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Cellular Mobile Communications
Communications
IV
IV
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
Dr. Nasir D.
Dr. Nasir D.
Gohar
Gohar
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 2 2
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
Modeling a Radio Channel: Modeling a Radio Channel: Most difficult part Most difficult part
in Radio System Design in Radio System Design
Highly unpredictable as compared to fixed wire Highly unpredictable as compared to fixed wire
line media line media
Transmission path and its parameters keeps Transmission path and its parameters keeps
changing instantaneously changing instantaneously
Changes in path profile Changes in path profile
Obstructions Obstructions
Environmental changes Environmental changes
Typically done statistically based on field Typically done statistically based on field
measurements[System Specific] measurements[System Specific]
Physical survey * Physical survey *1 1
Computer simulation using certain models and Computer simulation using certain models and
terrain data terrain data *2 *2
*1 *1 Gives some real picture of the environment and data can be incorporated to new system design and predict its Gives some real picture of the environment and data can be incorporated to new system design and predict its
performance performance
*2 *2 Empirical Models and Terrain data may not be quite updated Empirical Models and Terrain data may not be quite updated
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 3 3
Propagation Models Propagation Models are tools used for are tools used for
Prediction Prediction of received signal strength at a certain distance from Tx of received signal strength at a certain distance from Tx
Estimation Estimation of rapid fluctuations in Rx signal strength in a close spatial of rapid fluctuations in Rx signal strength in a close spatial
proximity to a particular location proximity to a particular location
LargeScale Propagation Models LargeScale Propagation Models
Estimation/Prediction of Rx Signal Strength* [Local Average]over larger Estimation/Prediction of Rx Signal Strength* [Local Average]over larger
distances from Tx[x00xx,000 m] distances from Tx[x00xx,000 m]
Used for Coverage Area estimation Used for Coverage Area estimation
SmallScale Propagation Models SmallScale Propagation Models
Prediction/Estimation of rapid fluctuations** of Rx Signal Strength over a Prediction/Estimation of rapid fluctuations** of Rx Signal Strength over a
short distance [few wavelengths] and short time interval [few seconds] short distance [few wavelengths] and short time interval [few seconds]
Also called Fading Models Also called Fading Models
* computed by averaging signal measurements taken at intervals of 5 * computed by averaging signal measurements taken at intervals of 5λ λ to 40 to 40λ λ [110 m] [110 m]
** Rx signal strength may vary very rapidly (over a change of a fraction of wavelength] by as large as ** Rx signal strength may vary very rapidly (over a change of a fraction of wavelength] by as large as
3040 db (3 to 4 orders of magnitude] 3040 db (3 to 4 orders of magnitude]
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 4 4
Three Basic Mechanisms Affecting Three Basic Mechanisms Affecting
Radio Signal Propagation Radio Signal Propagation
Reflection: Reflection: Signal waves Impinging upon earth surface, buildings, and Signal waves Impinging upon earth surface, buildings, and
walls [objects quite big in size as compared to wavelength walls [objects quite big in size as compared to wavelength λ λ] get ] get
reflected reflected
Diffraction: Diffraction: Signal waves get diffracted/bent around the objects, having Signal waves get diffracted/bent around the objects, having
sharp irregularities [edges], and obstructing its path between Tx and Rx sharp irregularities [edges], and obstructing its path between Tx and Rx
Signal waves reach Rx behind the obstacle[a hill, a tall building, or some Signal waves reach Rx behind the obstacle[a hill, a tall building, or some
other structures] under its shadow other structures] under its shadow
Depends on geometry of the object, amplitude, phase and polarization of the Depends on geometry of the object, amplitude, phase and polarization of the
signal wave at the point of diffraction. signal wave at the point of diffraction.
Scattering Scattering: : is caused by very small obstacles [as compared to signal is caused by very small obstacles [as compared to signal
wavelength wavelength λ λ] such as rough surface, foliage, lamp posts, street signs, ] such as rough surface, foliage, lamp posts, street signs,
etc. etc.
LargeScale Propagation Models LargeScale Propagation Models are used to are used to
predict the receive signal power or the path loss caused by above predict the receive signal power or the path loss caused by above
mechanisms. mechanisms.
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 5 5
Free Space Propagation Model Free Space Propagation Model
Used only when there exists a LineOfSight [LOS] between Tx and Rx Used only when there exists a LineOfSight [LOS] between Tx and Rx
Finds application in Satellite and LOS MW Radio Link Designing Finds application in Satellite and LOS MW Radio Link Designing
It provides Path Loss PL[dB] calculations between such TXRX as under It provides Path Loss PL[dB] calculations between such TXRX as under
PL [dB] = 10 Log [ PL [dB] = 10 Log [ λ λ
2 2
/ (4 / (4 π π d) d)
2 2
] ] …………….Eqn4.6 …………….Eqn4.6
where where λ λ is signal wavelength and d is distance between is signal wavelength and d is distance between
Tx and Rx. Tx and Rx.
ASSUMPTIONS: ASSUMPTIONS:
1. Both Tx and Rx Antennas are Unity Gain Antennas 1. Both Tx and Rx Antennas are Unity Gain Antennas
2. There is no Loss in Feeder Cable, Duplexer, and 2. There is no Loss in Feeder Cable, Duplexer, and
HPA. HPA.
HOW WE GET AT THIS RESULT ? HOW WE GET AT THIS RESULT ?
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 6 6
Free Space Propagation Model[Cont’d] Free Space Propagation Model[Cont’d]
FarField or Fraunhofer Region: FarField or Fraunhofer Region: The region beyond the fraun The region beyond the fraun
hofer distance d hofer distance d
f f
from Tx Antenna from Tx Antenna
d d
f f
= 2 D = 2 D
2 2
/ / λ λ
where D is the largest linear dimension of Tx where D is the largest linear dimension of Tx
Antenna and d Antenna and d
f f
>> D and d >> D and d
f f
>> >> λ λ . .
EIRP and ERP ? EIRP and ERP ?
Closein Distance: Closein Distance: The minimum distance >= The minimum distance >= d d
f f
where where onward onward
FreeSpace Model gets applicable. Denoted by d FreeSpace Model gets applicable. Denoted by d
o. o.
This distance is used as a known received power This distance is used as a known received power
reference point. reference point.
P P
r r
(d) = P (d) = P
r r
( (d d
o o
) ( ) (d d
o o
/ d) / d)
2 …………………….. 2 ……………………..
d d
f f
<= <= d d
o. o.
<= d <= d
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 7 7
Free Space Propagation Model[Cont’d] Free Space Propagation Model[Cont’d]
EXAMPLE4.1: EXAMPLE4.1: Find the far field distance of an antenna with Find the far field distance of an antenna with
Max. physical linear dimension of 1 m and operating frequency Max. physical linear dimension of 1 m and operating frequency
900 MHz. 900 MHz.
Let us do it together Let us do it together
EXAMPLE4.2: EXAMPLE4.2: A Radio Tx is rated for a Max output of 50 A Radio Tx is rated for a Max output of 50
Watts. Express Pt in [a] dBm [b] dBW. [c] If this Tx is used in a Watts. Express Pt in [a] dBm [b] dBW. [c] If this Tx is used in a
system which employs a unity gain Tx antenna and 900 MHz system which employs a unity gain Tx antenna and 900 MHz
carrier frequency, calculate Pr in dBm at a freespace closein carrier frequency, calculate Pr in dBm at a freespace closein
distance = 100 m. What would be Pr at 10 km from Tx. Assume distance = 100 m. What would be Pr at 10 km from Tx. Assume
unity gain Rx antenna. unity gain Rx antenna.
Who would like to do it? Who would like to do it?
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 8 8
Radiated Power and Electric Field Generated by Radiated Power and Electric Field Generated by
a Small Current Carrying Element a Small Current Carrying Element
Current carrying Current carrying
element produces E & M element produces E & M
fields fields
E & M fields launched E & M fields launched
an antenna element an antenna element
(as shown in Fig1) are (as shown in Fig1) are
given in Equation 13*. given in Equation 13*.
Three field components: Three field components:
1. Radiation field component 1. Radiation field component
2. Induction field component 2. Induction field component
3. Electrostatic field component 3. Electrostatic field component
L
P
P
d
θ
y
x
z
r
θ
* Derivation of these equations is given in H/O # 12.
Fig1
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 9 9
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
Radiated Power and Electric Radiated Power and Electric
Field Generated by a Small Field Generated by a Small
Current Carrying Element Current Carrying Element
[Cont’d] [Cont’d]
P P
d d
= EIRP/ 4 = EIRP/ 4π π d d
2 2
= P = P
t t
G G
t t
/ 4 / 4π πd d
2 2
= E = E
2 2
/ R / R
fs fs
= E = E
2 2
/ / η η W / m W / m
2 2
= E = E
2 2
/ 120 / 120π π W / m W / m
2 2 ………. ……….
4 4
P P
r r
(d) = P (d) = P
d d
A A
e e
= E = E
2 2
A A
e e
/ 120 / 120π π
= P = P
t t
G G
t t
G G
r r
λ λ
2 2
/ (4 / (4π πd) d)
2 2
W W… …5 5
P P
r r
(d) = V (d) = V
2 2
/ R / R
ant ant
= (V = (V
ant ant
) )
2 2
/ 4R / 4R
ant ant
……… ………. .6 6
Fig2 [a] Power Flux Density [ L << λ ]
Fig2 [b] Electrical Model of Voltage Applied at Rx Input
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 10 10
Radiated Power and Electric Field Generated by Radiated Power and Electric Field Generated by
a Small Current Carrying Element [Cont’d] a Small Current Carrying Element [Cont’d]
Example4.3: Example4.3: Assume a Rx is working at 10 km LOS distance from Assume a Rx is working at 10 km LOS distance from
an Isotropic Tx of 50W [Assume L = 1, and Gt = 1]. Rx has a gain Gr an Isotropic Tx of 50W [Assume L = 1, and Gt = 1]. Rx has a gain Gr
defined equal to 2. Find [a] Power received at Rx [b] Magnitude of E defined equal to 2. Find [a] Power received at Rx [b] Magnitude of E
field induced at Rx antenna, and [c] Open circuit voltage induced at field induced at Rx antenna, and [c] Open circuit voltage induced at
Rx input assuming that Rx antenna has a pure real Impedance of 50 Rx input assuming that Rx antenna has a pure real Impedance of 50
ohm and is matched with that of Rx. ohm and is matched with that of Rx.
Let us Try. Let us Try.
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 11 11
Three Basic Propagation Mechanisms Three Basic Propagation Mechanisms
Reflection Reflection
Radio wave travelling from one medium to another, having Radio wave travelling from one medium to another, having
different electric characteristics, gets partially reflected and different electric characteristics, gets partially reflected and
partially transmitted into the second medium. partially transmitted into the second medium.
Perfect Dielectric Material: Perfect Dielectric Material:
No energy absorption No energy absorption
E E
Total Total
= E = E
Reflected Reflected
+ E + E
Refracted Refracted
Perfect Conductor Material Perfect Conductor Material
No energy absorption No energy absorption
E E
Total Total
= E = E
Reflected Reflected
Fresnel Reflection Coefficient Fresnel Reflection Coefficient Γ Γ
Relates incident wave energy with reflected wave energy Relates incident wave energy with reflected wave energy
Depends on material properties, wave polarization and Depends on material properties, wave polarization and
frequency and incidence angle frequency and incidence angle
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 12 12
Three Basic Propagation Mechanisms Three Basic Propagation Mechanisms
Reflection Reflection
Fresnel Reflection Coefficient Fresnel Reflection Coefficient
Intrinsic Impedance Intrinsic Impedance η η
η η = ( = (µ µ/ /ε ε) )
1/2 1/2
Velocity of EM wave = 1/ ( Velocity of EM wave = 1/ (µε µε) )
1/2 1/2
θ θ
i = i =
θ θ
r r
E E
r r
= = Γ Γ E E
i i
E E
t t
= = (1 + (1 + Γ Γ) E ) E
i i
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 13 13
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
Three Basic Propagation Three Basic Propagation
Mechanisms Mechanisms
Reflection Reflection
Brewster Angle Brewster Angle
An angle at which no An angle at which no
reflection occurs in the reflection occurs in the
medium of origin. medium of origin.
Occurs when incidence Occurs when incidence
angle angle θ θ
B B
is such that is such that
Γ Γ becomes zero. becomes zero.
Sin Sin θ θ
B B
= ( = (ε ε
1 1
/ / ε ε
1 1
+ + ε ε
2 2
) )
1/2 1/2
Sin Sin θ θ
B B
= ( = (ε ε
r r
1 1
/ ( / (ε ε
r r
) )
2 2
1) 1)
1/2 1/2
Magnitude of reflection coefficients as a function of angle of
incidence for ε ε
r r
= 4, ε ε
r r
= 12
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 14 14
Three Basic Propagation Mechanisms Three Basic Propagation Mechanisms
Reflection Reflection
Perfect Conductor Perfect Conductor
All Wave Energy is reflected [Maxwell’s Boundary Conditions] All Wave Energy is reflected [Maxwell’s Boundary Conditions]
θ θ
i = i =
θ θ
r r
E field in plane of incidence [Vertical Polarization], E field in plane of incidence [Vertical Polarization], Γ Γ
ii ii
= 1, thus, = 1, thus,
E E
r r
= = E E
i i
E field normal to the plane of incidence [Horizontal Polarization], E field normal to the plane of incidence [Horizontal Polarization],
Γ Γ
1 1
= 1, thus, E = 1, thus, E
r r
= = E E
i i
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 15 15
Three Basic Propagation Mechanisms Three Basic Propagation Mechanisms
Reflection Reflection
Ground Reflection (2Ray) Model Ground Reflection (2Ray) Model
Direct Path Signal and GroundReflected Path Signal [Fig1] are Direct Path Signal and GroundReflected Path Signal [Fig1] are
considered considered
Provides a reasonably accurate prediction of largescale signal Provides a reasonably accurate prediction of largescale signal
strength [over several km distance]* strength [over several km distance]*
Also, used for LOS MW Radio Link Designing** Also, used for LOS MW Radio Link Designing**
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
* Mobile Radio Systems using tall towers[50m]
** 3rd ray reflected from ionosphere layer is also used
ht
hr
E LOS
Tx
Rx
E R = E G
E I
d
Fig1: Two Ray Model
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 16 16
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
Ground Reflection (2Ray) Model[Cont’d] Ground Reflection (2Ray) Model[Cont’d]
E E
ToT ToT
= E = E
LOS LOS
+ E + E
g g
At Closein distance, E(d At Closein distance, E(d
o o
, t) = E , t) = E
o o
d d
o o
Cos ( Cos (ω ω
c c
t) t)
At distance d, E(d, t) = E At distance d, E(d, t) = E
o o
d d
o o
/ d / d
Cos Cos ω ω
c c
(t  d/c) … (t  d/c) …[1] (d >> d [1] (d >> d
o o
) )
E E
ToT ToT
 = E  = E
LOS LOS
+ E + E
g g
 
Fig2: Method of Images used to find path difference of E
LOS
and E
g
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 17 17
Ground Reflection (2Ray) Model[Cont’d] Ground Reflection (2Ray) Model[Cont’d]
It can be shown [as derived in class, H/O # 13] that It can be shown [as derived in class, H/O # 13] that
E E
ToT ToT
(d) = 2 E (d) = 2 E
o o
d d
o o
/ d [2 / d [2π π h h
t t
h h
r r
/ / λ λd d
] ]
We know that P We know that P
r r
(d) =  E (d) =  E
ToT ToT
(d) (d)
2 2
. A . A
e e
/ 377 / 377 Watts Watts
EXAMPLE4.6: EXAMPLE4.6: A mobile station with A mobile station with λ λ/4 antenna length and /4 antenna length and
gain of 2.55 dB[1.8] is located at a distance of 5 km from Base gain of 2.55 dB[1.8] is located at a distance of 5 km from Base
Station. The electric field strength measured at 1 km distance Station. The electric field strength measured at 1 km distance
from the Base Station is 1 mV/m. The carrier frequency used is from the Base Station is 1 mV/m. The carrier frequency used is
900 MHz. 900 MHz.
[a] Find the length of the Mobile antenna. [a] Find the length of the Mobile antenna.
[b] If Base Station is using an antenna tower of height 50 m [b] If Base Station is using an antenna tower of height 50 m
from ground level, and Mobile antenna is at 1.5 m from ground level, and Mobile antenna is at 1.5 m
above the ground level, find the received power at the above the ground level, find the received power at the
Mobile antenna, using 2Ray Model Mobile antenna, using 2Ray Model
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 18 18
Diffraction Diffraction
A Mechanism that helps wave propagation A Mechanism that helps wave propagation
around curved surface of earth, around curved surface of earth,
beyond the horizon and beyond the horizon and
behind obstacles (shadow zones). behind obstacles (shadow zones).
Huygen’s Principle states Huygen’s Principle states
all the points (obstructions) on a wavefront become point sources for all the points (obstructions) on a wavefront become point sources for
production of secondary wavelets which combine(vector sum) to production of secondary wavelets which combine(vector sum) to
form a new wavefront (in the direction of propagation), and this new form a new wavefront (in the direction of propagation), and this new
wavefront is called diffracted wavefront wavefront is called diffracted wavefront
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
Fig1: A typical Urban Environment Showing Multipath and Shadowing Fig1: A typical Urban Environment Showing Multipath and Shadowing
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 19 19
Fig2: [a] Anther Exhibition of Shadowing Effect [b] Marine Environment Showing Shadowing and Multipath Fig2: [a] Anther Exhibition of Shadowing Effect [b] Marine Environment Showing Shadowing and Multipath
[a] [a]
[b] [b]
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 20 20
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
Fresnel Zone Fresnel Zone
In multipath environment, obstacles on the path of radio waves cause diffraction. In multipath environment, obstacles on the path of radio waves cause diffraction.
Fresnel, the inventor of fresnel model, postulated that the xsection of optical wave Fresnel, the inventor of fresnel model, postulated that the xsection of optical wave
front(electromagnetic wavefront) is divided into zones of concentric circles, front(electromagnetic wavefront) is divided into zones of concentric circles,
separated by separated by λ λ/2. The radius of nth fresnel zone is given by /2. The radius of nth fresnel zone is given by
R R
n n
= [n = [n λ λ d d
1 1
d d
2 2
/ d / d
1 1
+ d + d
2 2
] ]
1/2 ………………………………………..[1] 1/2 ………………………………………..[1]
Fig3: The Fresnel Zones Fig3: The Fresnel Zones
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 21 21
Effect of Fresnel Zone Effect of Fresnel Zone
Equation1 Equation1 implies two things: implies two things:
For a given Tx antenna height, higher the transmission frequency, more For a given Tx antenna height, higher the transmission frequency, more
the distance a radio signal will cover before the first fresnel zone touches the distance a radio signal will cover before the first fresnel zone touches
the ground the ground
For a given Tx frequency, higher the Tx antenna, more the distance a For a given Tx frequency, higher the Tx antenna, more the distance a
radio signal will cover before the first fresnel zone touches the ground radio signal will cover before the first fresnel zone touches the ground
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
Fig4: [a] Effect of Frequency on Fresnel Zones [b] Effect of Tx Antenna Height Fig4: [a] Effect of Frequency on Fresnel Zones [b] Effect of Tx Antenna Height
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 22 22
Fresnel Zone Geometry Fresnel Zone Geometry
Tx and Rx separated by an
obstruction of infinite width
Excess path length, ∆, can
be obtained from Fig5[b]
∆ ≈ h
2
(d
1
+ d
2
)/ 2d
1
d
2
……….2
The corresponding phase
difference is given as
θ
∆
= 2 π ∆ / λ = π h
2
(d
1
+d
2
)/
λd
1
d
2
α ≈ h (d
1
+ d
2
)/ d
1
d
2
θ
∆
= π v
2
/ 2 where
v = h[2(d
1
+d
2
)/ λd
1
d
2
]
1/2
v is known as FresnelKirchoff
Diffraction parameter.
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
Fig5: KnifeEdge Diffraction Geometry Fig5: KnifeEdge Diffraction Geometry
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 23 23
KnifeEdge Diffraction Model KnifeEdge Diffraction Model
Theoretical estimation
modified by necessary
empirical correction
Difficult to predict accurately
for actual complex & irregular
terrain
Mathematical expressions for
simple cases have been
derived.
KnifeEdge Model represents
the simplest case, one
obstruction.
E
d
= E
o
F(v) ………………..2
G
d
(dB) = 20 log  F(v) ……3
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
Fig6: KnifeEdge Diffraction Geometry Fig6: KnifeEdge Diffraction Geometry
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 24 24
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
KnifeEdge Diffraction Model KnifeEdge Diffraction Model
Fig7: KnifeEdge Diffraction Gain as a Function of v Fig7: KnifeEdge Diffraction Gain as a Function of v
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 25 25
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
KnifeEdge Diffraction Model KnifeEdge Diffraction Model
EXAMPLE01: EXAMPLE01:
Calculate the Diffraction Loss for Calculate the Diffraction Loss for
three cases as shown in Fig4.12. three cases as shown in Fig4.12.
Assume Assume λ λ = .33 m, d = .33 m, d
1 1
= d = d
2 2
= 1 km = 1 km
and [a] h = 25 m [b] h = 0 m and and [a] h = 25 m [b] h = 0 m and
[c] h = 25 m [c] h = 25 m
Fig4.12: Fresnel Zones for Different knifeedge Diff. Scenarios Fig4.12: Fresnel Zones for Different knifeedge Diff. Scenarios
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 26 26
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
KnifeEdge Diffraction Model KnifeEdge Diffraction Model
EXAMPLE02: EXAMPLE02:
Calculate the Diffraction Loss for Calculate the Diffraction Loss for
the KnifeEdge Scenario as shown the KnifeEdge Scenario as shown
Fig9. Also, calculate the height Fig9. Also, calculate the height
of obstacle to get 6 dB Diff. Loss. of obstacle to get 6 dB Diff. Loss.
Assume f = 900 MHz. Assume f = 900 MHz.
Fig9: Knifeedge Geometry for Example02 Fig9: Knifeedge Geometry for Example02
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 27 27
OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS
Many Models, LongleyRice Model, Durkin Model, Okummura, Many Models, LongleyRice Model, Durkin Model, Okummura,
Hata, etc., mostly based on systematic interpretation of Hata, etc., mostly based on systematic interpretation of
measurement data in the area concerned measurement data in the area concerned
Aim is to predict signal strength at a particular point or in a Aim is to predict signal strength at a particular point or in a
certain locality certain locality
Differ in their approach, complexity, and accuracy. Differ in their approach, complexity, and accuracy.
Classical and most commonly used models: Classical and most commonly used models:
Okumura Model Okumura Model
Hata Model Hata Model
Walfisch and Bertoni Model Walfisch and Bertoni Model
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 28 28
OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS
Okumura Model Okumura Model
Simplest and best in terms of accuracy [mature and land mobile Simplest and best in terms of accuracy [mature and land mobile
radio systems] radio systems]
Mostly used for urban and suburban area Mostly used for urban and suburban area
Applicable for frequencies 150 MHz  1920 MHz [Can be Applicable for frequencies 150 MHz  1920 MHz [Can be
extrapolated up to 3 GHz extrapolated up to 3 GHz
Range covered is 1 km to 100 km Range covered is 1 km to 100 km
Applicable antenna heights range from 30 m to 1000 m. Applicable antenna heights range from 30 m to 1000 m.
A purely statistical model that does not provide any analytical A purely statistical model that does not provide any analytical
explanation explanation
Not suitable for rural areas Not suitable for rural areas
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 29 29
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
OUTDOOR PROPAGATION OUTDOOR PROPAGATION
MODELS MODELS
Okumura Model Okumura Model
Provides a set of curves [Fig1] Provides a set of curves [Fig1]
based on extensive based on extensive
measurements measurements
Application of this model Application of this model
Calculate free space loss Lf Calculate free space loss Lf
Add to this, A (f, d) found from Add to this, A (f, d) found from
these curves these curves
Some corrections are applied for Some corrections are applied for
terrain type[Fig2, Next Slide] terrain type[Fig2, Next Slide]
Fig1 Median attenuation relative to free space
(a
mu
(f,d)), over a quasismooth terrain
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 30 30
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
OUTDOOR PROPAGATION OUTDOOR PROPAGATION
MODELS MODELS
Okumura Model Okumura Model
EXAMPLE01: EXAMPLE01: Using Okumura’s Using Okumura’s
model, find median attenuation for model, find median attenuation for
d = 50 km, Tx antenna = 100 m d = 50 km, Tx antenna = 100 m
and Rx antenna = 10 m in a and Rx antenna = 10 m in a
suburban area. If Tx EIRP is 1 kW suburban area. If Tx EIRP is 1 kW
at 900 MHz, find the signal receive at 900 MHz, find the signal receive
level at mobile station ( assume its level at mobile station ( assume its
antenna gain = 0 dB]. antenna gain = 0 dB].
Solution: Solution: 1. Calculate L 1. Calculate L
F F
2. Calculate L 2. Calculate L
50 50
3. P 3. P
r r
= EIRP  = EIRP  L L
50 50
+ G + G
r r
Fig2 Okumura Model Correction Curves
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 31 31
OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS
Hata Model Hata Model
Empirical formulation of Okumura Model graphical curves Empirical formulation of Okumura Model graphical curves
Valid for 150  1500 MHz frequency range Valid for 150  1500 MHz frequency range
Standard formula provides urban area propagation loss and corrections are Standard formula provides urban area propagation loss and corrections are
applied for other areas applied for other areas
Tx antenna height range is limited to 30 to 200 m Tx antenna height range is limited to 30 to 200 m
Rx antenna height is limited to 3 to 10 m Rx antenna height is limited to 3 to 10 m
Hata Model standard formula: Hata Model standard formula:
Urban Area: Urban Area:
Suburban Area: Suburban Area:
Rural Area: Rural Area:
Mobile antenna correction factor: Mobile antenna correction factor:
Small to medium size city: Small to medium size city:
Large city: Large city:
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 32 32
Urban area:
Urban area:
L L
50 50
= 69.55 + 26.16 = 69.55 + 26.16
log log
f f
c c
13.82 13.82 log log
h h
b b
a a( (h h
m m
) + (44.96.55 log ) + (44.96.55 log
h h
b b
) log ) log R R
where where
f f
c c
frequency (MHz) frequency (MHz)
L L
50 50
mean path loss (dB) mean path loss (dB)
H H
b b
base station antenna height base station antenna height
a a( (h h
m m
) ) correction factor for mobile antenna height (dB) correction factor for mobile antenna height (dB)
R R distance from base station (km) distance from base station (km)
The range of the parameters for which Hata’s model is valid is The range of the parameters for which Hata’s model is valid is
150 150 ≤ ≤ f f
c c
≤ ≤ 1500 MHz 1500 MHz
30 30 ≤ ≤ h h
b b
≤ ≤ 200 m 200 m
1 1 ≤ ≤ h h
m m
≤ ≤ 10 m 10 m
1 1 ≤ ≤ R R ≤ ≤ 20 km 20 km
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 33 33
Urban area (cont.):
Urban area (cont.):
For a small or mediumsized city: For a small or mediumsized city:
a a( (h h
m m
)=(1.1 log )=(1.1 log
f f
c c
0.7) 0.7) h h
m m
(1.56 log (1.56 log
f f
c c
0.8 ) dB 0.8 ) dB
For a large city: For a large city:
a a( (h h
m m
)=8.29(log )=8.29(log
1.54 1.54 h h
m m
) )
2 2
1.1 dB, 1.1 dB,
f f
c c
≤ ≤ 200 MHz 200 MHz
or or
a a( (h h
m m
)=3.2(log )=3.2(log
11.75 11.75 h h
m m
) )
2 2
4.97 dB, 4.97 dB,
f f
c c
≥ ≥ 400 MHz 400 MHz
Suburban area: Suburban area:
Open Area: Open Area:
L L
50 50
= = L L
50 50
( (urban urban) 4.78 (log ) 4.78 (log f f
c c
) )
2 2
+18.33 (log +18.33 (log f f
c c
) 40.94 ) 40.94
L
50
·L
50
urban ( ) 2 log
f
c
28

.
`
,
]
]
]
2
+5.4
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
dB
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 34 34
OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS
PCS Extension of Hata Model by EUROCOST231 PCS Extension of Hata Model by EUROCOST231
Extended version of Hata Model suitable for PCS1800 system Extended version of Hata Model suitable for PCS1800 system
Valid for 15002000 MHz frequency range Valid for 15002000 MHz frequency range
Standard formula provides urban area propagation loss and a correction Standard formula provides urban area propagation loss and a correction
factors are applied for mobile antenna[same as in Hata Model] and C factors are applied for mobile antenna[same as in Hata Model] and C
M M
for city for city
type type
Tx antenna height range is limited to 30 to 200 m Tx antenna height range is limited to 30 to 200 m
Rx antenna height is limited to 1 to 10 m Rx antenna height is limited to 1 to 10 m
TxRx separation is limited to 120 km TxRx separation is limited to 120 km
HataCOST231 Model standard formula: HataCOST231 Model standard formula:
C C
M M
: :
Suburban and medium size city: 0 dB Suburban and medium size city: 0 dB
Large city and Metropolitan center: 3 dB Large city and Metropolitan center: 3 dB
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 35 35
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS
Walfisch and Bertoni Model Walfisch and Bertoni Model
Impact of rooftops and building height is studied Impact of rooftops and building height is studied
IMTR considers this Model as a candidate for IMT2000 standard IMTR considers this Model as a candidate for IMT2000 standard
activities activities
This model considers free space loss plus rooftop to street diffraction This model considers free space loss plus rooftop to street diffraction
and scatter loss, and multiscreen diffraction loss due to rows of the and scatter loss, and multiscreen diffraction loss due to rows of the
buildings [Fig3] buildings [Fig3]
Fig3: Propagation Geometry for Walfisch and Bertoni Model Fig3: Propagation Geometry for Walfisch and Bertoni Model
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 36 36
INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS
Advent of Advent of PCS PCS generated an impulse to study wave propagation generated an impulse to study wave propagation
inside buildings. inside buildings.
Main differences Main differences between outdoor and indoor wave propagation between outdoor and indoor wave propagation
characteristics are; characteristics are;
The The distance distance covered are much smaller covered are much smaller
Within such a smaller range of Tx Rx separation, a much Within such a smaller range of Tx Rx separation, a much larger larger
environmental variation environmental variation is encountered is encountered
Wave propagation is strongly influenced by Wave propagation is strongly influenced by
Building layout Building layout
Construction materials Construction materials
Building type Building type
Same three mechanisms: Reflection, Diffraction, and Scattering Same three mechanisms: Reflection, Diffraction, and Scattering
are main reasons of signal propagation and attenuation are main reasons of signal propagation and attenuation
Signal level varies very quickly depending upon: Signal level varies very quickly depending upon:
Interior doors are open or closed Interior doors are open or closed
Antenna mounting Antenna mounting
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 37 37
INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS
Partition Losses: Partition Losses: Partitions play an important role in signal Partitions play an important role in signal
propagation within buildings. propagation within buildings.
Hard Partitions Hard Partitions: Part of building structure and immoveable partitions : Part of building structure and immoveable partitions
such as fixed internal walls, reinforced concrete between floors, etc such as fixed internal walls, reinforced concrete between floors, etc
Soft Partitions: Soft Partitions: Moveable and not spanning to the ceiling, such as Moveable and not spanning to the ceiling, such as
office partitions office partitions
Same Floor: Same Floor: A floor inside a building may have a combination of A floor inside a building may have a combination of
partitions, hard as well as soft partitions partitions, hard as well as soft partitions
Inter Floor: Inter Floor: Mainly fixed partitions, concrete floors, external Mainly fixed partitions, concrete floors, external
dimensions and materials of the building dimensions and materials of the building
Partitions Offer Wide Variety of Physical As Well As Partitions Offer Wide Variety of Physical As Well As
Electrical Characteristics Electrical Characteristics
Difficult to apply general models to indoor radio signal propagation Difficult to apply general models to indoor radio signal propagation
Some measurement data describes radio signal attenuation while Some measurement data describes radio signal attenuation while
crossing various kinds of partitions or across a number of floors [See crossing various kinds of partitions or across a number of floors [See
Table4.3, 4.4, and 4.5] Table4.3, 4.4, and 4.5]
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 38 38
INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS
Partition Losses Partition Losses
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 39 39
INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS
Partition Losses Partition Losses
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 40 40
INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS
Partition Losses Partition Losses
Table4.4 and Table4.5 Table4.4 and Table4.5
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 41 41
INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS
LogDistance Path Loss Model LogDistance Path Loss Model
Many Researchers have shown that radio signal propagation Many Researchers have shown that radio signal propagation
inside buildings obey distance power law given by inside buildings obey distance power law given by
PL(dB) = PL (d PL(dB) = PL (d
o o
) + 10 n log (d/d ) + 10 n log (d/d
o o
) + X ) + X
σ σ
……………Eqn. 1 ……………Eqn. 1
Where n depends on surroundings and building type, and X Where n depends on surroundings and building type, and X
σ σ
is a random variable depending on standard deviation is a random variable depending on standard deviation σ σ [dB]. [dB].
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
See Table4.6 on next slide See Table4.6 on next slide
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 42 42
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 T.S. Rappaport Ch 45 NDG Notes NDG Notes 43 43
INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS INDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS
Ericsson Multiple Breakpoint Model Ericsson Multiple Breakpoint Model
Empirical Model based on measurements in a multiple floor office Empirical Model based on measurements in a multiple floor office
building building
Provides an upper and lower bound on path loss Provides an upper and lower bound on path loss
Assumes that at 1 meter distance(from Tx) there is 30 dB loss at 900 Assumes that at 1 meter distance(from Tx) there is 30 dB loss at 900
MHz. MHz.
Mobile Radio Propagation
Mobile Radio Propagation
Fig1 Fig1 Ericsson Inbuilding Path Loss Model Ericsson Inbuilding Path Loss Model
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