Cellular Mobile Communications-II

The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

Dr. Nasir D. Gohar

cture Notes “Wireless Cellular” by Professor A. Smith cture Notes “Cellular Systems-An Introduction” by Professor Reynold Cheung her Internet Resources

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Introduction  Frequency Reuse  Channel Assignment Strategies  Handoff Strategies  Interference and System Capacity  Trunking Theory and Grade of
Service  Improving Coverage and System Capacity

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Conventional Radio System & its Limitations
 Single Hi Power Transmitter and Large Antenna Towers/Masts

 Large Coverage Area/Larger Size Radios with Large Batteries  Limited No. of Channels  Poor Quality of Service [Bell Mobile NY City, in 1970s 12 Ch/1K Sqr
Miles]  Still in use for Some Public/Private Organizations [PMR Systems]

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Solution-Frequency Reuse

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Cellular Concept
 The Cellular Idea
 Developed by Bell Labs (1960s-1970s)  Divide the service Area into Several Smaller Cells  Put at least as many Towers as the # of Cells and Reduce the Transmitter Power  Reuse the Allocated Frequency Spectrum (Channels) as many Times as Possible Avoiding Interference

 Gains but with Pains
 Greater System Capacity at the Cost of Large Infra-Structure  Optimal Frequency Spectrum Utilization attained by making System more Complicated  User Equipment Design made Smarter at the cost of Circuit Complexity and Processing Power

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Cellular Concept
The Cell Shape
 All cells should have same shape and equal area  Possible Choices: Rectangle, Triangle, and Hexagon  For a given value of S, A3 Provides the Max. Coverage Area with fewest number of Cells  Actual Radio Coverage Area of Cell is amorphous (irregular shaped)- obtained by field measurements or by using prediction models through computer simulation This is known as footprint

RSL

ACTUAL CELL
CELL

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Cellular Concept
Frequency Reuse FactorN = no. of distinct channel groups = maximum cluster size

Typical Values of N are 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 16, 19, 21,

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Cellular Concept
Selection and Allocation of Channel Groups (out of the Allotted Spectrum S) for all the Cellular Base Stations within a System  Each Cell is allocated a unique group of k Channels  If N is the Frequency Reuse Factor (Cluster Size), then S = kN  If a cluster is replicated M times in the system, then System Capacity as the measure of total number of duplex channels is given as C = MkN = MS

Frequency Reuse/Planning -

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Cellular Concept
 Placement of Base Stations
 Center-Excited Cell: Base Station Transmitters/Receivers [Transceivers] are placed at the location which is probably the most closest to the Center of the Cell  Normally, Omni-Directional Antennas are used  Edge-Excited Cell: Base Station Transceivers are placed three out of six vertices [Corners] of the hexagonalshaped cells  Sectored Directional Antennas are used
NOTE: Most Systems Allow 1/4 of the Cell Radius as Proxy Margin for the Distance of the Actual Place from the Ideal Place [Center of the Cell

B G A F E B G A F E D C D F E C G A D B C

Center-Excited Cells

B G A F E D C

Edge-Excited Cells

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Cellular Concept
 Locating Co-Channel Cell
 Observation: The Geometry of
the Hexagons is such that the number of cells per cluster, N, can only have values such that
G A F E B G A D D F
I =2

B C G A
J =1 D

B C

 N = i*i +i*j+j*j, i and j are
non-negative integers.

E B G A D E C

 Method to Find the Nearest
Co-Channel Neighbor

C

F  Move I Cells along any chain of E F hexagon, then,  Turn 60 degree counterEXAMPLE:Finding Co-Channel Neighbor, clockwise and N= 7, I = 2, j=1  Move J Cells.

