.10).  To understand the Java runtime environment (§1.9).10).  To create.

6 . a computer is an empty machine. known as software. are instructions to the computer. Computers do not understand human languages.   Programs are written using programming languages. so you need to use computer languages to communicate with them.Programs Computer programs.  Without programs.

you might write an instruction in binary like this: 1101101010011010 7 . so you have to enter binary codes for various instructions. to add two numbers. Moreover the programs are highly difficult to read and modify.Programming Languages Machine Language Assembly Language High-Level Language Machine language is a set of primitive instructions built into every computer. For example. The instructions are in the form of binary code. Program with native machine language is a tedious process.

a program called assembler is used to convert assembly language programs into machine code. you might write an instruction in assembly code like this: ADDF3 R1. to add two numbers. R2. however. Since the computer cannot understand assembly language.Programming Languages Machine Language Assembly Language High-Level Language Assembly languages were developed to make programming easy. R2. R3 … Machine Code File Assembler … 1101101010011010 … 8 . For example. R3 Assembly Source File … ADDF3 R1.

1415. For example.Programming Languages Machine Language Assembly Language High-Level Language The high-level languages are English-like and easy to learn and program. the following is a high-level language statement that computes the area of a circle with radius 5: area = 5 * 5 * 3. 9 .

based on C) Java (We use it in the book) 10 .Popular High-Level Languages COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) BASIC (Beginner All-purpose Symbolic Instructional Code) Pascal (named for Blaise Pascal) Ada (named for Ada Lovelace) C (whose developer designed B first) Visual Basic (Basic-like visual language developed by Microsoft) Delphi (Pascal-like visual language developed by Borland) C++ (an object-oriented language.

Compiling Source Code A program written in a high-level language is called a source program. The object program is often then linked with other supporting library code before the object can be executed on the machine. Since a computer cannot understand a source program. Program called a compiler is used to translate the source program into a machine language program called an object program. Source File Compiler Object File Linker Excutable File 11 .

5. Nowadays computers are networked to work together. Java was designed to run object programs on any platform. and compile the source program into a special type of object code. The source program must be recompiled.Compiling Java Source Code You can port a source program to any machine with appropriate compilers. you write the program once. as shown in Figure 1. Java Bytecode Java Virtual Machine Any Computer 12 . because the object program can only run on a specific machine. The bytecode can then run on any computer with a Java Virtual Machine. however. Java Virtual Machine is a software that interprets Java bytecode. known as bytecode. With Java.

private.Object Oriented Programming (OOP) OOP is a programming language model organized around :  Object (State & behavior)  Class (blueprint or prototype)  Inheritance (inherit state and behavior)  Method (an action)  data hiding ( pubic. protect)  interface ( communication Java API)  Package ( a namespaces for org classes) .

Java – Java – Originally for intelligent consumer-electronic devices – Then used for creating Web pages with dynamic content  Now also used to:  Develop large-scale enterprise applications  Enhance WWW server functionality  Provide applications for consumer devices (cell phones.) . etc.

Java’s History  James  Oak  Java.com/features/1998/05/birthday.html 15 . 1995. Sun World  HotJava – The first Java-enabled Web browser  Early History Website: http://java. Gosling and Sun Microsystems May 20.sun.

and small hand-held devices. 16 . The future of computing is being profoundly influenced by the Internet. desktop computers.Why Java? The answer is that Java enables users to develop and deploy applications on the Internet for servers. Java Java is a general purpose programming language. and Java promises to remain a big part of that future. is the Internet programming language.

and Beyond  Java can be used to develop Web applications. Web.Java.  Java Applets  Java Servlets and Java Server Pages  Java can also be used to develop applications for hand-held devices such as Palm and cell phones (J2ME) 17 .

Examples of Java’s Versatility Standalone Application: TicTacToe Applet: TicTacToe SelfTest Web site Computing: Cell phones Servlets: Mobile 18 .

TicTacToe Standalone 19 .

TicTacToe Applet 20 .

SelfTest Website (using Java Servlets) 21 .

PDA and Cell Phone 22 .

armstrong.Optional Characteristics of Java Java Is Simple  Java Is Object-Oriented  Java Is Distributed  Java Is Interpreted  Java Is Robust  Java Is Secure  Java Is Architecture-Neutral  Java Is Portable  Java's Performance  Java Is Multithreaded  Java Is Dynamic  www.cs.edu/liang/intro6e/JavaCharacteristics.pdf 23 .

but greatly Java Is Simple simplified and improved. Some people refer to Java Is Object-Oriented Java as "C++--" because it is like C++ but with more functionality and fewer negative Java Is Distributed aspects. Java Is Interpreted Java Is Robust Java Is Secure Java Is Architecture-Neutral Java Is Portable Java's Performance Java Is Multithreaded Java Is Dynamic 24 .Optional Characteristics of Java            Java is partially modeled on C++.

Objectoriented programming provides great flexibility. and reusability through encapsulation. Although many object-oriented languages began strictly as procedural languages. clarity. inheritance. and polymorphism.Optional Characteristics of Java Java is inherently object-oriented. Java was designed from the start to be object-oriented. modularity. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a popular programming approach that is replacing traditional procedural programming techniques. One of the central issues in software development is how to reuse code.            Java Is Simple Java Is Object-Oriented Java Is Distributed Java Is Interpreted Java Is Robust Java Is Secure Java Is Architecture-Neutral Java Is Portable Java's Performance Java Is Multithreaded Java Is Dynamic 25 .

writing network programs is like sending and receiving data to and from a file. Java is designed to make distributed computing easy.            Java Is Simple Java Is Object-Oriented Java Is Distributed Java Is Interpreted Java Is Robust Java Is Secure Java Is Architecture-Neutral Java Is Portable Java's Performance Java Is Multithreaded Java Is Dynamic 26 . Since networking capability is inherently integrated into Java.Optional Characteristics of Java Distributed computing involves several computers working together on a network.

The programs are compiled into the Java Virtual Machine code called bytecode.            Java Is Simple Java Is Object-Oriented Java Is Distributed Java Is Interpreted Java Is Robust Java Is Secure Java Is Architecture-Neutral Java Is Portable Java's Performance Java Is Multithreaded Java Is Dynamic 27 . The bytecode is machineindependent and can run on any machine that has a Java interpreter. which is part of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM).Optional Characteristics of Java You need an interpreter to run Java programs.

Optional Characteristics of Java Java compilers can detect many problems that would first show up at execution time in other languages.            Java Is Simple Java Is Object-Oriented Java Is Distributed Java Is Interpreted Java Is Robust Java Is Secure Java Is Architecture-Neutral Java Is Portable Java's Performance Java Is Multithreaded Java Is Dynamic Java has a runtime exception-handling feature to provide programming support for robustness. Java has eliminated certain types of errorprone programming constructs found in other languages. 28 .

Optional Characteristics of Java            Java Is Simple Java Is Object-Oriented Java Is Distributed Java Is Interpreted Java implements several security Java Is Robust mechanisms to protect your system against harm caused by stray programs. Java Is Secure Java Is Architecture-Neutral Java Is Portable Java's Performance Java Is Multithreaded Java Is Dynamic 29 .

Optional Characteristics of Java            Java Is Simple Java Is Object-Oriented Java Is Distributed Java Is Interpreted Java Is Robust Java Is Secure Java Is Architecture-Neutral Java Is Portable Java's Performance Java Is Multithreaded Java Is Dynamic Write once. 30 . run anywhere With a Java Virtual Machine (JVM). you can write one program that will run on any platform.

Optional Characteristics of Java            Java Is Simple Java Is Object-Oriented Java Is Distributed Java Is Interpreted Java Is Robust Java Is Secure Java Is Architecture-Neutral Because Java is architecture neutral. Java Is Dynamic 31 . Java Is Portable Java programs are portable. They can Java's Performance be run on any platform without being Java Is Multithreaded recompiled.

They can be run on any Java Is Multithreaded platform without being recompiled.Optional Characteristics of Java            Java Is Simple Java Is Object-Oriented Java Is Distributed Java Is Interpreted Java Is Robust Java Is Secure Java Is Architecture-Neutral Java’s performance Because Java is Java Is Portable architecture neutral. Java Is Dynamic 32 . Java programs are Java's Performance portable.

33 . whereas in other languages you have to call procedures Java Is Dynamic specific to the operating system to enable multithreading.Optional Characteristics of Java            Java Is Simple Java Is Object-Oriented Java Is Distributed Java Is Interpreted Java Is Robust Java Is Secure Java Is Architecture-Neutral Java Is Portable Java's Performance Multithread programming is smoothly Java Is Multithreaded integrated in Java.

