Presented By: M. Fasih-ur-Rehman Presented To: Dr.

Sajjad Maqbool

Rigid Pavement

Those which are surfaced with Portland Cement Concrete (PCC). These types of pavements are called “Rigid" because they are substantially stiffer than flexible pavements due to PCC's high stiffness.

Surfaces of a Typical Rigid Pavement
 Surface

course

This is the top layer, which consists of the PCC slab.

Surfaces of a Typical Rigid Pavement
Base

course

This is the layer directly below the PCC layer and generally consists of aggregate or stabilized subgrade.

Lean Concrete Base Material

Surfaces of a Typical Rigid Pavement:

Sub-base course

The base course is immediately beneath the surface course. It:
Minimizes the intrusion of fines from the sub-grade into the pavement structure. Improves drainage. Minimizes frost action damage. Provides a working platform for construction.

• • • •

Why Rigid Pavement is Constructed?

Load distribution is on wider area.

So additional base and sub-base layers are not necessarily required.

Why Rigid Pavement is Constructed?
 

Due to higher strength it carries more load and undergoes less wear and tear. The chemical and mechanical resistance of rigid pavements is excellent, making them ideal for high traffic loading and container terminals etc. Initial cost of rigid pavement is high but its lesser maintenance cost and long life with more load carrying capacity make it economical.

Types of Rigid Pavement

Rigid pavements are differentiated into three major categories by their means of crack control.

Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP) Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement (JRCP) Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP)

Types of Rigid Pavement

Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP)
JPCP controls cracks by dividing the pavement up into individual slabs separated by contraction joints. Slabs are typically one lane wide and between 3.7 m (12 ft.) and 6.1 m (20 ft.) long. It does not use any reinforcing steel but does use dowel bars and tie bars.

Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP)

Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP)

Types of Rigid Pavement

Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement (JRCP) JRCP uses contraction joints and reinforcing steel to control cracking. Transverse joint spacing is longer than that for JPCP and typically ranges from about 7.6 m (25 ft.) to 15.2 m (50 ft.). Temperature and moisture stresses are expected to cause cracking between joints, hence reinforcing steel is used to hold these cracks tightly together.

Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement (JRCP)

Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement (JRCP)

Types of Rigid Pavement

Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP) CRCP does not require any contraction joints. Transverse cracks are allowed to form but are held tightly together with continuous reinforcing steel.

Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP)

Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP)

Types of Rigid Pavement

Fiber Reinforced Concrete: In FRC, the amount and location of reinforcement is not governed by loading and tensile stresses. Fibers are randomly dispersed to increase the strength of concrete. They may be steel, polypropylene, polyethylene or nylon.

Steel Fibers

Synthetic Fibers

Joints in Rigid Pavement
Joints are purposefully placed discontinuities in a rigid pavement surface course.  Concrete pavements are subjected to volumetric changes due to temperature changes, shrinkage and change in moisture content.  To minimize the affect of these stresses, joints are provided.

Types of Joints

The most common types of pavement joints, defined by their function, are
• • • • •

Contraction Joints Expansion Joints Construction Joints Longitudinal Joints Isolation Joints

Types of Joints

Contraction Joints: Temperature changes cause contraction in the concrete which induces tensile stresses and slab cracks. A contraction joint is a sawed, formed, or tooled groove in a concrete slab that creates a weakened vertical plane.

Typical Contraction Joint

Contraction Joints

Rigid Pavement Showing The middle lane contraction joint Contraction Joints was not sawed resulting in a transverse slab crack. The outer lanes have proper Contraction Joints and therefore, no cracking

Contraction Joints

Function of Dowel Bar:

Contraction Joints

Skewed Contraction Joint:

Skewed joints are cut at obtuse angles to the direction of traffic flow to help with load transfer. If the joint is properly skewed, the left wheel of each axle will cross onto the leave slab first and only one wheel will cross the joint at a time. which results in lower load transfer stresses

Skewed Contraction Joint

Types of Joints

Expansion Joints: Expansion takes place when the temperature of the slab rises above the value when it was laid. Expansion joints are intended to provide space in the pavement for expansion of the slab. These are omitted altogether.

Typical Expansion Joint

Types of Joints

Construction Joints: A construction joint is between slabs that results when concrete is placed at different times. These joints can be longitudinal as well as transverse.

Construction Joints

Longitudinal and Transverse Construction Joints

Types of Joints

Longitudinal Joints:

When the pavement width is more than, say 5m, Stresses are produced in longitudinal direction It is necessary to provide a longitudinal joint with some form of load transferring device.

Typical Longitudinal Joints

Types of Joints

Isolation Joints: An isolation joint is used to lessen compressive stresses that develop between the pavement and a structure (or another existing pavement) They are typically filled with a joint filler material to prevent water and dirt infiltration.

Isolation Joints

Roofing Paper Used for an Isolation Joint

Design of Rigid Pavement

There are mainly four design techniques for rigid pavements, which are
• • •

Indian Design Guidelines Design by Westergaard Method AASHTO Method of Rigid Pavement Design UK Design Curve (By Road Note)

Design of Rigid Pavement

Indian Design Guidelines:

These guidelines are not used internationally. This method is not used world wide and is practiced only in India.

Indian Design Guidelines Charts

Design of Rigid Pavement
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Design by Westergaard Method: Inputs
  

Wheel Load Heaviest single axle load Flexural Stress of Concrete Mod. of Rupture Mod. Of Sub-grade Reaction it is determined by Plat Load Test and is expressed as k=p/δ where p = applied pressure to soil δ = is corresponding deflection

Design by Westergaard Method

Design of Rigid Pavement
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AASHTO Method of Rigid Pavement Design: Inputs
     

Calculation of Design Load(W18) for design life Reliability “R” in (%) Overall Standard Deviation, So Design Serviceability Loss (▲PSI) Modulus of Sub-grade Reaction Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

After these calculation use the following graph

AASHTO chart for Rigid Pavement

AASHTO chart for Rigid Pavement

Design of Rigid Pavement

UK Design Curve (By Road Note)

After calculation of W18, the design chart for rigid pavement by Road Note is used to find the thickness.