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Cellular Concept - System Design ExampleSOLUTION:

A 01total of 33 MHz bandwidth is allocated to a particular FDD Cellular Phone System. If the Simplex

Voice/Control Channel bandwidth is 25 KHz, Find the total # of Channels available per Cell if the System uses (a) 4-Cell Frequency Reuse (b) 7-Cell Frequency-Reuse Plan. If 1 MHz out of the total allocated bandwidth is used for Control Channels, determine an equitable distribution of the Control and Voice Channels in each Cell in case of each Frequency-Reuse Plan. Total allocated bandwidth = 33 MHz, Duplex Channel bandwidth = 25x2=50 KHz Total # of Available(Voice/Control) Channels = 33,000/50 = 660 Channels. (a) N= 4, so total # of Channels/Cell = 660/4 = 165 Channels (b) N=7, so total # of Channels/Cell = 660/7 = 95 Channels In Case of 1 MHz bandwidth allocated for Control Channels, total # of Control Channels = 1000/50=20 Channels per Systems. Out of 660 Channels, 20 are used as Control and remaining 640 as Voice Channels. (a) N=4, Each Cell can have 20/4=5 Control Channels and 640/4=160 Voice Channels. But, each Cell needs only one Control Channel, so, each cell will be assigned one Control Channel and 160 Voice Channel. (b) N = 7, Each Cell can have 20/7 = 3 Control Channels and 640/7=91 Voice Channels[Plus 3 Extra], but it needs only 1 Control Channel, so, we can assign 4 Cells with 91 Voice Channels and one Control Channels, and 3 Cells with 92 Voice Channels and one Control Channels.

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Cellular Concept
 Effect of Cell Size – Trade offs Pluses of Smaller Cell Size:
Higher M (More Replications of Cell Cluster) System Capacity Channel reuse Higher System Capacity  Lower power requirements for mobiles

Higher

Negatives of Smaller Cell Size:
Additional

base stations required More frequent handoffs Extra possibilities for interference

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Cellular Concept
 Effect of Cluster Size
 Each Cluster have Unique Group of Channels which are Repeated over Clusters  Keeping Cell Size Same  Large N- weaker interference, but lower capacity  Small N- higher capacity, more interference, need to maintain certain S/I level  Frequency Reuse Factor: 1/N  Each Cell within a Cluster Assigned 1/N of the total Available Channels

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Channel Assignment Strategies
Objective: Maximize the System Capacity
while Minimizing the Interference [A Constrained Optimization Problem]

Classification:
 Fixed Channel Assignment  Dynamic Channel Assignment

B G A F E B G A F E D F E C G A D D F E B C C G A D B C

Choice has Impact on System
Performance
 Handoff  Call Initialization  MSC Processing Load

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Channel Assignment Strategies
 Fixed Channel Assignment
 Each Cell is Assigned a Predetermined Set of [say x=1/N] Voice Channels  Any Request for a New Call Initialization beyond x [ Assuming all x Channels of the Cell are in Use] will be Blocked  Any Request for a Handoff [ Assuming all x Channels of this Candidate Cell are in Use] will not be treated. [MS may have to Wait, Call can Drop even]  Several Solution to the Problem:
 Borrowing Strategy

 Dynamic Channel
Assignment
 No Permanent Assignment of Voice Channels to any Cell  Any Request for a New Call Initialization / Handoff will be met by a Dynamic Allocation of a Channel from the Central Pool of Available Channels by MSC  Channel Allocation is done by using an Algorithm that takes into Account;
 Probability of Future Blocking
(in the Cell)  Frequency of Use of Candidate Channels

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Channel Assignment Strategies
Advantages/Disadvantages of Dynamic
Channel Allocation
Reduction of Blocking Probability Reduction of Call Drop Probability During Hand Off Improvement of System Trunking Capacity [Traffic Intensity/Channel]- All Channels are Accessible by all
Cells  All that above-mentioned Benefits are Obtained at the Cost of Storage and Computational Load on MSC
 MSC must Collect real-time Channel Occupancy Data  Traffic Distribution Information  Radio Signal Strength Indications (RSSI) of all the Channels

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Handoff Strategies
 What is Handoff?
When a mobile moves into a different cell while a conversation is in progress, the MSC automatically transfers the call to a new channel belonging to the new base station  Important task in any cellular radio system  Must be performed successfully, infrequently, and imperceptible to users.  Identify a new base station  Channel allocation in new base station  High priority than initiation request( block new calls rather than drop existing calls)

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Handoff Strategies
 Improper Handoff Situation
Δ too small:  Insufficient time to complete handoff before call is lost  More call losses  Δ too large:  too many handoffs  burden for MSC

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Handoff Strategies
 Proper Handoff Situation

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Handoff Strategies
 Handoff Styles
 Network Controlled Handoff (NCHO)  In first generation cellular system each base station constantly monitors signal strength from mobiles in its cell  Based on the measures, MSC decides if handoff necessary  Mobile plays passive role in process  Heavy Burden on MSC
MSC Cell A fa Cell B

RSL dbm

RSL A

RSL B

Distance

B G A F E D C
MSC

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Handoff Strategies
 Handoff Styles
 Mobile Assisted Handoff (MAHO)  Present in second generation systems  Mobile measures received power from surrounding base stations and report to serving base station  Handoff initiated when power received from a neighboring cell exceeds current value by a certain level or for a certain period of time  Faster since measurements made by mobiles, MSC doesn’t need monitor signal strength

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 The Handoff Strategies
 Handoff Types
 Hard Handoff - (break before make)  FDMA, TDMA (1G and 2G Systems)  Mobile has radio link with only one BS at anytime  Old BS connection is terminated before new BS connection is made Soft Handoff (make before break)  CDMA systems mobile has simultaneous radio link with more than one BS at any time  New BS connection is made before old B connection is broken  Mobile unit remains in this state until one base station clearly predominates

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

The Handoff Strategies  First Generation Cellular Systems

 Locate Receiver at Base Station Plus MSC Decides Handoff
Requests
B G A F E
D RSSI C G Frequency A E F B
Cell A fa
A B Level at Point A Received Signal Level ∆ Handoff Threshold Level Minimum Acceptable Level Level at Point B [Call is Terminated]

 Critical Choice of

∆ = P r Hand Off - P r min Usable
=10 Sec

 ∆ Must be Optimized
 Typical Handoff Time  ∆ = 6 to12 dB
which a Call can be within a Cell

C
MSC

D
MSC

Time

 SPEED of the Mobile Impact  DWELL Time = Time for
fb

Cell B

maintained w/o Handoff

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

The Handoff Strategies

Second Generation Cellular Systems (TDMA)
 Mobile Assisted Hand Off [MAHO]
 Mobile Measures the Pr from all Surrounding Base Stations  Reports all these Measurement Result to the Serving Base Station  Hand Off Initiated when Prs < Prc [by Certain Level or for sometime]  Hand Off Times are Much Shorter [ 1-2 Sec]  ∆ = 0 to 6 dB

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

The Handoff Strategies
 Second Generation Cellular Systems (CDMA) Unique Handoff Strategy [Soft Handoff ]
Radio Shares the Same Channel in all Cells No Physical Change of Assigned Channel Occurs Just Different Base Station Handles the ongoing Call MSC Continuously Monitors the Data about Received Signal Level of the Mobile at Various Base Stations, and, Makes Decision which Version of the Mobile Signal is Better at any Time Point

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

The Handoff Strategies
Inter-System Handoff
Mobile is at the Border of the System [Home Service Provider’s Service Area] MSC of the Serving Cell Talks to the MSC of the Neighboring System or Vice Versa Several Issues are Resolved Before Handoff Can Take Place
    Call Type Roaming is Allowed or Not? Compatibility Issues [Standards] User Authenticity and Call Charges Issues

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Prioritizing Handoffs Guard Channel Method  A Fraction of the Total Available Channels is Reserved for Handoffs
In case of Fixed Channel Assignment, it Affects System Capacity [C = M k N] Good in in Case of Dynamic Channel Assignment

Queuing Handoff Request Method  Any Handoff Request, if can not be tackled

Immediately, it will be Placed in a Queue [ for sometime before the signal levels goes below the minimum acceptable and it has to be dropped] Does not Guarantee 100% Success for all Handoff Requests

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Practical Handoffs Problems
 High Speed Vehicles vs Pedestrians

Speed Difference Between Various Mobiles
Umbrella Cell Approach to Tackle High Speed and Low Speed
Traffic Simultaneously

Large Umbrella Cell for Hi peed Traffic

Small MicroCells for Low Speed Traffic

Cell Dragging
 Pedestrian Users Providing a very Strong Signal due to Direct LOS

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Cell Site Configuration
Ch-1 Rx -1 Splitter Main Antenna Diversity Antenna Ch-n Rx -n

T1/E1 MSC

Ch-1

Tx-1 Combiner

Ch-n

Duplexer

Tx-n

Ch-1

Rx -1 Splitter

Ch-n

Rx -n

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Cell Site Configuration
 Mux/DeMux Equipment: Demultiplexes a Base-band Signal [T1/E1] from
MSC into 24/32 Signals and vice-versa

 Transceivers: AMPS allows typically 48 Radio Channels per Cell

/ A Digital Cellular Radio System, Using TDMA, can Serve 48x3 Subscribers with same number of Channels Filters and Splits the Base-band Signal into Corresponding Channels

 Splitter: Used on Receive Path, it Amplifies the incoming Signal using LNA,  Combiner: Used on Transmit Path, after the Signals have been Modulated,
upconverted, and Amplified by Transmitters of the Corresponding Channels, these are Combined to form a Single Stream of High-Power Radio Signals

 Duplexer: It filters the Radio Signal and
Respective Paths. Diversity for the Better Communication

keeps Rx/Tx Signals Confined to their

 Spatial Diversity: Main and Diversity Antennas are used to Provide Spatial

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Cellular Antennas
Antenna: Signal Processing Device that Transmits/Receives EM
Signals Simultaneously

Antenna Categories
 Passive Antenna: RP Controlled by Type and Construction of
the Device, Using Mechanical Means we can Guide the Signal

 Active Antenna: RP Controlled by Type and Construction as
well as DSP Technique of the Device

General Classification on RP
 Omni Directional Antenna: Equal Radiation in all Directions  Directional Antenna: More Radiation in a Certain Direction

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Essential Antenna Parameters
 Antenna Directivity & Gain
 Energy Concentration in One direction wrt other directions  Gain = P1/P2
−θ Bore Sight GAIN +θ Isotropic

 Antenna Beam Width
 Beam Width = 2 θ

 Antenna Front-to-Back
Ratio
 F2B ratio = 10 Log Pm / Pb
GAIN Typical Antenna Parameters Type Frequency Response M. Antenna 824-894 MHz D. Antenna 824-849 MHz Mob. Ant. 824-894 MHz 0 dB - 3 dB BW 70 MHz 25 MHz 70 MHz

 Frequency Response
 Antenna BW = fH - fL where FH and fL are upper and Lower 3 dB Frequencies

fL

fo

fH

FREQUENCY

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Interference and System Capacity
What is Interference: Unwanted Signal Which Affects the
Speech Quality and System Capacity

Sources of Interference: Several Including another Mobile
in the Same Cell, a Call in Progress in the Neighboring Cell, Other Base Stations Operating in Vicinity Using the Same Frequency Band, or Some non-Cellular Device/System Leaking Energy in the Cellular Frequency Band. Two Major Ones are;
 Co-Channel Interference  Adjacent-Channel Interference

A Major Bottle-Neck in System Capacity: A Trade-off
has to be made between System Capacity and Speech Quality

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Co-Channel Interference and System Capacity
 Co-Channel Interference:
 The Signals of the Co-Channel Cells, the Cells Using the Same Set of Frequencies in the given Coverage Area, Interfere with Each Other

 Co-Channel Reuse Factor
 If the Base Station Power is the
Same,and Cell Radius is also Almost then Same, then Q, the Co-Channel Reuse Factor is defined as  Q = D / R = √3 N
G F

D

B C A D E B G A F E D F E C G A D F E B C G A D B C

 Signal to Interference Ratio
 S/I = (D/R) =
n

(√3 N )

n

io

io

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Co-Channel Interference and System Capacity
 Co-Channel Interference:
Co-Channel Reuse Factor
G A F v-axis E B G V2 C A G V1D F B C A F E G D u1Cos 30 A F u2Cos 30 E D F E C G D E B C C1=(u1, v1) B C C2=(u2, v2) B C G A D B C

 Q = D / R = √3 N  Consider two adjacent co-channel cells,
centered at C1 = (u1, v1) and C2 = (u2, v2)

 C1 = (u1 Cos 30 , v1+u1Sin 30 )  C2 = (u2 Cos 30o, v2+u2Sin 30o)  Distance between them is D
systems, it is
G

o

o

R
A

B

F

DF
D u1Sin 30 B C

A
E u2

D

u-axis

 In terms of X-axis and V-axis Coordinate

F E

A
E u1

u2Sin 30

 D = [(u2-u1)2+(v2-v1)2+(v2-v1)(u2-u1)]1/2  In case of (u1, v1) moved to the origin,
we have

G

x-axis

D

D = [(u2)2+(v2)2+(v2)(u2)]1/2  In case of normalization, D = (i2+j2+ij)1/2
 Distance between any two adjacent Cells = 2 R Cos 30o

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Co-Channel Interference and System Capacity
 Co-Channel Interference:
 Co-Channel Reuse Factor
 The Co-Channel Interference is a
function of Q, Co-Channel Reuse Factor?

 Under normalized condition, 1/2 D = (i2+j2+ij)

But, the actual distance is

D = √3

R (i2+j2+ij)

1/2

 Area of a hexagonal cell = 2.59
R =
2 2

kR

2

 Ratio of large hexagon area to a single cell area 3N = 3(i +j +ij) or D /R = 3N or Q =
2 2 2 2

 Area of large hexagonal cell =
kD = k [3R (i2+j2+ij)]
2

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Co-Channel Interference and System Capacity  Q = D / R = √3 N and
S/I = (D/R)
n

= (√3 N ) io io

n

N 3 4 7 9 12

D/R = 3 N 3 3.46 4.58 5.2 6

S/I -11 -13 -18 -20 -23

Ch. Cap per Cell 138 104 59 46 34

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Co-Channel Interference and System Capacity  Relationship between Co-Channel Reuse Ratio Q and SIR
 SIR = (Q)n/Number of Interfering Cells in the First Tier, n is the Path Loss Exponent (2-5 depending on the type of area)

D D D D

D D D + R

D + R D

D D DR R

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Adjacent Cell Interference and System Capacity
 Adjacent-Channel Interference [ACI]:
An Interference Arising from Energy SpillOver between Two Adjacent Channels  ACI results from the Imperfect behavior of the Rx Filters Allowing nearby Frequencies to Leak into the Pass-band  ACI can be minimized through careful filter design and Channel Assignment [ by keeping the Inter-Channel Frequency Difference as large as Possible]  Some Channel Assignment Schemes keeps this Difference in a cell by at least N Channel Bandwidths, where N is the Cluster Size
F 6,13,20,2 7 D 4,11,18,2 5 A 1,8,15,22 G 7,14,21,2 8

B 2,9,16,23

C 3,10,17,2 4

E 5,12,19,2 6

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service
 Trunking

Theory

 Developed by a Danish Mathematician, A.K. Earling in the Late 19th Century  It helps in Establishing a Trunked System which can Provide Communication Services to a Large Group of Users with Limited Number of Available Circuits / Channels in the System [based on a certain GOS]  A Sharing Concept: Large Number of Users Share a Small Number of Channels in a Cell/System  Based on a Statistical Behavior of Users  All PSTN/Cellular Radio Systems Exploit Trunking to Cover a Large User Community with their Limited Number of Circuits / Frequency Spectrum

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service
 Trunking Terminology
Call Set up Time: Time Required to Allocate a Trunked Radio
Channel to a Requesting User

Blocked/Lost Call: A Call that can not be Completed at the Time
of the Request, due to Congestion

Holding Time: Average Duration of a typical Call, denoted by H Request Rate: Average Number of Call Requests/Unit Time
[denoted by λ]

Traffic Intensity : Average Channel Occupancy, measured in
Earlings A Channel that Remains Occupied Cent/Cent [All the Time] is said to Carry a Traffic of One Earling. For Example, if a Channel remained busy for 1 hr/hr or 1 min/min , its Traffic Intensity is 1 Earling. And, a Channel that remained under use for 30 mins in an hr, its Traffic Intensity is 0.5 Earling [Denoted by A]

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service
 Trunking Terminology – Cont’d
Load: The System-wide Traffic Intensity Grade of Service (GOS): A Measure of Congestion, in terms
of Probability of Call being Blocking or Call being Delayed [ 0 < GOS < 1]

Traffic Intensity Offered by a User: Au = λ H (in Earlings) Total System Traffic / Load = A = Au, U, where U is the total
number of System Users

Traffic Intensity per Channel: If C is the Total number of
Channels in a System, and given Load A, then the Traffic Intensity / Channel, Ac = A/C

Maximum System Traffic Capacity: Equal to the number of
Available Channels [in Earlings]

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service
Trunking Systems
 Blocked Calls Cleared (BCC) Trunking Systems:

Any Call Request at any time will be Served Immediately if
Some Free Channel is Available in the Pool A Call will be Blocked [and Lost] if no Free Channel is Available at the Time of Request The Blocked User is Free to Try Again Later at any Time.  Assumptions:  Calls Arrive According to Poisson Distribution
POISSON DISTRIBUTION:A Statistical Process that Applies to a Sequence of Events which take
place at regular intervals of time or throughout a continuous interval of time. It has got many Applications such as number of customers arriving at a Gasoline Station, Number of Air Planes arriving at an Airport, or Number of Phone Calls arriving at a Switch [MTX]. Let C be total # of Trunks [Channels], and A be the Offered Traffic in Earlings, then the Probability of all the C Channels are busy or in other words Probability of Blocking is defined by the following Poisson Distribution; P(C;A) = P(Blocking) =A
C

e

-A

Where e = 1/∑ A = GOS
k

-A

C

k

C!

k!

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service
Trunking Systems-Cont’d
 Blocked Calls Cleared (BCC) Trunking Systems  Assumptions[Continued]:

 There is Infinite Number of Users*  Memoryless Arrivals of Requests -> Any User, including the blocked
one, can make a request at any time  Probability of a User Occupying a Channel is Exponentially Distributed -> Longer Calls are Less likely to Occur  Finite Number of Available Channels in the Pool

 Such a System is called an Earling B System which is governed by Earling B Formula [EBF], as given in the Equation 3.16 in the book. * Practical Trunking Radio Systems always have finite number of users, however, it is typical that the number of Users in a system always outnumber the available channels by orders of magnitudes. So, EBF, gives us a modest measure of GOS as the actual systems, where users are finite, will face less chances of a call blockage

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service
Trunking Systems
 Blocked Calls Cleared (BCC) Trunking Systems-Cont’d
Table-1: Capacity of an Earling B System

System Capacity [Earlings] for GOS
No. of Channels 2 4 5 10 20 24 40 70 100 0.02 0.223 1.09 1.66 5.08 13.2 16.6 31 59.1 88 0.01 0.153 0.869 1.36 4.46 12 15.3 29 56.1 84.1 0.005 0.105 0.701 1.13 3.96 11.1 14.2 27.3 53.7 80.9 0.002 0.065 0.535 0.9 3.43 10.1 13 25.7 51 77.4 0.001 0.046 0.439 0.762 3.09 9.41 12.2 24.5 49.2 75.2

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service
Trunking Systems
Blocked Calls Cleared (BCC) Trunking Systems-Cont’d EXAMPLE-01: Consider a small Cellular radio System of 4 Channels. There are
all together 20 Subscribers and each Subscriber is expected to generate a traffic of 0.1 Earling. Determine the Probability of Blockage [That at any Time all the 4 channels get Busy.

SOLUTION: C = 4, U = 20, and Au = 0.1. Now, A = 0.1 * 20 = 2 Earlings
P(4, 2) = 24 *
4!

e-2 = 0.09

EXAMPLE-02: GOS required is 0.02, and it is expected that 1000 calls are
generated per hr with avg. call duration of 2 min., calculate the total number of channels required by the system per cell.

SOLUTION: GOS = 0.02,

and Total Traffic per cell = 1000 x 2/60 = 33 Earling

Looking at the Table, with this GOS, we see we require 42 Channels per Cell.

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service
Trunking Systems
 Blocked Calls Delayed (BCD) Trunking Systems

 Blocked Calls are Provided with a Queue to hold the Call Request
unless a Channel becomes Available.  GOS of BCD Trunking Radio System is defined as a Probability that a Call is blocked and delayed for a time longer than t seconds. P(C;A, delay > t sec) = P(C;A, delay > 0)*P(C;A, delay >t sec | delay >0) = P(C;A, delay > 0)*exp(-(C-A)t /H) Average Delay D for all the Calls in the System is given by D = P(C;A, delay >0) * H/(C-A)  Earling C Chart is used to study the Relationship between various parameters such as Traffic Intensity A, C, and P(C;A,delay>0)

Trunking Efficiency [TE]
Trunking Efficiency (%) = [Traffic Intensity (A) / C] * 100 EXAMPLE-03: C = 48, GOS = 0.02, we Calculate A = 38.4 Earlings[Using Earling B Chart], now TE = [38.4/48]*100 = 80 %

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service  Earling B Chart - Gives Relationships among GOS, C, and A
for BCC Trunking Radio Systems

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service  Earling C Chart - Gives Relationships among GOS, C, and A
for BCD Trunking Radio Systems

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Trunking and Grade of Service

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Improving Coverage and System Capacity  Review: What is System Capacity?
C = M k N, Where N is the Cluster Size, k is the number of Channels used per Cell, and M is the Replications of the the Cluster in the given System Coverage Area. In terms of Traffic Intensity, we know that total Traffic handled by a System is A = U Au, U is the number of users in the System, and Au is the traffic generated by a typical user. Max. Value that A can assume is C [Upper Limit of the System]. From A = U Au, we can easily Conclude that as U increases, A will increase, so the Traffic Offered to the System will Increase Leading to Congestion [Blockage of the Calls]. Given an Allocated Spectrum [S = k N ] which is Fixed, We have to use some Cellular Design Techniques to Improve System Capacity [ C or A as A is a Function of C].

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Improving Coverage and System Cellular CapacityDesign Techniques to Improve System
Capacity
 Cell Splitting Technique: This Technique Improves the System Capacity by Reducing the Cluster Coverage Area [ in other words Cell Area] to Increase M, keeping Cluster Size N and Co-Channel Reuse Ratio, Q = D/R = SQRT(3N) Constant. It Maintains S/I by Reducing the Base Station Tx Power, Antenna Height, and Antenna Down-Tilting Mechanism.  Sectoring Technique: This Technique Improves the system Capacity by Reducing the Cluster Size, N, to get High value of M. Since it plays with N, thus, Changing Q and S/I. In order to use same Cell Size and Tx Power, it has to use Cell Sectoring to Avoid CoChannel Interference by using Directional Antennas. It Improves System Capacity and S/I but at the Cost of Decreased System Trunking Efficiency.

Microcell Zone Technique:

This is the Latest Technique which Improve the System

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Improving Coverage and System  Cell Splitting Technique Capacity
 Any Congested Cell is Splitted
into several Smaller Cells called uCells.  Cell [uCell] Coverage Area is Reduced -> Cluster Area is Reduced that in turn Increase M, so Improvement in System Capacity is Achieved.  Placement of the uCells is Made such that it Maintains the System Frequency Reuse Structure/Plan. Q and S/I is Maintained by
 Reduction in Tx Power, Antenna Height, and Using Antenna DownTilting Technique.
C D G F D C C E B G B G F D E G E F A C F B E

D

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Improving Coverage and System Capacity  Cell Splitting Technique
How much Reduction of Tx Power?
Pr (old Cell Boundary) ∝ Pt1 R
-n

C

D G

E

D E B F A G B C F

Pr (new Cell Boundary) ∝ Pt2 (R/2)

-n

F D C C

Equating them, we get Pt2 = Pt1 / 2 For Urban Environment, n = 4, so. Pt2 = Pt1 / 16 or 12 dB down.

n

E G B D

E

G F

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Improving Coverage and System Capacity System Growth in Cell Splitting
In the beginning, only the Congested Cells are Splitted. Different Cell Sizes in Use Demands for Different Frequency/Channel Groups and Tx Power/ Antenna Height. Size of Channel Groups Depends on the Splitting Stage. Bigger Cells are used for High Speed Traffic As the Demand Increases in Micro-cells and With More Cells get Splitted, , uCell Channel Group is made Relatively Bigger. As Splitting gets Completed, all Cells are of the same Size and Use the Entire Frequency Spectrum according to the Frequency Reuse Plan.

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Improving Coverage and System Cell Splitting Technique: Capacity

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Improving Coverage and System Cell Splitting Technique: Capacity

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Improving Coverage and System Sectoring Technique: Capacity
Improves the System Capacity by Reducing the Cluster Size, N(keeping the Cell Size same), to get more Cell Cluster Replications. As N is decreased, Q = D/R = SQRT(3N), is also decreased. As the Cell Size is kept the same, the Tx Power of the BS is to be kept the same. That will Increase the Chances of CoChannel Interference. To Improve S/I (by reducing I), we use Cell Sectoring and Use Directional Antennas.
120 Degree Sectoring [3 Freq. Groups]
2-3 2-1 2-2 3-3 2-3 2-1 2-2 3-3 1-3 1-1 1-2 4-3 3-1 3-2 4-1 4-2 1-3 1-1 1-2 4-3 3-1 3-2 4-1 4-2

6

1

2 3

5 4

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Improving Coverage and System Sectoring Technique: Capacity
Each Cell in the Cluster is Divided into 3/6 Sectors Each Sector uses a Smaller Group of Channels Reduced Trunking Efficiency With Sectoring and Use of Directional Antennas, Interference is Reduced. S/I is Improved. Number of Handoff is Increased Many Modern Systems, Within a Cell, Inter-Sector Handoff are dealt by the Mobile sets without Involving MSC. In Short, Increase in System Capacity and S/I is Achieved at the Cost of Reduction of Trunking Efficiency.

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Improving Coverage and System Sectoring Technique: Capacity

Cellular Mobile Communications-II
The Cellular Concept-System Design Fundamentals

 Improving Coverage and System Microcell Zone Technique: Capacity 
Improves the System Capacity as well as S/I ratio without Sacrificing the Trunking Efficiency of the System.

All Microcell Zones [3 or more in a Cell] use a Single Base Station but Different Tx/Rx Equipment with Reduced Tx Power. All the Channels are Placed in a Pool at the BS and Equally Shared by all uCell Zones [ No subdivision of Channels as against in Sectoring] The Antennas of Each Zone Tx/Rx are Directed inwards and Placed at the Outer Edge of the Cell. Cell Maintains its Coverage Area, CoChannel Interference is Reduced.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.