There is no need for developers to create. Java Is Dynamic major new software versions. New code can be loaded on the Java Is Multithreaded fly without recompilation. and for users to install. 34 .Optional Characteristics of Java            Java Is Simple Java Is Object-Oriented Java Is Distributed Java Is Interpreted Java Is Robust Java Is Secure Java Is Architecture-Neutral Java Is Portable Java was designed to adapt to an evolving Java's Performance environment. New features can be incorporated transparently as needed.

k. JDK 5 or Java 5 35 .4 (2002)  JDK 1.2 (1998)  JDK 1.1 (1996)  JDK 1.3 (2000)  JDK 1. a.5 (2004) a.JDK Versions  JDK 1.02 (1995)  JDK 1.

– J2ME can be used to develop applications for mobile devices such as cell phones.JDK Editions  Java Standard Edition (J2SE) – J2SE can be used to develop client-side standalone applications or applets. This book uses J2SE to introduce Java programming.  Java Enterprise Edition (J2EE) – J2EE can be used to develop server-side applications such as Java servlets and Java ServerPages. 36 .  Java Micro Edition (J2ME).

Java IDE Tools  Borland JBuilder  NetBeans Open Source by Sun  Sun ONE Studio by Sun MicroSystems  Eclipse Open Source by IBM 37 .

out.g. (1) set c:\Program Files\java\jdk1.A Simple Java Program Listing 1. and (2) install slides from the Instructor Resource Website to a directory (e.. c:\LiangIR) . 38 .0\bin for path.5. } } Source Run IMPORTANT NOTE: To run the program from the Run button.println("Welcome to Java!").1 //This program prints Welcome to Java! public class Welcome { public static void main(String[] args) { System.

type notepad Welcome.java from the DOS prompt. 39 .Creating and Editing Using NotePad To use NotePad.

type write Welcome. 40 .java from the DOS prompt.Creating and Editing Using WordPad To use WordPad.

1.13 Basics of a Typical Java Environment  Java programs normally undergo five phases writes program (and stores program on disk) – Edit  Programmer – Compile  Compiler creates bytecodes from program – Load  Class loader stores bytecodes in memory ensures bytecodes do not violate security requirements – Verify  Verifier – Execute  Interpreter translates bytecodes into machine language 41 .

out..println("Welcome to Java!"). java Welcome Result If runtime errors or incorrect result 42 .String[]) 0 getstatic #2 … 3 ldc #3 <String "Welcome to Java!"> 5 invokevirtual #4 … 8 return Bytecode Run Byteode i.e. } } Source Code Byte code (generated by the compiler for JVM to read and interpret.lang. javac Welcome. not for you to understand) Compile Source Code i.Creating. Compiling. and Running Programs Create/Modify Source Code Source code (developed by the programmer) Saved on the disk public class Welcome { public static void main(String[] args) { System.e.java If compilation errors stored on the disk … Method Welcome() 0 aload_0 … Method void main(java..

animation Trace a Program Execution Enter main method //This program prints Welcome to Java! public class Welcome { public static void main(String[] args) { System.println("Welcome to Java!"). } } 43 .out.

out.println("Welcome to Java!").animation Trace a Program Execution Execute statement //This program prints Welcome to Java! public class Welcome { public static void main(String[] args) { System. } } 44 .

} } print a message to the console 45 .out.animation Trace a Program Execution //This program prints Welcome to Java! public class Welcome { public static void main(String[] args) { System.println("Welcome to Java!").

cs.armstrong.Supplements on the Companion Website  See Supplement A for installing and configuring JDK 1.com/liang Direct link at www.5  See Supplement B for compiling and running Java from the command window for details www.edu/liang/intro5e.html 46 .prenhall.

0\bin – set classpath=.  Compile – javac Welcome.5.Compiling and Running Java from the Command Window  Set  Set path to JDK bin directory classpath to include the current directory – set path=c:\Program Files\java\jdk1.java  Run – java Welcome 47 .

TextPad Optional Compiling and Running Java from TextPad Supplement B on the Website for details  See 48 .

JBuilder Optional Compiling and Running Java from JBuilder Supplement H on the Website for details  See 49 .

NetBeans Optional Compiling and Running Java from NetBeans Supplement I on the Website for details  See 50 .

