Processes of Second Language Learning and Second Language Instructional Methods Session 2 & 3 Methods in TESOL PreK-12

Hunter College MA in TESOL, David Patterson 1

What are our beliefs about language learning?
① The younger the child, the more skilled he or she is at acquiring a second language. ② The more time students spend in a second language context, the quicker they learn the language. ③ Once they can speak it, the child has acquired the second language. ④ All children learn languages following the same pattern. ⑤ Older generations of immigrants learned without all the special language programs that immigrant children receive now ⑥ Second language learners will acquire academic English faster if their parents speak English at home.
Reflection Activity: Decide which of these you think is research-based and which of these is myth.
Hunter College MA in TESOL, David Patterson 2

① The younger the child, the more skilled he or she is at acquiring a second language.
① This belief often grows out of the "critical period hypothesis,” which states that children are superior to adults in learning second languages because their brains are more flexible, or their cortex is more plastic than that of older learners. (The corollary hypothesis is the "frozen brain hypothesis," applied to adult learners.) ② Experimental research in which children have been compared to adults in second language learning has consistently demonstrated that adolescents and adults perform better than young children under controlled conditions. ③ One exception is in the area of pronunciation, although even here some studies show better results for older learners. But we aren’t very good at teaching phonology at the moment. ④ Children may be more motivated to learn because of social or psychological reasons, but their requirements for communication may be lower.
Hunter College MA in TESOL, David Patterson 3

① The younger the child. What are the implications for the ELL teacher? ① Teachers should not expect miraculous results from children who are learning English as a second or other language in the classroom context. since they don’t have access to the memory techniques and other strategies that more experienced learners can use in acquiring vocabulary and in learning the grammatical rules of the language. ② It may be more difficult for some young children. the more skilled he or she is at acquiring a second language. David Patterson 4 . ④ Children from some cultural backgrounds are extremely anxious when singled out and called upon to perform in a language they are in the process of learning. children are likely to be more shy and more embarrassed before their peers than are more mature adults. ③ Children might not have fewer inhibitions or be less embarrassed than adults when they make mistakes in a second language. Hunter College MA in TESOL. If anything.

David Patterson 5 . but it may take up to four to six years to acquire the level of proficiency for understanding the language in its instructional uses. ④ Early withdraw of the native language does not help students acquire English at faster rates. Hunter College MA in TESOL. ① This notion is the rationale behind "structured immersion. the quicker they learn the language. ② Studies show that more “time on task” does not necessarily lead to greater gains versus maintenance bilingual programs." an instructional strategy in which children from language minority backgrounds receive all of their instruction in English and have the additional support of ESL classes and contentbased instruction tailored to their language abilities. ③ Oral communication skills may be acquired over one to three years.② The more time students spend in a second language context.

enabling them to participate more effectively in school activities while they are learning English. ④ Over the long run. Patterson 6 Hunter College MA in TESOL. and it also provides a mutually reinforcing bond between the home and the school. ② The use of the home language in bilingual or ESL classrooms enables the child to avoid falling behind in school work. where this is possible. with unique technical and professional career advantages. the quicker they learn the language.② The more time students spend in a second language context. as an adult he or she may be functionally bilingual. ③ The home language acts as a bridge for children. Furthermore. What are the implications for the ELL teacher? ① Teachers should be aware that giving language minority children the support of their home language. is not doing them any disservice. if the child is able to acquire literacy skills in the first language. children in bilingual programs will acquire as much English as children who have more L2 exposure at an earlier age. David .

the child has acquired the second language. especially in the later grades. Hunter College MA in TESOL.③ Once they can speak it. ② The Canadian educator Jim Cummins cited research evidence from a study of 1. David Patterson 7 .” whereby children appear to be fluent in a language because of their oral skills but have not mastered the more disembedded and decontextualized aspects of the language. ③ Cummins and others speak of the "linguistic facade. ① A child who is proficient in face-to-face communication has not necessarily achieved proficiency in the more abstract and academic language needed to engage in many classroom activities.210 immigrant children in Canada indicating that it takes these children much longer (approximately five to seven years) to master the cognitive language skills required for the regular English curriculum than to master oral communicative skills.

