Chapter One

The Nature and Importance of Leadership

The Meaning of Leadership
• Leadership is the ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals

Leadership Defined • Interpersonal influence directed through communication toward goal attainment • An act that causes others to act or respond in a shared direction • The principle dynamic force that motivates and coordinates the organization in the accomplishment of its objectives • A willingness to take blame (as defined by legendary football quarterback Joe Montana) .

where the leader and the group members are connected in such a way that the power between them is balanced . or partnership.Leadership as a Partnership Leadership is regarded as a long-term relationship.

Four Things Are Needed • Exchange of purpose • A right to say no • Joint accountability • Absolute honesty .

and controlling .Management • Management is more formal and scientific than leadership • Management relies on universal skills • Management is a set of explicit tools and techniques • Management is based on reasoning and testing • Management involves the functional or administrative aspects of planning. directing. organizing.

Leadership • Leadership deals with the interpersonal aspects of a manager’s job • Leadership involves having a vision of what an organization can become • Leadership requires eliciting cooperation and teamwork • Leadership produces change. often to a dramatic degree • A leader creates a vision to direct the organization .

Leader Visionary Passionate Creative Flexible Inspiring Innovative Courageous Imaginative Experimental Independent Shares Knowledge Manager Rational Consulting Persistent Problem solving Tough-minded Analytical Structured Deliberative Authoritative Stabilizing Centralizes knowledge .

positively related to performance – in an uncertain environment.Leadership Matters • The results of one study showed – transactional leadership was not significantly related to performance – charismatic leadership was slightly. charismatic leadership was more strongly related to performance .


The Impact of Leadership • Leadership does make a difference – – – – Research from Michael Maccoby Southwest Airlines Studies of senior managers Attribution theory – the process of attributing causality to events .

The Impact of Leadership • Formal leadership does not make a difference – Leadership has a smaller impact on outcomes than do forces in the situation – There are three major arguments against the importance of leadership • substitutes for leadership • leadership irrelevance • complexity theory .

Substitutes for Leadership • Closely knit teams of highly trained individuals • Intrinsic satisfaction • Computer technology • Professional norms Substitutes for leadership and leadership function .

Leader Irrelevance • Factors outside the leader’s control have a larger impact on business than do leadership actions • Leaders have unilateral control over a only a few resources • Firms choose leaders whose values are compatible with those of the firm .

Complexity Theory • Holds that organizations are complex systems that cannot be explained by the usual rules of nature • Leaders and managers can do little to change the course of the system • Managers cannot predict which business strategies or product mixes will survive • Managers can only scramble or innovate in order to adapt to outside forces .

Leadership Roles Research has identified nine roles that can be classified as part of the leadership function of management: Figurehead Spokesperson Negotiator Entrepreneur Technical Problem Solver Team Builder Team Player Coach Strategic Planner .

Satisfactions of Leaders • A feeling of power and prestige • A chance to help others grow and develop • High income • Respect and status • A feeling of “being in on” things • An opportunity to control money and other resources .

Dissatisfactions and Frustrations of Leaders • • • • • Too much uncompensated overtime Too many “headaches” Not enough authority Loneliness Too many problems involving people • Too much organizational politics • The pursuit of conflicting goals .

group members. s) • The formula shows that the leadership process is a function of the leader.A Framework for Understanding Leadership • The leadership framework can be expressed in terms of a simple formula: L = f (l. gm. and other situational variables .

Inc. .J. © 1997 Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall.SOURCE: Managing Today! by Stephen P.. N. Upper Saddle River. Robbins.

Leadership Effectiveness
• Leadership effectiveness refers to attaining desirable outcomes such as productivity, quality, and satisfaction in a given situation • Whether or not the leader is effective depends on four sets of variables

Skill Development in Leadership
• Leadership skills are in high demand • Leadership skills are listed as the top attributes executives are seeking in candidates for management jobs • Developing leadership skills is more complex than developing structured skills and can be acquired, using a general learning model

Essential Qualities of Effective Followers
• • • • Self-management Commitment Competence and focus Courage

and Characteristics of Leaders . Motives.Chapter Two Traits.

that is. they apply in all situations .Universal Theory of Leadership Certain leadership traits are universally important.


Leadership Characteristics Categories • Personality traits • Motives • Cognitive factors .