Anatomy of a Java Program  Comments  Package  Reserved  Modifiers words  Statements  Blocks  Classes  Methods  The main method 51 .

comments are preceded by two slashes (//) in a line. When the compiler sees //. When it sees /*. it scans for the next */ and ignores any text between /* and */. it ignores all text after // in the same line.Comments In Java. 52 . or enclosed between /* and */ in one or multiple lines.

) specifies a package name. chapter1. and stores Welcome. 53 .class in the chapter1 folder. for the class Welcome. generates Welcome.class.java.Package The second line in the program (package chapter1. Forte compiles the source code in Welcome.

and void. it understands that the word after class is the name for the class. Other reserved words in Listing 1. when the compiler sees the word class.1 are public. Their use will be introduced later in the book. For example.Reserved Words Reserved words or keywords are words that have a specific meaning to the compiler and cannot be used for other purposes in the program. static. 54 .

method.” 55 . “Objects and Classes. A private datum or method cannot be accessed by other programs. A public datum. Examples of modifiers are public and static. methods. and protected. abstract. final. and classes and how they can be used. Modifiers are discussed in Chapter 6. Other modifiers are private.Modifiers Java uses certain reserved words called modifiers that specify the properties of the data. or class can be accessed by other programs.

). The statement System.println("Welcome to Java!") in the program in Listing 1.1 is a statement to display the greeting "Welcome to Java!" Every statement in Java ends with a semicolon (. 56 .Statements A statement represents an action or a sequence of actions.out.

Blocks A pair of braces in a program forms a block that groups components of a program. public class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { System.out. } } Class block Method block 57 .println("Welcome to Java!").

Classes
The class is the essential Java construct. A class is a template or blueprint for objects. To program in Java, you must understand classes and be able to write and use them. The mystery of the class will continue to be unveiled throughout this book. For now, though, understand that a program is defined by using one or more classes.

58

Methods
What is System.out.println? It is a method: a collection of statements that performs a sequence of operations to display a message on the console. It can be used even without fully understanding the details of how it works. It is used by invoking a statement with a string argument. The string argument is enclosed within parentheses. In this case, the argument is "Welcome to Java!" You can call the same println method with a different argument to print a different message.
59

main Method
The main method provides the control of program flow. The Java interpreter executes the application by invoking the main method. The main method looks like this: public static void main(String[] args) { // Statements; }
60

61 .g.0\bin for path. JOptionPane is one of the many predefined classes in the Java system.5.” Source Run IMPORTANT NOTE: To run the program from the Run button. which can be reused rather than “reinventing the wheel.Displaying Text in a Message Dialog Box you can use the showMessageDialog method in the JOptionPane class.. and (2) install slides from the Instructor Resource Website to a directory (e. c:\LiangIR) . (1) set c:\jdk1.

“Display Message".The showMessageDialog Method JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null. "Welcome to Java!". 62 . JOptionPane.INFORMATION_MESSAGE)).

where x is a string for the text to be displayed. y.INFORMATION_MESSAGE)). The other is to use a statement like this: JOptionPane. JOptionPane. One is to use a statement as shown in the example: JOptionPane. 63 . all you need to know are two ways to invoke it.showMessageDialog(null.Two Ways to Invoke the Method There are several ways to use the showMessageDialog method. and y is a string for the title of the message dialog box. For the time being.showMessageDialog(null. where x is a string for the text to be displayed. x. x).

you have to invoke System. it is not necessary. Since JDK 1. 64 .5.5.exit() to terminate the program if the program uses JOptionPane dialog boxes.The exit Method Prior to JDK 1.

JBuilder Optional JBuilder IDE Interface file tab content pane (showing the editor) main menu main toolbar project toolbar project pane structure pane message pane execution status bar status bar file viewer tab Resize editor font 65 .

If the directory does not exist. which is nonessential for the project. You may optionally choose an existing project as template.any descriptive of your choice Choose File. You may optionally check this box to let the wizard generate a project description file. 66 .JBuilder Optional Creating a JBuilder project Enter a project name -. This is an HTML file. All the files in the book are stored in c:\book. New Project to display the project wizard book C:\book C:\book Enter a directory name where your project will be stored. the wizard can create it automatically.