② Exiting children who are not ready for the all-English classroom may be harmful to the children's academic success. ④ It is conceivable that many of the problems that children from minority language backgrounds have in reading and writing at the middle school and high school levels stem from limitations in vocabulary and syntactic knowledge in the second language. the child has acquired the second language. Hunter College MA in TESOL. Cummins has argued that it is inappropriate for programs to exit children into an all-English classroom on the basis of language assessment instruments that tap only oral communication skills. David Patterson 8 . What are the implications for the ELL teacher? ① Teachers and other staff need to be cautious in exiting children from programs where they have the support of their home language. ③ Teachers need to be aware that an ELL may be having language problems in reading and writing that are not apparent if the child's oral abilities are used as the gauge of English proficiency.③ Once they can speak it.

③ There are also differences within groups in how children react to school and learn. ① There are two issues here: The first relates to differences among linguistically and culturally diverse groups. for fear of making a mistake. They do not worry about mistakes. In the upper grades. Children are therefore often rewarded for clear and logical thinking. especially. where language is used to communicate meaning. the style of talk is analytic and deductive. David Patterson 9 . and to solve problems.④ All children learn languages following the same pattern. but use limited resources to generate input from native speakers. Some children are outgoing and sociable and learn the second language quickly because they want to be like their Englishspeaking peers. Hunter College MA in TESOL. ② Schools in America emphasize the language functions and styles of talk that predominate in mainstream families. to control social behavior. and the second to differences among learners within these groups. They learn by listening and by attending to what is happening and being said around them. They say little. Other children are shy and quiet. to convey information.

cooperative learning. David Patterson 10 . Hunter College MA in TESOL. ③ Many of the important educational innovations in current practice. peer tutoring. patterns of language use. What are the implications for the ELL teacher? ① Many culturally and linguistically diverse children enter school with cognitive and social norms that differ from those that govern the mainstream classroom. and interpersonal style. such as untracking and mixed-age grouping. individualized instruction. ④ Teachers need to be aware of how the child's experiences in the home and in the home culture affect values. ② Effective instruction for children from culturally diverse backgrounds requires a variety of instructional activities—small group work.④ All children learn languages following the same pattern. are the direct result of teachers adapting their teaching to the challenge posed by children from culturally diverse backgrounds. Children are likely to be more responsive to a teacher who is sensitive to their culture and its behavioral patterns. and other strategies that take the children's diversity of experience into account.

② The level of education needed to get a job has changed.” ④ Today. once they abandoned their home language. Hunter College MA in TESOL. many earlier immigrants had trouble in school. David Patterson 11 . 60% of Russian. many immigrants have clear physical attributes that mark them as different from white Americans. the U.S. It was easier for them to assimilate into American society because. ③ Many earlier immigrants came from Europe. culture. from cultures that were similar in many ways to mainstream U. Long after they have learned English and acquired jobs in this country. In 1911.⑤ Older generations of immigrants learned without all the special language programs that immigrant children receive now ① Like present-day immigrants. they are still subject to discrimination. and 51% of German immigrant children were one or more grade levels behind in school compared to 28% of American born children. they looked like any other “American.S. Immigration Service found that 77% of Italian.

that don’t require a higher degree of academic language function. at a point that may be far beneath what is needed for professional and personal achievement as an adult. ④ Many immigrants who did not receive support in school dropped out of high school.” or stops developing. ② When people have been left to “sink or swim. ③ A lack of explicit language development support may have a particularly dramatic impact on children who wish to attend college. since there are fewer good jobs in the U.” or learn the language on their own. Hunter College MA in TESOL. and who need to demonstrate sufficient academic English language skills by the time they are in their late teens. David Patterson 12 .⑤ Older generations of immigrants learned without all the special language programs that immigrant children receive now What are the implications for the ELL teacher? ① Teachers should remember that all language learners have struggled over time but the stakes might be much higher now. their progress often “fossilizes.S.

⑥ Second language learners will acquire academic English faster if their parents speak English at home. Hunter College MA in TESOL. This language will be richer and more complex. and asking questions. So if a child is being read to in native language. though unconscious. ③ Students who serve as “translators” for their families may have a powerful. Children will eventually translate that learning to English. ① Research shows that it is much better for parents to speak in their native language to their children. parents will spend more time discussing the story. ② It doesn’t matter in what language basic concepts are developed. and it will benefit the student academically. David Patterson 13 . social motivation to learn English more quickly because they have become a vital resource for their families’ well-being.

⑥ Second language learners will acquire academic English faster if their parents speak English at home. ④ Teachers should actively encourage parents to continue to deepen their child’s L1 literacy. ③ Teachers should encourage parents who do not know English to become the “student” in the home. and reassure them that this has no impact on the development of their child’s second or other language. ② Teachers should urge parents to purchase their children many books in both languages. But if they cannot. What are the implications for the ELL teacher? ① Teachers should encourage parents to read in both languages if they can. encourage parents to read in their native language. and the native language development will have a demonstratively beneficial impact on the L2. Never instruct a parent to speak only English at home. Hunter College MA in TESOL. David Patterson 14 . asking their children to translate words or phrases of L1 texts to English. and to ask questions about what their children are reading in whatever language they are able. with the understanding that concepts and ideas from one language will translate into another.

Stage II: Silent Period After children realize their first language is not working. The younger the child. they enter a silent period in which they barely speak and rely heavily on nonverbal means to communicate with others. the sequential learning of languages is influenced by factors like the child’s temperament or motivation. Learning often roughly follows four stages. Unlike first language or simultaneous first-language learning. children may persist in using their first or native language even if others do not understand them.What are the key differences between first and second language acquisition? Second Languages are learned in a different way than first language. the longer the silent period may last. David Patterson 15 . The Four Stages of Sequential Second Language Learning Stage I: Home Language Use For a period of time. Hunter College MA in TESOL.

In the beginning. they will only speak in small utterances (e.g. Me Down) or by repeating the words of others. this improves over time. In this stage. Hunter College MA in TESOL. Stage IV: Productive Language Children are now ready to express their own thoughts and construct their own sentences.. these sentences may be very basic or grammatically incorrect. however.What are the key differences between first and second language acquisition? Stage III: Telegraphic & Formulaic Speech Children will start to speak in the new or second language. David Patterson 16 .

science. Hunter College MA in TESOL.  BICS is often referred to as conversational English—the surface language we use to communicate in everyday real-life situations which are not cognitively demanding. write. This aspect of language proficiency is much more critical to a student’s academic success and takes as long as five to seven years to develop.What is important to know about schools as contexts for learning English?  There are two aspects of language proficiency: BICS and CALP.  CALP is often referred to as academic English. research shows that second language learners frequently develop native-like conversational skills within one to two years. These two aspects were formally defined as Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) by Canadian second language researcher Jim Cummins in 1981. etc. Educators sometimes mistakenly assume that students with fluent conversational English no longer require language instruction. other adults. Academic English is the proficiency required by students to read. Although there are individual differences.. David Patterson 17 . and learn in the content areas (e.g. social studies. Native speakers use conversational English to talk informally with teachers.) at an appropriate grade level. and classmates in the school setting.

spending instructional time teaching through the minority language entails no academic costs for students' academic development in the majority language. ② An impressive number of research studies have documented a moderately strong correlation between bilingual students’ LI and L2 literacy skills in situations where students have the opportunity to develop literacy in both languages. Japanese-English. although the strength of relationship is often reduced (e.Spanish). is used to refer to the cognitive/academic proficiency model that underlies academic performance in both languages. David Patterson 18 . Basque.g. Hunter College MA in TESOL. ArabicFrench. Chinese-English. whether intended for linguistic majority or minority students.What is the role of the native language in learning the second language? The Common Underlying Proficiency The term common underlying proficiency (CUP). named by Cummins. Dutch-Turkish. ③ Within a bilingual program. It is worth noting that these findings also apply to the relationships among very dissimilar languages in addition to languages that are more closely related. instructional time can be focused on developing students' literacy skills in their primary language without adverse effects on the development of their literacy skills in English. Consider the following research data that support this principle: ① In virtually every bilingual program that has ever been evaluated.

Work by yourself and do the best you can to identify the topic and any key information. Hunter College MA in TESOL. Move into a triad with an A. Talk in your group to try to figure out the topic and any key information.What is the role of the native language in learning the second language? Reflection Activity: A. B. David Patterson 19 . B or C) that is handed out to you. Read the text (A. B and C person.

Language Proficiency as Communicative Competence The term language proficiency reflects all the grammatical rules governing sounds. and word order to convey meaning. David Patterson 20 . word forms. Hunter College MA in TESOL.

Do Now: Which language teaching approaches would you say are contemporary. and which historical? A. D. B. and vice versa. Translate sentences from the native language to the target language. Use imitation rather than rules to teach a language. Teach grammar rules inductively. Teach language through pictures. C. . rather than explicitly.

Some techniques are widely used and found in many methods (e. Approach: A model. Method: Set of procedures that set out rather precisely how to teach the second or foreign language. a theory: the broadest of the three.g. repetition). dictation. a reach paradigm. Technique Approach Method Technique Technique is the classroom device or activity and is the narrowest of the concepts. some specific to a given method. Method. one method may be compatible with more than one approaches. . imitation.Terminology: Approach.

Hence. formal study of Latin and Greek became possible through advent of printing press and books.  Latin then became object of formal study during the Renaissance. business. a shift back during the 1600’s to utility rather than language analysis. Renaissance  During the Renaissance. Rise of Vernacular Languages  As Vernacular forms. and no longer lingua franca. such as Spanish. politics. . these were lingua franca-used in higher learning. crude dictionaries. their use was seen as more and more necessary. French and Italian rose in respectability. and aural/oral emphasis.1400’s-1800’s Medieval Latin Period  Classical Greek & Medieval Latin periods characterized by emphasis on use of foreign language. Book learning of Latin was then the focus of language instruction in this time.  Teachers in this time used informal tutoring techniques.

when the systematic study of the grammar of classical Latin once again took over in schools and . His views held sway until the beginning of the 1800’s. Some of the rules he espoused were: teach language through pictures. use imitation instead of rules.Johann Comenius (1592 -1670) The most famous language teacher of this time period is Johann Comenius. a Czech who published books about his teaching between 1631-1658.

What methods have historically been used in our field?           Grammar Translation Communicative Language Teaching Audiolingualism Outreach Learning (LAMP) Community Language Learning (CLL) Total Physical Approach (TPR) Natural Approach The Silent Way Suggestopedia Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) (Content Based Teaching)  Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)  Lexical Approach Hunter College MA in TESOL. David Patterson 25 .

Happy to have thy love. and yet I know it not.What are some of the features you see in this language teaching method? Translate this sentence into another language you know: O what a happy title do I find. happy to die! But what's so blessed-fair that fears no blot? Thou mayst be false. .

not target language Vocabulary taught in isolated word lists Long. elaborate explanations of grammatical rules given Reading of difficult. classical texts Texts not presented in context. . but as exercises in grammatical analysis Little or no attention to pronunciation Reading and writing are major focus The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice Accuracy is emphasized Teacher does not have to speak the target language Theory of language learning is that the structures of the foreign languages are best learned when compared and contrasted with those of mother tongue.Grammar-Translation Method (Early to Mid 1800’s) Features and Principles:            Classes taught in native.

What are the qualities of the language teaching approach you see this teacher using? .

The Direct Method (Berlitz Method) Features/Principles:           Established in Germany and France around 1900 Known as the “anti-translation” method No use of the native language permitted Lessons focus on speech and listening Pictures and actions used to make meaning clear Fill-in-the-blank exercises (these are still very common today) Focus on everyday vocabulary Small intensive classes with student-centered topics Grammar learned inductively Literary texts are read for pleasure. not for grammatical analysis  Teacher must have native-like proficiency in target language  Correct pronunciation emphasized .

What are the qualities of the language teaching approach you see this teacher using? .

language learning is habit formation . language labs  Very little use of native language  Effort placed on getting students to produce error-free utterances  Tendency to manipulate language and disregard content  Teacher only needs to know the structures. memorization of set phrases  Structural patterns taught by using repetitive drills  Little or no grammatical explanation  Vocabulary strictly controlled and learned in context  Use of tapes. vocabulary. etc being taught that lesson  Theory of learning is from behaviorism—stimulus/response.The Audio-lingual Method (ALM) Features/Principles:  Introduced in 1940’s and 50’s—derived from “The Army Method” used in WWII to quickly produce speaker of languages of friends and foes  New material presented in dialogue form  Dependence on mimicry.

What are the qualities of the language teaching approach you see this teacher using? .

grammatical paradigms  Problem-solving involving the material to be learned  Teacher models and students imitate. focus on student language use. models for students with Cuisenaire rods sentence structures and vocabulary patterns. small group learning with peers  Charts to introduce pronunciation models. not teacher dominance .The Silent Way Features/Principles:  Introduced in the 1960’s  Learning is facilitated by physical objects  Teacher hardly speaks.

Reflection Question ① Which of these approaches have you personally experienced as a language learner? ② What were your impressions and what is your assessment of the effectiveness of the approaches? .

SDAIE requires the student possess intermediate fluency in English as well as mastery of their native language. begun in 1997. It represents a variety of strategies. Its main goal is for students to reach communicative competence in L2 in meaningful context only. College MA in TESOL.What methods are currently used to provide content and language instruction to K-12 ELLs? The CALLA model (Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach): The CALLA approach was developed in the 1980’s. and general education classrooms. bilingual. that is used to measure sheltered Hunter It’s overseen by the Center for instruction and provide a model for lesson planning. EFL. science or literature) using the English language to students who are still learning English. foreign language. SDAIE is a teaching approach intended for teaching various academic content (such as social studies. techniques. and materials that are specially designed to provide students access to grade-level core curriculum in English. David Patterson 35 . CALLA can be used in ESL. The SIOP model (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol) is a research-based observation instrument. The SDAIE approach (Specially designed academic instruction in English) or Sheltered Instruction.

The most effective cooperative learning techniques should be highly structured. Tasks are typically short-term (usually to be completed within a single class period) with a common outcome that requires the participation of every member of the group. always corrects them when they err. . CBI has proven very effective in ESL immersion programs. CBI is often themebased. real-world content. The DI approach (Direct Instruction) is a highly structured program that tests and retests what children are learning.g.. It’s often contrasted with whole language theory. It groups children according to ability. since it is based around rich. but tries to ensure all children learn the basics. e. with definedDavid Pattersoneach Hunter College MA in TESOL. and can be used with students at lower proficiency levels. contextualized. CBI focuses on active student involvement and is seen as motivating.What methods are currently used to provide content and language instruction to K-12 ELLs? The CBI model (Content-Based Instruction) is a teaching method that emphasizes learning about something rather than learning about language. roles for 36 group member. and tries to leave nothing to chance. The Cooperative Learning approach (CL) involves placing students in small groups to work on tasks collaboratively.

and materials specially designed to provide students access to grade-level core curriculum in English. math) more accessible for English language learners while at the same time promoting their English language development. Hunter College MA in TESOL.. ② It is a means for making grade-level academic content (e. David Patterson 37 . science. techniques. ③ It is recognizes that the complexity of learning a new language and learning through a new language requires more than ESL support.Sheltered Instruction: Making Grade-Level Academic Content More Accessible for ELLs Sheltered instruction ① It represents a variety of strategies. ④ The SIOP Model provides a systematic approach for making content accessible and for consistently focusing on academic language. social studies. Attention to academic language is needed in every content area throughout the day.g.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful