BIONIC MATERIALS

What are bionics?
• Bionics (also known as biomimicry, biomimetics, bio-inspiration, biognosis, and close to bionical creativity engineering) is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology

History
• The name biomimetics was coined by Otto Schmitt in the 1950s. The term bionics was coined by Jack E. Steele in 1958 while working at the Aeronautics Division House at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio.

Methods for making bionic materials We can distinguish three biological levels in the fauna or flora. such as the flocking behaviour of birds. optimization of ant foraging and bee foraging. and the swarm intelligence (SI)-based behaviour of a school of fish. . • Studying organizational principles from the social behaviour of organisms. after which technology can be modeled: • Mimicking natural methods of manufacture • Imitating mechanisms found in nature.

• • • • • • .Examples of bionic materials There are many examples of bionic materials such as: Velcro Cat’s eye reflector Resilin Some paints and roof tiles Bionic legs and eyes Fibres harvesting water from fog etc.

1) Bionic development of textile materials for harvesting water from fog. . The development of functional products for the procurement of drinking water from fog without energy supply is the aim of this project at the Institute of Textile Technology and Process Engineering (ITV) Denkendorf.

.Biological models used in this project Two biological systems acted as the model for the development works at ITV: • the marram grass Stipagrostis subulicola and • the Namib Desert beetle – both being natural survivalists in the Namib Desert.

The roots of the marram grass are in a maximum depth of 20 cm. however spreading over a length of 20 m forming a carpet that absorbs the water dripping from the leaves – before completely seeping away in the ground. by means of a sophisticated interaction of its roots and leaves.Harvesting water by marram grass • The Stipagrostis subulicola plant uses the water droplets. . that are dispersed in the air. they.

As morning fog sweeps across the desert floor. The peak of each bump is smooth and attracts water. • Stenocara offers a good model for designing inexpensive tent covering that could collect water. water sticks to the peak of Stenocara’s bump eventually foming droplets. .Harvesting of water by beetle’s shell • Its surface has armor like shell that is covered with bumps.

Namib desert beetle .

dust and blockades of fabric itself. • Should have self cleaning properties to be protected against dirt.Demands to textile fibre • Textile should have separation efficiency for air transported water aerosols. • Should have maximum weathering and ultra violet resistance. • Must show favorable tear strength and air permeability. .

• The production and maintenance costs for the textile fabric and the overall system should be as low as possible. • The design should be simple and easy to handle. • All the material surfaces that get into contact with water must be compatible with food as separated water is used in drinking and cooking. .

Trials performed in labs On the basis of desired characterstics various tests were conducted on various textile material. . • test items were exposed to a shower of aerosols by a cold fog equipment with a droplet diameter from 10-100 μm • Smoke screen and inflow were realized on the basis of a reliable processing technology in order to get reproducible results.

Field trials at desert station Namib Desert .

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and 3-D design polyester. • The analysed test items included fabric meshed polythene. and surface energy or air permeability on separation efficiency was determined. . filament and fiber diameter. design.Results By using marram grass as biological model: • The influence of textile-physical parameters such as polymer material.

By using beetle’s shell as biological model: • Net harvesting done by using polypropylene meshes stretched between two poles. .

. Namib Desert/Namibia – under conditions of longterm field trials .water separated: 660730ml\mm2.Practice tests of these fabrics The textile variants with optimum water separation rates are currently tested at the desert research station Gobabeb. • 3-D polyester. • Meshed fabris polythene and polyproplenewater separated : 300ml\mm2.

which are flexible and mobile. . new collector systems are in development. Based on the solar function of polar bear fur and skin.2)Flexible and translucent thermal insulation for solar thermal application • Solar thermal collectors used at present consist of rigid and heavy materials. which are the reasons for their immobility • . • The developed transparent heat insulation material consists of a spacer textile based on translucent polymer fibres coated with transparent silicone rubber.

Development of translucent thermal insulation • A living example for such a flexible solar material is the fur and skin of the polar bear. the thermal insulation of the system as well as the low heat radiation emission were of great interest for technical development. which has to survive in the arctic cold at -50 degree celsius. . The physical functions of transferring solar radiation from the outside to the absorber.

the IR (heat) radiation from the body is reflected by the skin and hairs in order to avoid heat loss. the heat is not able to be lost by convection. which has the function of an absorber. Furthermore. Owing to the fat layer as well as the fur with the heat insulation property. .Solar thermal functions of polar bear fur • The sun’s radiation is transferred through the air holding sheet (yellowish fur) to the black skin.

translucent coating spacer textile with open structure (monofilaments) coating (translucent or black coated) Construction of a spacer textile composite for solar thermal energy harvesting .Development of a translucent thermal insulation Pile fabric with light-conductive fibres.

and • dirt resistance by a special coating. • open textile structure for a high light transfer. • strongly reduced heat loss by convection. • translucence for incident light of the visible spectrum and impermeability for short-wave UV radiation. • heat loss reduction of long-wave (thermal) radiation by a suitable coating. .Characteristics of developed solar textile • high translucent and/or black pigmented silicone coating.

• high light transmission.e. arched structures are feasible. • flexibility. tear proof. and • low thermal transition coefficient (U-value). i. elastic). and in addition in respect of • high mechanical stability (unbreakable. . • deep draw ability within certain limits.Advantages of such translucent thermal insulation • low weight. • high thermal stability (approx. up to 110–160 degree Celsius). and • chemical resistance.

Potential application areas Half-spherical collector with flexible textile transparent thermal insulation Solarenergie Stefanakis. .

electric motor and battery technology to give it bionic capabilities ( myoelectric prosthetic limb) . • Primitive form. Fort Flowers Professor of Mechanical Engineering.iron. sensor. directed by Michael Goldfarb.3) Bionic leg. leather socket with steel frame • Now the device uses the latest advances in computer. the H.gives amputees a more natural walk • The bionic leg is the result of a seven-year research effort at the Vanderbilt Center for Intelligent Mechatronics.

The manufacturing process • • • • Steps involved in manufacturing bionic leg: Measurement of the stump Measurement of the body to determine the size required for the artificial limb Fitting of a silicone liner Creation of a model of the liner worn over the stump .

including vacuum forming and injection molding • Creation of metal parts of the artificial limb using die casting • Assembly of entire limb .• Formation of thermoplastic sheet around the model – This is then used to test the fit of the prosthetic • Formation of permanent socket • Formation of plastic parts of the artificial limb – Different methods are used.

Materials used for manufacturing cosmetis prosthesis • • • • • • • Polypropylene Polyethylene Acrylics Polyurethane Carbon fibre reinforced polymer PVC Silicone .

Bionic leg .

.Latest advancement • Robotic prosthesis or myoelectric prosthesis: several components have to be integrated it into the body's functionsBiosensors Controller Actuator Quality control measures are also taken in account to check the strength and durability of the material.

References – ^ "A Brief Review of the History of Amputations and Prostheses Earl E.edu/engines/epi1705.. November/December 2007.D. JACPOC 1976 Vol 15.inist.fr.htm – ^ "Bronze single crown-like prosthetic restorations of teeth from the Late Roman period = Des restaurations par prothèses identiques à des couronnes en simple bronze de dents pendant la fin de la période romaine". Retrieved 2009-11-03. – ^ http://www. Geore. Cat. ''A Short History of the Canadian People''". – ^ "Bryce. Vanderwerker.org. . Archive. Retrieved 2009-11-03. – ^ "A Brief History of Prosthetics". M. – ^ "The Iron Hand of the Goetz von Berlichingen". Jr.com. inMotion: A Brief History of Prosthetics. Karlofgermany. Retrieved 23 November 2010. Retrieved 2009-11-03. Num 5".uh.

"Titanium and Sensors Replace Ahab's Peg Leg". The Self-Learning Knee”. Michel (2005-06-20). ^ “History of Prosthetics”. “The New High Tech Prostheses”. Craig W. Freedominnovations.com. In Motion Magazine 9 (3) ^ ac Martin. . Retrieved 16 March 2008. WCB Evidence Based Group ^ "Retrieved 14 April 2009". Retrieved 2010-10-03. Retrieved 16 March 2008. (November 2003) “Otto Bock Cleg: A review of its effectiveness”. Ltd. Retrieved 2008-10-30. Blatchford & Sons. ^ ab Pike. DAW Industries. New York Times.– – – – – – Retrieved 23 November 2010. ^Marriott. ^ “The SLK. Alvin (May/June 1999).

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