67 . it has the same name as the project file. The backup path is where the backup files are stored. The source directory is where the source files created using JBuilder’s wizards are stored. working directory. I recommend new JBuilder users to choose the project path as the output path. Any directory may be configured as the working directory. However. I recommend new JBuilder users to choose the project path as the output path. Creating projects incorrectly is a common problem for new JBuilder users. There are many ways to set paths. cont. backup path. Set output path. The working directory is the starting directory that JBuilder gives a program when it is launched.JBuilder Optional Creating a JBuilder project. You can choose any directory as output path. I recommend you to follow the instructions from your instructor to set these paths. By default. and source path. I recommend you to enter outpath/bak. and can lead to frustrating mistakes.

cont. Optional project description 68 .JBuilder Optional Creating a JBuilder project.

g.JBuilder Optional Creating a Java Program Choose File. New Class to display the class wizard Enter the class name. This is the default. Check these two boxes 69 . All the examples in Introduction to Java Programming. So leave this blank. e. Leave it as it is. Leave these boxes unchecked.. 5E do not use the package statement. Welcome.

3.$:550203984390425.3/ . .8  5703.3/3/4147/09.343 0-890 $00$:5502039147389.422.174290.4253.42.431:73  $00$:5502039147...3/7:333 .

3 70.8 ..9  .93.7289743 0/:.

3..

39740 92  .

.9 4250 .0. #:3 ..885...947 809.9943.3/3/4 $095.. 174290422..947 8095.208..420  .885.3/#:333.994-3/70...!747.0.9..420 .../  -3 $09.4253.:77039/70..:/090.

 4253.8  ./ $00$:550203943900-890147/09./ 5943. 1742%09!.3/#:333.%09!...

 4253.:/07 5943.3/#:333.. 1742:/07 $00$:550203943900-890147/09.8  ..

8  .3/#:333..090..38 5943.38 $00$:550203943900-890147/09. 4253. 1742090.

0/47/8 4/1078 $9.0 #0807.8 .2 4220398 !.9020398 4.3..32094/  ...8808 094/8 %02.!747.94241...

..0/0/-948..808 .70570.4220398 3.4220398.

.

 30 4703.480/-09003. 3.

3/ . .

425078008.3430472:950 308 0390.

.

909. 934708.1907.

.

2030 0398008. 3908.

98.3814790309 ..

3909-09003. .3/34708.

.3/ .

  .

2 5.43/303905747.5907 14790.0...420 4790.590714/07   .3/894708 0.....0 %080.88 0..108...5907  850.4/03 0..0...20 .425089084:7.420 .9080..5.420 . 0307..420 .88 .!.88390.03.

0.339490. 89.3/89.3/.0/47/847047/8.88  90770807.3/.7047/89.1907.0/..42507.705:-.9. 850.1.888903.3349-0:80/147 49075:7548083905747.4/ %07:80 -03974/:.88 9:3/0789.99047/ .20. .2014790...0/47/8 3893 ..9.2 470.0/47/8 #0807.4250780089047/.907390-44  ..250 0390 .#0807.

9..28 4/1078.8808   .3-0.079..250841 24/1078.90 13.3/89.9:2472094/.:808..3/490./.3/.4/1078 .3/ .0880/- 49075747.8808.:880/3.3/57490..5907  -0..  90724/1078.. 2094/8 ..1905745079084190/.9:2  2094/ 47..90/ 5:-....3349-0.0/24/10789.. ..9 850.70/8..70 57..0880/-49075747.9 .90/.0/47/8.98..28  57.370807.-897.9.88.705:-.3-0:80/ .

443   .902039$8902 4:9 57393 0.23893 8.90203994 /85.42094 .42094.94347.3.9020397057080398.90700930.041 .9020398 89.. 3905747.806:03...9438 %089...89...03/89..$9..802.902039 3.0789.

..-4. 094/-4.5747.78  $8902 4:9 57393 0.2 5:-...083.42543039841.4. < < .9.8 5.974:58 .42094.5747.89.3 $973(..88%089 5:-.4/2.741-7.  .214728.9.88-4..

.  4:2:89:3/0789..4393:094-0 :3.9 .88890088039....5747.43897:.28/0130/-:8343047 2470.3/9.3/-0.9047-:057391474-0.9.23.3/...8808   ..-094790..88.3/:80 902 %0289074190.. 9025.8808 %0..98 %45747..888.00/974:4:998-44 4734 94:  :3/0789.8808.

7:2039803.84149478 98:80/-3.70390808 398 .943894/85.7:2039945739.3/3 90/09.7:203980.80 90...3 ./11070392088.806:03.094/8 .3-0:80/0.42094.98$8902 4:9 5739398.43840  9.908.7:2039 %08973 .90203989.2094/.04390.43 ...9434189.40.8973.89./1107039 ..480/935.0394:91::3/0789.950714728.2088.4:.0 414507.20573932094/9. ..9020399..0   .

..3 $973(.9.89...43974415747.943-3.3094/ %02.214  %0.390757090700./0890.32094/  %02.4/2.32094/448098 5:-.43 902.78  .:90890.2.55.32094/574.

.

$9.9020398 <  .

/  -31475.85... 8/081742903897:.30..947 0  .3 703.9 ..0..3-0 70:80/7.0 .947#084:7.. /70.3#    ..3:809084088.44 4:.2174290#:3 -:9943   809.88902 .3/  389.9079.8808390.88  5943!.3 570/0130/..30843041902.00-89094.088.03939000  $4:7.42094/390  5943!.0 #:3 ! #%% %%47:3905747.3%093.

0.30  #% *$$   .0.088.%084088.4094/  5943!.30 84088.. 85.42094.0   5943!..4 3:  0.

3/8 .%4.4090094/ %070.07.30  #% *$$  0708.0/  .409 30894:80.30 84088.894:809084088.88433900.70 94.4-4 %04907894:80.4 3:     5943!.8943.0.89731479090994-0/85.89.4 2094/ 4790920-03 .89731479099041902088.89731479090994-0/85.4 3:   0708.8943.902039.89.0..30 84088.0.4:300/9434.0/ .902039098  5943!.7080.0/.250  5943!.

.40 $8902 09 9490723.2:808 5943!.088.30/.90905747.4-408 $3.0943.2190 5747.7  .0   9834930.%009094/ !74794  4:.

4390395.95.30 2088..3944-.9944-. :/0739071.9:8-.30 843900/947 2.7 10.:94389.:/07 5943.9:8-.30 897:..05.7 89.#0800/9471439  .7 5740.3203: 2.0 109.0079.7 5740.30 00.9:705.

4.5740.93.9 94/85.70 89470/3.70.9.93.9473.20 .909 .45943.7/ .3 /08. .9 3907.:/075740.20 0704:75740.9/08.98-49409 90.9 4:2..9.7/ -44 -44 -44 3907.4480.0414:7. 90 108390-44.3. 70.89025.905740.45943.3% 10 .-44 4:2.90.14790 5740./70.7/0307.9 -089470/ 190/70. 5740.759. .:942.947 /408349089 90.0 44800 0!740.8 343088039.9.90   ..75943 10 %88.0.30893 5740.:/07 5943.

3.93.9 .08 4:../9417:897.:55.3 0...98.:/07 5943.894 8095.42203/4:94144903897:.42203/ 4:94039074:95.943817424:73897:.9 -.3/84:7..3/.9  40.07 70.9 %0-...42203/ 30:/07:807894 .3.3 /70.4480905740.98 70.9 .98 07090-.42243574-0214730:/07:8078 .:5108 .:55.4480.:/075740.702.935740.8904:95:95. 70.93289.05.95.439 $094:95:95.84:95:95.947948099080 5.98 70.9 %070.7089470/ 70.4770.947 .947.9 473/70.983.9.

-.9478 0709084:7.08.431:70/ .:9 9.203.8908.0/ 3 /70.:3.0/70.5747. %0473/70.9.90/:83:/07 8 .0108 .42203/30:/07 :807894.9479.8905740.9  .9 5.4480905740.9 :/07.7089470/  70.793/70.70.9472.-0.20 .947  /01.910 %084:7.8904:95:95.2 0398.7/8.947890 89.890473/70.

439 5943. 70.9/08.5740.75943  .:/07 5943.:/075740.9 .93.

.09080-408 :3.098 -.!747.09.908094-408  ..94394.420 900..883.88 94/85.223 /4 349:80905.88..25083 3974/:.:9  0.0/ 0. 70.93..2 44800 0.20  0  0..0 89..7/ 390790...0..3 %8890/01...90.:/07 5943.898 0. !747.902039 $40.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful