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Major Viral, Bacterial, and Fungal Diseases of Humans

By: Semar Jugan Kimberly Tablazon

Mary Lyon Fajardo Dello, Jessa Kezia Villar

Introduction
2 categories of diseases Microbial intoxications
- follow ingestion of a toxin produced outside the body by a pathogen

Infectious disease
- follow colonization of the body by a pathogen

THE INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE SKIN

Infectious Diseases of the Skin General Info:



Epidermis Dermis Dermatitis Sebaceous glands -sebum Folliculitis Sty (stye) Furuncle (boil) Carbuncle

Viral Infections of the Skin

German Measles, Rubella Measles, Hard Measles, Rubeola

Chickenpox and Shingles

Monkeypox

Smallpox

Warts

Bacterial Infections of the Skin

Acne

Anthrax, Woolsorters Disease

Bacterial Infections of the Skin

Leprosy, Hansen or Hansens Disease

Gas Gangrene, Myonecrosis

Bacterial Infections of the Skin


Staphylococcal Skin Infections (Folliculitis, Furuncles, Carbuncles, Abscesses, Impetigo, Impetigo of the Newborn, Scalded Skin Syndrome).

Carbuncles

Folliculitis

Bacterial Infections of the Skin


Streptococcal Skin Infections (Scarlet Fever, Erysipelas, Necrotizing Fasciitis)

Fungal Infections of the Skin

Dermatophytosis , Tinea (Ringworm) Infections,

Dermatomycosis

INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE EARS

Infectious Diseases of the Ears


General Info: 3 Pathways for pathogens to enter the ear:
Through the Eustachian tube, from the throat and nasopharynx From External Ear By Blood or lymph

Viral and Bacterial Ear Infections

Otitis Media, Middle Ear Infection

Otitis Externa, External Otitis, Ear Canal Infection, Swimmers Ear.

INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE EYES

Infectious Diseases of the Eyes


General Info: Conjunctiva thin, tough lining that covers the inner wall of the eyelid and the sclera Conjunctivitisinflammation of the conjunctiva

Infectious Diseases of the Eyes

Keratitis Inflammation of the cornea

Keratoconjunctivitis An Infection that involves both cornea and conjunctiva

Viral Infections of the Eyes

Adenovirus, enteroviruses and Herpes simplex virus can cause conjunctivitis, keratitis & keratoconjunctivitis.

Bacterial Infections of the Eyes

Bacterial Conjunctivitis, Pinkeye

Chlamydial Conjunctivitis, Inclusion Conjunctivitis, Paratrachoma

Trachoma, Chlamydia Gonococcal Conjunctivitis, Gonorrheal Ophthalmia Keratoconjunctivitis


Neonatorum

INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Infectious Diseases of the Respiratory System


General Info: Respiratory system:
Upper respiratory tract Lower respiratory tract

Infectious Diseases of the Respiratory System

Terms Bronchitis
Bronchopneumonia

Infectious Diseases of the Respiratory System

Laryngitis

Epiglottitis

Pharyngitis

Pneumonia

Sinusitis

Viral Infections of the Upper Respiratory Tract

The Common Cold, Acute Viral Rhinitis, Acute Coryza

Bacterial Infections of the Upper Respiratory Tract

Diphtheria

Streptococcal Pharyngitis, Strep Throat

Infections of the Lower Respiratory Tract Having Many Causes

Pneumonia

Viral Infections of the Lower Respiratory Tract


Acute, Febrile, Viral Respiratory Disease Avian Influenza Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Influenza, flu Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

Bacterial Infections of the Lower Respiratory Tract


Legionellosis, Legionnaires Disease, Pontiac Fever Mycoplasmal Pneumonia, Primary Atypical Pneumonia Tuberculosis, TB Whooping Cough, Pertussis

Fungal Infections of the Lower Respiratory Tract


Coccidioidomycosis Cryptococcosis Histoplasmosis Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP), Interstitial Plasma-Cell Pneumonia

INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE ORAL CAVITY (MOUTH)

General Info: Oral Microflora produce secretions that are antagonistic to other bacteria Saliva - secreted by salivary and mucous glands helps control the growth of opportunistic oral flora. - contains enzymes (includes lysozyme), Immunoglobulins(IgA) - buffers to control near-neutral pH - continually flushes microbes & food particles through the mouth

Viral Infections of the Oral Region

Cold Sores, Fever Blisters

Herpes Labialis

Bacterial Infections of the Oral Cavity


Anaerobis environment allows certain genera of anaerobic bacteria (e.g. Bacteroides, Prevotella, Actinomyces & Treponema spp.) Dental plaque coaggregation of bacteria & their products

Bacterial Infections of the Oral Cavity

Dental Caries

Periodontitis

Gingivitis

Oral infections result from The unique microbial population Reduced host defenses Improper diet Poor dental hygiene

Bacterial Infection of the Oral Cavity


Periodontal Diseases
Diseases such as gingivitis, periodontitis & trench mouth

Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG)


Originated in World War I Fusobacterium nucleatum & Treponema vincentii

Fungal Infections of the Oral Cavity


Thrush
Yeast infection of the oral cavity Candida albicans

INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE GASTRO INTESTINAL TRACT

General information: Colitis- Inflammation of the colon (the large intestine) Diarrhea- An abnormally frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid fecal matter. Dysentery-Frequent watery stools, accompanied by abdominal pain, fever and dehydration.

Enteritis- Inflammation of the intestines, usually referring to the small intestine. Gastritis-Inflammation of the mucosal lining of the stomach. Gastroenteritis- Inflammation of mucosal lining of the stomach and intestine Hepatitis-Inflammation of the liver; usually the result of vital infection, but can be caused by toxic agents.

Viral Infection of the GI Tract


Viral Gastroenteritis

Viral Hepatitis

Most Common Type of Viral Hepatitis


Type A Hepatitis; HAV Infection; Infectious Hepatitis; Epidemic Hepatitis Type B Hepatitis; HBV infection; Serum Hepatitis Type C Hepatitis; HCV Infection; Non-A NonB Hepatitis Type D Hepatitis; Delta Hepatitis Type E Hepatitis Type G Hepatitis

Bacterial Infection of the GI Tract


Bacterial Gastritis and Ulcers Campylobacter Enteritis Cholera Salmonellosis Typhoid Fever, Enteric Fever Shigellosis, Bacillary Dysentery

Enterovirulent Escherichia coli


Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative bacillus that is found in the GI Tract of all humans. Diseases: Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) Diarrhea Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) Diarrhea, Travelers Diarrhea

Bacterial Food Poisoning


Diseases resulting from the ingestion of bacteria or their toxins are described. Diseases: Botulism Clostridium perfringens Food Intoxification Staphylococcal Food Intoxication, Staphylocioccal Food Poisoning

INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE GENITOURINARY (GU) SYSTEM

Urinary Tract Infection (UTIs)


Divided into:
Upper UTIs- include infections of the kidneys (nephritis or pyelonephritis) and ureters (ureteritis) Lower UTIs- include infection of the urinary bladder (cystitis), urethra (urethritis) and in males the prostate (prostitis)

General Information

Cystitis- inflammation of the urinary bladder; the common type of UTI Nephritis- inflammation of the kidneys. Pyelonephritis is the inflammation of the renal parenchyma. Ureteritis- inflammation of one or both ureters due to spreading of infection upward from urinary bladder or downward from the kidneys

Ureteritis- inflammation of one or both ureters due to spreading of infection upward from urinary bladder or downward from the kidneys

Urethritis- inflammation of the urethra. Prostatitis- inflammation of the prostate gland.

Infections of the Genital Tract


Bartholinitis- inflammation of the Bartholins ducts in females

Cervicitisinflammation of the cervix Endometritis- inflammation of the

Epididymitis- inflammation of the epididymis. Pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID)inflammation of the fallopian tubes; also known as salpingitis Vaginitis- inflammation of the vagina Vulvovaginitis- inflammation of the vulva and the vagina

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Viral STDs
Anogenital Herpes Viral Infection, Genital Herpes

Genital Warts,Genital Papillomatomasis, Condyloma Acuminatum

Bacterial STDs -Genital Chlamydia Infections, Genital Chlamydiasis


-Gonorrhea -syphilis

INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

General information: Endocarditis- inflammation of the endocardium Myocarditis- inflammation of the myocardium Pericarditis- inflammation of the pericardium

Infectious diseases of the Lymphatic system


Lymphadenitis- inflamed and swollen lymph nodes Lymphadenopathy- diseased lymph nodes Lymphagitis- inflammed lymphatic vessels

Viral infections of the Circulatory System


Human Imminodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Infectious Mononucleosis, Mono, Kissing Diseases. Mumps, infectious Parotitis

Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers


-Are caused by many different viruses.

Viral Hemorrhagic Diseases

Rickettsial and Ehrlichial Infection of the Cardiovascular System


Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Tickborne Typhus Fever Endemic Typhus Fever, Murine Typhus Fever, Fleaborne Typhus Epidemic Typhus Fever, Louseborne Typhus ehrlichiosis

Bacterial Infection of the Cardiovascular System


Lyme Disease, Lyme Borreliosis Plague, Black Death, Bubonic Plague, Pneumonic Plague, Septicemic Plague Tularemia, Rabbit Fever

INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)

General information:
Encephalitis- inflammation of the brain Encephalomyelitis- inflammation of the brain and the spinal cord Meningitis- inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Meningoencephalitis- inflammation of the brain and meninges Myelitis- inflammation of the spinal cord

Viral Infection of the CNS


Poliomyelitis, Polio, Infantile Paralysis

Rabies Viral Encephalitis, Arthropod-Borne Viral Encephalitis

Bacterial Infections of the CNS


Listeriosis Tetanus, Lackjaw

Botulism

APPROPRIATE THERAPY FOR VIRAL, BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL INFECTIONS

Treated through using: antiviral drugs antibacterial drugs antifungal drugs serum immune globulins

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