Personality Traits of Effective Leaders • General personality traits • Task-related personality traits .

Strengths and Limitations of the Trait Approach STRENGHTS • Leaders possess personal characteristics that differ from non leaders. . Do not know how much of a trait is the right amount. LIMITATIONS Does not tell us which traits are needed in which situation. • Concentrate on selecting leaders with certain characteristics.

General personality traits .

General Personality Traits of Effective Leaders .

Task-Related personality traits .

have empathy for others.Emotional Intelligence … refers to the ability to do such things as understand one’s feelings. and regulate one’s emotions to enhance one’s quality of life. .


Leadership Motives .

Cognitive Factors and Leadership .

The WICS Model of Leadership in Organizations This model of leadership encompasses and synthesizes – wisdom – intelligence. and – creativity to explain leadership effectiveness .

The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Leadership • Does heredity or environment contribute more to leadership effectiveness? • Are leaders born or made? • Do you have to have the right stuff to be a leader? .

• Individuals inherit a basic capacity to develop personality traits and mental ability that sets an outer limit on how extensively these traits can be developed • Environmental influences. in turn. determine how much of an individual’s potential will be developed .Nature versus Nurture • Are leaders born or are they made? Both.

Summary • The universal theory of leadership asserts that certain personality traits. leader motives. and cognitive factors contribute to leadership effectiveness • Personality traits include both general traits and task-related traits • Leaders can often be distinguished by their needs or motives .

motives.Summary (cont’d) • Mental ability is important for leadership success • Traits. and characteristics required for leadership are a combination of heredity and environment • Traits do appear to distinguish leaders from nonleaders and effective leaders from lesseffective leaders .

Chapter Three Charismatic and Transformational Leadership .

powers. charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purposes. and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others .Charisma Defined • Charisma has been defined various ways • Charisma is a Greek word meaning “divinely inspired gift” • In leadership.


Charisma: A Relationship Between the Leader and Group Members • Key to charismatic leadership is the interaction between leader and group members • Charismatic qualities must be attributed to the leader by group members • Charismatic leaders use impression management to cultivate their relationships with group members .

The Effects of Charisma • Group members – trust the leader’s beliefs – have beliefs similar to those of the leader – accept the leader unquestioningly – have affection for the leader – willingly obey the leader – identify with and attempt to emulate the leader .

The Effects of Charisma (cont’d) • Group members – have emotional involvement in the mission – have heightened goals – feel that they will be able to accomplish. or to contribute to the accomplishment of the mission .

Halpert’s Dimensions of Charisma .

Types of Charismatic Leaders (cont’d) • Office-holder charismatics attain their charisma from the position they hold • Personal charismatics gain esteem from others’ faith in them as people • Divine charismatics are endowed with a gift of divine grace .

Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders • Visionary • Masterful communication skills • Ability to inspire trust • Able to make group members feel capable • Energy and action orientation • Emotional expressiveness and warmth • Romanticize risk • Unconventional strategies • Self-promoting personality • Dramatic and unique .

long-term goal • Charismatic leaders inspire others with their vision .Vision in Charismatic Leadership • Vision is the ability to imagine different and better conditions and ways to achieve them • A vision is a lofty.

Communication • Management by Inspiration – Using metaphors and analogies to appeal to the intellect. and values of group members – Gearing language to different audiences • Management by Anecdote – Inspiring and instructing team members by telling fascinating stories . imagination.

and energetic Be sensibly persistent Remember names of people Make an impressive appearance Be candid Display an in-your-face attitude . optimistic.Techniques for Developing Charisma • • • • • • • Create visions for others Be enthusiastic.

a person can increase his or her charisma. and behaviors of charismatic people. characteristics.The Development of Charisma Developing some of the traits. such as: • Create visions for others • Be enthusiastic • Being persistent • Remember names of people .

Development of Charisma • Make an Impressive Appearance • Being candid • Display an In-Your-Face Attitude .

.Transformational Leadership • Investing managers with a sense of urgency • Committing to greatness • Adopting a long-range perspective and concurrently observing organizational issues from a broad rather than a narrow perspective.

How Transformations Take Place .

Attributes of Transformational Leaders • Charismatic • Create a vision • Encourage the personal development of their staff • Provide supportive leadership • Practice empowerment • Innovative thinking • Lead by example .

Four qualities of a Transformational Leader • • • • Charismatic Inspirational leadership Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration .

positive changes • Transformational leaders move group members beyond their self-interests for the good of the group. organization. or society .Transformational Leadership • The transformational leader helps bring about major.

Charismatic and Transformational Leadership
• Achieve a comprehensive understanding of the meaning and types of charismatic leaders. • Describe many of the traits and behaviors of charismatic leaders. • Explain the communication style of charismatic leaders.

Concerns About Charismatic Leadership
• According to the concept of leadership polarity, leaders are often either revered or vastly unpopular • Charisma may not be necessary for leadership effectiveness • Charismatic leadership has a dark side • Some charismatic and transformational leaders neglect their social responsibility

• Charisma is a special quality of some leaders that differentiates them from others • Charismatic leaders often contribute to group members’ attributions of their charismatic qualities through impression management • The effects of charismatic leadership can be organized into three dimensions: referent power, expert power, and job involvement

office-holder. personalized. and divine • Charismatic and transformational leaders are able to articulate a vision in such a way as to inspire others • Charisma can be developed • There may be a dark side to charismatic leadership . personal.Summary (cont’d) • There are five types of charismatic leaders: socialized.

Chapter Four Leadership Behaviors. and Styles . Attitudes.

Fleishman  Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire  Identified Two dimensions  Initiating Structure  Consideration .Ohio State University Studies  Edwin A.

warmth. .Consideration  Consideration is the degree to which the leader creates an environment of emotional support. and trust. friendliness.

 The leader creates an environment by: Being friendly and approachable Looking out for the personal welfare of the group Keeping the group abreast of new developments Doing small favors for the group

 Leaders who score high on the

consideration factor are friendly, trustful, earn respect, and have a warm relationship with team members.  Leaders with low scores on the consideration factor typically are authoritarian and impersonal in their relationships with group members.

 Five questionnaire items measuring the

consideration factor are as follows:
Do personal favors for people in the work group. Treat all people in the work group as your equal. Be willing to make changes. Back up what people under you do. Do little things to make it pleasant to be a member of the staff.

 The two dimensions are not mutually exclusive.Initiating Structure & Consideration  An important output of research on initiating structure and consideration is to categorize leaders with respect to how much emphasis they place on the two dimensions.  A leader can achieve high or low status on both dimensions. .

. specifying procedures to be followed.  Activities include assigning specific tasks.Initiating Structure  Initiating structure is the degree to which the leader organizes and defines relationships in the group. scheduling work. and clarifying expectations of team members.

. See to it that people in the work group are working up to capacity. Encourage the slow-working people in the group to work harder. Meet with the group at regularly scheduled times.Initiating Structure  Self-assessment items measuring initiating structure are as follows: Try out your own new ideas in the work group. Emphasize meeting deadlines.

. Define the role that they expect each staff member to assume.  Such leaders also endeavor to establish well-defined channels of communication and ways of getting the job done.Initiating Structure  Leaders who score high on the initiating structure dimension: Define the relationship between themselves and their staff members.

Initiating Structure & Consideration .

High Low Structure High Consideration High Structure High Consideration Low Low Structure Low Consideration High High Structure Low Consideration Low-----------------------------------.High 6 .

University of Michigan Studies  Rensis Likert  Contrasted High & Low Producing Units  Two Key Approaches  Production Centered Leaders  Employee Centered Leaders .

and prescribed the work methods to be followed.  They also closely supervised the work of group members. . organized tasks carefully.Production Centered Leaders  Production-centered leaders set tight work standards.

.  They also helped to ensure high performance by engendering trust and mutual respect.Employee Centered Leaders  Employee-centered leaders encouraged subordinate participation in goal setting and in other work decisions.

 A leader who was responsible for psychologically immature group members would find it necessary to supervise them closely. . they would require less supervision.  If the group members were mature and self-reliant.  Adaptability is a leadership behavior that includes attention to both task and interpersonal factors.  A tactic is chosen based on the unique circumstances at hand.Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors  Adaptability reflects a contingency viewpoint.

 Direction setting is part of creating a vision and strategy. the leader must set the direction of that change. which is a management process designed to produce orderly results rather than change. .  The strategy describes a feasible way of achieving the vision.  Setting the direction goes beyond planning.Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors  Since the function of leadership is to produce change.

almost unconscious way When a managerial leader believes that a group member will succeed. and it works in a subtle.Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors  Effective leaders consistently hold group      members to high standards of performance. when a leader expects a group member to fail. Setting such standards increases productivity. People tend to live up to the expectations set for them by superiors. that person will not disappoint the manager. This is called the Pygmalion effect. . Conversely. the manager communicates this belief without realizing it.

including high quality and customer satisfaction. .An Effective Leader … is one who helps group members attain productivity.


 To bring about constructive change. a bias for action is also an important leadership behavior.Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors  Combined with risk taking. the leader must take risks and be willing to implement these risky decisions. .

 Too much guidance of this nature. group members learn important skills. . at the same time. can be a symptom of poor delegation and micromanagement.Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors  The leader who provides hands-on guidance helps the group accomplish important tasks and. however.

Group members are informed how well they are doing so that they can take corrective action if needed. .  The leader can rarely influence the actions of group members without appropriate performance feedback. Positive feedback serves as a reinforcer that prompts group members to continue favorable activities.Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors  Giving group members frequent feedback on their performance is another vital leadership behavior.  Feedback of this nature has two aspects.

group members are reassured.  Remaining steady under conditions of uncertainty contributes to effectiveness because it helps team members cope with the situation.Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors  Stability of Performance: Effective leaders are steady performers. even under heavy workloads and uncertain conditions.  When the leader remains calm.  Stability is helpful because it helps the managerial leader appear professional and cool under pressure. .

“Why didn't I think of that? It seems so obvious.Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors  A tough question is one that makes a person or group stop and think about why they are doing or not doing something.” .  The beauty of a tough question is that it encourages people to ask themselves.  Group members are forced to think about the effectiveness of their activities.

Task-Related Attitudes & Behaviors  A strong customer orientation is natural in a consumer products business but can be equally important for an industrial company.  This approach helps inspire employees to satisfy customers. clients.  Effective leaders are strongly interested in satisfying the needs of customers. . or constituents.

 To get people pulling together. it is necessary to talk to more people than would be required in organizing. .Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors  Alignment and Mobilization of People  Getting people pulling in the same direction and working together smoothly is more of a communications challenge than a problem of organization design.  Alignment enables people to have a clear sense of direction because they are pursuing a vision.

concert     building. . self-correcting. self-renewing. involves both aligning and mobilizing. His or her goal is to produce a system that is self-evaluating. The work of each must be integrated with the work of others to make up the whole. tasks. and ongoing. and often very difficult. The concert builder functions as an orchestra leader. The system can be thought of as a large modern orchestra.Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors  A new concept of the leader's role. Professionals play quite different instruments and perform separate.

Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors  Inspiration  Based on surveys and focus groups. the Forum Group has identified five inspiring practices: Promoting the development of people's talents Recognizing the contribution of others Enabling others to feel like leaders Stimulating others' thinking Building enthusiasm about projects and assignments  Being inspired is an emotional process that is triggered by a variety of behaviors on the part of a leader. .

.  A strictly managerial rather than leadershipapproach would be to push people in the right direction through control mechanisms. effective leaders motivate people by satisfying higher-level needs.Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors  Satisfaction of Human Needs  To inspire people.  Motivation and inspiration energize people by satisfying needs for achievement. self-esteem. and a feeling of control over one's life.  An example would be suspending people who did not achieve work quotas. recognition. a sense of belonging.

Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors  A major approach to making meaningful work for people is to formulate the right vision and strategy. .  Formulating a vision and strategy helps involve group members in goal accomplishment.  Employees can also find meaning in their work if the leader employs a basic tactic such as explaining how a particular job helps the company or society.

 One of the many work-related ways of encouraging people is to allow them to participate in decision making.Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors  Emotional Support & Encouragement  Supportive behavior toward team members usually increases leadership effectiveness.  A supportive leader gives frequent encouragement and praise. .  Emotional support generally improves morale and sometimes improves productivity.

Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors  Leader's help promote values and principles that contribute to the welfare of individuals and organizations.  These deal directly with the emotions and attitudes of people. who is widely quoted for his uplifting messages.  Steven Covey.  Leaders who believe in these good causes will then espouse principles and values that lead people toward good deeds in the workplace. advises that an organization's mission statement must be for all good causes. and indirectly with the task. .

 Serving others. and community. is the primary motivation for the servant leader. . including employees. not the leader's own goals.  The idea behind servant leadership. Greenleaf. customers. is that leadership derives naturally from a commitment to service.Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors  A servant leader serves constituents by working on their behalf to help them achieve their goals. as formulated by Robert K.

Lend a hand. Place service before self-interest. Focus on what is feasible to accomplish.Relationship-Oriented Attitudes & Behaviors  A servant leader is a moral leader. . Listen first to express confidence in others. Inspire trust by being trustworthy.

 Three hundred and sixty-degree feedback is also referred to as multisource feedback or multirater feedback. a formal evaluation of superiors is based on input from people who work for and with them. .360-Degree Feedback  In 360-degree feedback.  Three hundred and sixty-degree feedback is more frequently used for leadership and management development than for performance evaluation.

360-Degree Feedback .

Leadership Style • The relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leader • Often based on the dimensions of initiating structure and consideration • Examples: “He’s a real command-andcontrol type.” “she’s a consensus leader.” .

Participative Leadership • Participative leaders share decision making with group members (“trickle-up leadership”) • Three subtypes: – Consultative leaders confer with group members – Consensus leaders strive for consensus among group members – Democratic leaders confer final authority to the group .

5) Team Management (9.9) Impoverished Management (1.Leadership Grid Styles • The Leadership Grid is a framework for specifying the extent of a leader’s concern for production and people • Benchmark Leadership Grid styles include: – – – – – Authority-Compliance (9.9) .1) Country Club Management (1.1) Middle-of-the-Road Management (5.

1 pattern Task management Concern for Production 9 (high) .9 pattern Team managementthe ideal style (high) 9 Concern for People 8 7 6 5 5.5 pattern Middle-of-the-road management 4 3 2 1.1 pattern impoverished management 1 (low) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.9 pattern “Country club” environment 9.The Managerial Grid 1.

Entrepreneurial Leadership Characteristics • Strong achievement drive and sensible risktaking • High degrees of enthusiasm and creativity • Tendency to act quickly when opportunity arises • Constant hurry combined with impatience • Visionary perspective .

Entrepreneurial Leadership Characteristics (cont’d) • Dislike of hierarchy and bureaucracy • Preference for dealing with external customers • Eye on the future .

the sexes were perceived the same. . women tended toward a transformational style.Gender Differences in Leadership Style • One researcher concluded that men tended toward a command-and-control style. on the dimension of overall effectiveness. • While researchers found leadership style differences between men and women. In contrast. relying heavily on interpersonal skills.

Chapter Five Contingency and Situational Leadership .

including group member characteristics.Contingency Approach Leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces. .


Fiedler’s Contingency Theory • The best style of leadership is determined by situational factors • Leadership style may be relationshipmotivated or task-motivated • Leadership style is relatively enduring and difficult to change • Leaders should be matched to situations according to their style .

Figure 5-1 Summary of Findings From Fiedler’s Contingency Theory .

Once leaders understand their particular leadership style. task-motivated. or intermediate style (semi-independent). they should work in situations that match their style. .Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness This model holds that the best style of leadership is determined by the situation in which the leader is working. Classifies a manager's leadership style as relationship-motivated.

Self Assessment Quiz 5-1 .Measuring Leadership Style: The Least Preferred Coworker Scale LPC scale measures the degree to which a leader describes favorably or unfavorably their least preferred coworker (could work the least well with).

• Control Classifications: – Leader-member relations – Task Structure – Position Power . • More control exercised by the leader. the more favorable the situation is for them. moderate and low control.Measuring Leadership Situation • Theory classifies situations as high.


The Leader-Match Concept and Overall Findings The effectiveness of leadership depends on matching leaders to situations in which they can exercise more control. These leaders perform best in situations highly favorable for exercising control since they can work on relationships and not the task. Task-motivated leaders: perform best in situations of high and low control. .

The Leader-Match Concept and Overall Findings Relationship-motivated: perform best in situations of moderate control. or dealing with unmotivated or an uncooperative group. . **Participative Leaders are needed in the presence of a situation with an unclear task. They can work well on relationships and not get involved in overmanaging.

. increasing their chances of being effective.Making the Situation More Favorable for the Leader Implication of theory is that the leader should modify situations to best match their leadership style.

A leader attempts to clarify the path to a goal for a group member so that they receive personal payoffs. .Path Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness Developed by House. Job satisfaction and performance increase. Robert: specifies what the leader must do to achieve high productivity and morals in a given situation.

Path Goal Theory of Leadership
Characteristics of Group Member
(Contingency Factors)

Leadership Style Directive Supportive Participative Achievement Oriented

Outcomes Productivity Morale
(Contingency Factors)

Demands of the Task

Matching the Leadership Style to the Situation
• Leader chooses among four different leadership styles to achieve optimum results in a given situation. • Two sets of contingency factors: types of subordinates and type of work they perform.
Leadership Style
Directive Supportive Participative Achievement Oriented

• Environmental Factors: factors that are not within the control of group members but that influence satisfaction and task accomplishment.

How The Leader Influences Performance
Recognize or activate group members needs over which the leader has control.
Increase personal payoffs to team members for attaining work goals. Make the path to rewards easier by coaching and providing direction. Help group members clarify expectations of how effort will lead to good performance and how performance leads to rewards.

Don‟t irritate people by instructing them on things they know. Provide structure if missing and supply rewards contingent on adequate performance. . Increase opportunity for personal satisfaction if group member performs effectively.How The Leader Influences Performance Continued Reduce frustrating barriers to reaching goals.

Blanchard explains how to match the leadership style to the readiness of the group members. Leadership style classified according to amount task and relationship behavior the leader engages in. .The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model The situational leadership model of Paul Hersey and Kenneth H.

Situational Leadership II (SLII) Developed by Kenneth H. commitment takes place. and turnover among talented workers is reduced . Blanchard and others • Explains how to match leadership style to the capabilities of group members on a given task • SLII is designed to increase the frequency and quality of conversations about performance and professional development between managers and group members so that competence is developed.

Basics Of The Model Task behavior is the extent in which the leader spells out the duties and responsibilities of an individual or group. includes giving directions and setting goals. . Relationship behavior is the extent to which the leader engages in two-way or multiway communication.

Style 1 High task and low relationship – The "telling" style is very directive because the leader produces a lot of input but a minimum amount of relationship behavior. – An autocratic leader would fit here. .

but in a more persuasive. guiding manner. .High Task and High Relationship The "selling" style is very directive. The leader provides considerable input about task accomplishment but also emphasizes human relations.Style 2.

Style 3.High Relationship and Low Task In the "participating" leadership style. The consultative and consensus subtypes of participative leader generally fit into this quadrant. . there is less direction and more collaboration between leader and group members.

this style would be classified as free-rein.Low Relationship. If carried to an extreme.Style 4. Low Task In the "delegating" leadership style. . the leader delegates responsibility for a task to a group member and is simply kept informed of progress.

Hersey and Blanchard‟s Situational Leadership Theory Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision .

Situational Leadership Theory Readiness of Followers Unable and Unwilling Behavior of Leaders Clear. 2001 Chapter 11 Support & Participation Let Followers Perform 135 . Specific Directions High Task Orientation Unable and Willing Able and Unwilling Able and Willing Prentice Hall.

High Relationship Behavior (amount of support required) Participating Supporting Able/Unwilling Selling Coaching Unable/Willing Delegating Able/Willing Telling Directing Unable/Unwilling Low Low (able to do job) High (unable to do job) Task Behavior (amount of guidance required) .

High Task Low Relationship.Low Task Behavior Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation: Delegating Provide specific instructions and closely supervise performance: Telling S4 Low S1 Task Behavior High .High S3 Share Ideas and Facilitate in Decision Making: Participating High Relationship. High Task Low Relationship. Low Task Relationship S2 Explain decisions and provide opportunity for clarification: Selling High Relationship.

Follower Readiness High Moderate R2 Unable but willing Low R1 Unable and unwilling R4 R3 Able Able but and unwilling Willing Follower Directed Leader Directed .

High Task R4 Delegating Able and R1 Directive-autocratic: Willing Unable and Unwilling Low Task Behavior High .Low Task R2 RelationshipSelling: Unable but Willing High Relationship. High Task Low Relationship. Low task Low Relationship.High Leadership Guidelines R3 Relationship-Low Task: Able but Unwilling Relationship Behavior High Relationship.

Research evidence is mixed.Evaluation of Situational Model Builds on other explanations of leadership that emphasize the role of task and relationship behaviors. leadership situations are less clear than 4 quadrants. In reality. Utilizes common sense and is intuitively appealing. model may hold for only certain types of employees. .

.Normative Decision Model Published by Vroom. and Jago in 1973 and 1988. Yetton. Views leadership as a decision making process and specifies type of leadership for a given situation.

Normative Decision Model Proper decision making style is determined using a decision tree analysis.II (decision by leader with input from one member or all members) Group II (group makes decision) . Styles determined from analysis are: Autocratic I.II (decision by leader alone or with some info from group) Consultative I.

in the order given: Is it an important decision (quality)? Is group commitment important? Do I have enough information? Is the problem structured (well-defined)? Can I make the decision alone and get „buy-in”? Does the group share same goals (goal congruence? Is group member conflict an issue? Does the group have enough info to make a decision? .Normative Decision Model • • • • • • • • Decision tree nodes prompt the following questions.

. Theory relating stress and leader‟s intelligence/experience.Cognitive Resource Model Published in 1987 by Fred Fiedler and Joseph Garcia.

Intellectual leaders more effective if directive. And the obvious: Complex problems best suited for intellectual leaders. Low-stress situation: intelligence and innovation are more valuable trait in leaders.Cognitive Resource Model Leader experience more important in high stress situation. .

12. Interviewed 163 top executives worldwide. Backer. of interviews.000 pgs. . and Wetlaufer published in 1996.Research: How Top Level Executives Lead Farkas.

. however usually have one dominant approach. Situation determines best approach.Research: How Top Level Executives Lead Conclusion: CEO‟s usually utilize all approaches.

Crisis Leadership Attributes • • • • • • Be decisive Lead with compassion Reestablish the usual work routine Avoid a circle-the-wagons mentality Display optimism Be a transformational leader .

Best choice of five! . Relatively easy concepts to interpret and use (leader behavior and follower readiness).Summary Hersey-Blanchard: Practical in that group members are „diagnosed‟ prior to choosing best style.

Chapter Six Leadership Ethics and Social Responsibility .

Ethics and Morals • Ethics is the study of moral obligations. or of separating right from wrong • Ethics can also mean the accepted guidelines of behavior for groups or institutions • Morals are an individual’s determination of what is right or wrong and are influenced by an individual’s values .

Be honest and trustworthy and have integrity in dealing with others 2. Build community 4. Pay attention to all stakeholders 3. Accomplish silent victories .Ethical Leadership Behaviors 1. Respect the individual 5.


Factors Contributing to Ethical Differences • Leader’s level of greed. gluttony. and avarice • Leader’s level of moral development – Preconventional level – Conventional level – Postconventional level • Sense of entitlement • Situation • Character .

sibling.Evaluating Ethics of a Decision Guidelines • • • • Is it right? Is it fair? Who gets hurt? Would you be comfortable if the details of your decision or actions were made public? • What would you tell your child. or young relatives to do? • How does it smell? .

Inc. • Jeffrey Greenberg.Examples of Unethical Leaders (From Table 6-2) • Frank P. former CEO of Computer Associates International. former investment banker at CSFB • Sanjay Kumar. CEO of Marsh & McClellan Companies • Kenneth Lay. former chairman and CEO of Enron . Quattrone.

Social Responsibility • Having obligations to society beyond the company’s economic obligations to owners or stockholders and also beyond those prescribed by law or contract • Relates to an organization’s impact on society and goes beyond doing what is ethical .

Examples of Socially Responsible Actions • • • • Creating a pleasant workplace Guarding the environment Engaging in philanthropy Working with suppliers to improve working conditions .


All rights reserved.Chapter 6–160 .Ethical Guidelines for Political Behavior Unethical Ethical Question 3 Is the political activity fair and equitable? Yes Yes Question 1 Is the action motivated by self-serving interests which exclude the goals of the organization? Yes No No Unethical Question 2 Does the political action respect individual rights? No Unethical Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.

Creating an Ethical and Socially Responsible Culture • Providing strategic leadership of ethics and social responsibility • Establishing written codes of ethical conduct • Developing formal mechanisms for dealing with ethical problems • Accepting whistleblowers • Providing training in ethics and social responsibility • Placing company interests over personal interests .

Ethics and Performance • High ethics and social responsibility are related to good financial performance • The relationship between social responsibility and financial performance may be a virtuous circle. Corporate social responsibility and corporate financial performance may feed and reinforce each other .

respecting the individual.Summary • Key principles of ethical leadership include having honesty and integrity. paying attention to all stakeholders. building community. and accomplishing silent victories .

Summary (cont’d) • Three factors responsible for differences in ethics and morality include the leader’s level of greed. and avarice. the leader’s level of moral development. and the situation . gluttony.

Summary (cont’d) • A leader or manager should seek answers to a series of important questions before reaching a decision about an issue that is not clearly ethical or unethical • Unethical behaviors have had detrimental effects on many companies .

Summary (cont’d) • A leader can encourage ethical behavior by promoting social responsibility • Ethical behavior is related to financial performance .

Chapter Seven Power. and Leadership . Politics.

Empowerment. and Delegation  Power is the potential or ability to influence decisions and control resources.Power. .

Four Bases of Position Power     Legitimate power is the lawful right to make a decision and expect compliance Reward power stems from having the authority to give employees rewards for compliance Coercive power is the power to punish for noncompliance Information power stems from formal control over the information people need .

skills. or abilities Referent power is the ability to influence others through desirable traits and characteristics Prestige power is power stemming from one’s status and reputation .Sources of Personal Power    Expert power is the ability to influence others through specialized knowledge.

Sources and Types of Power        Position Power Personal Power Power Stemming from Ownership Power Stemming from Providing Resources Power Derived from Capitalizing on Opportunity Power Stemming from Managing Critical Problems Power Stemming from being close to Power .

Ownership Power  A leader’s strength of ownership power depends on – how closely the leader is linked to shareholders and board members – how much money he or she has invested in the firm .

” .Power From Capitalizing on Opportunity   Power can be derived from being in the right place at the right time and taking the appropriate action It pays to be “where the action is.

Power from Being Close to Power   The closer a person is to power. the more power it possesses . the greater power he or she exerts The higher a unit reports in a firm’s hierarchy.

. Delegation is the assignment of formal authority and responsibility for accomplishing a specific task to another person.Empowerment refers to passing decisionmaking authority and responsibility from management to group members.

Almost any form of participative management.Empowerment … refers to passing decision-making authority and responsibility from managers to group members. shared decision making. and delegation can be regarded as empowerment. .

Effective Empowering Practices .

Tactics for becoming an Empowering Leader         Foster Initiative and Responsibility Link work Activities to the Goals of the Organization Provide Ample Information Allow Group Members to Choose Methods Encourage Self-Leadership Implement Team-Based HR Policies Establish Limits to Empowerment Continue to lead. .

Guidelines For Effective Delegation         Assign duties to the right people Delegate the whole task Give as much info as needed Retain some important tasks for yourself Obtain feedback Delegate both pleasant and unpleasant tasks Step back from the details Evaluate and reward performance .

Contributing Factors to Organizational Politics       Pyramid-shaped Organization Structure Subjective standards of performance Environmental uncertainty and turbulence Emotional insecurities Machiavellian tendencies Disagreements that prevent rational decision making .

Ethical Political Tactics and Strategies    Gaining Power Building Relationships for Political Power Avoiding Political Blunders .

Power-Gaining Strategies         Develop power contacts Control vital information Stay informed Control lines of communication Bring in outside experts Make a quick showing Remember that everyone expects to be paid back Be the first to accept reasonable changes .


pleasant.Relationship-Building Strategies        Display loyalty Manage your impression Ask satisfied customers to contact your boss Be courteous. and positive Ask advice Send thank-you notes to large numbers of people Flatter others sensibly .

Potential Political Blunders      Criticizing the boss in a public forum Bypassing the boss Declining an offer from top management Putting your foot in your mouth Not conforming to the company dress code .

Unethical Political Tactics and Strategies       Back Stabbing Embrace or Demolish Setting a Person Up for Failure Divide and Rule Playing Territorial Games Creating and Resolving a False Catastrophe .


Exercising Control Over Dysfunctional Politics       Be aware of its causes and techniques Avoid favoritism Set good examples at the top of the organization Encourage goal congruence Threaten to discuss questionable information in a public forum Hire people with integrity .

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