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CHAPTER 7.

0 RESPIRATION

7.0 THE RESPIRATORY PROCESS IN ENERGY PRODUCTION - Respiration refers to the oxidation of food substances with the release of energy. - 2 main stages of respiration: i. External respiration- a mechanical process that maintains a continuous exchange of gases between the respiratory surfaces of an organisms and its environment. ii. Internal respiration / cellular respiration biochemical process in which energy is made available to all living cells.

Energy requirement in living processes Energy is required: a. To build up macromolecules such as polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. b. For active transport that is to move substances in or out of the cells against a concentration gradient. c. For cellular movement like ciliary action, muscle contraction and movement of chromosomes. d. To keep the body at constant temperature.

What is the main substrate for producing energy? GLUCOSE -is the main substrate required in cellular respiration for producing energy. Glucose is obtained from: a. The process of photosynthesis in plant. b. The digestion of carbohydrates in human and animals There are 2 types of cellular respiration: i. Aerobic respiration ii. Anaerobic respiration

Energy production in aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration is the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen with the release of a large amount of energy. Chemical equation:

Involves many reactions which are catalysed by enzymes in the mitochondria. Most of the energy released is used to synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosina diphosphate (ADP). ADP + phosphate + energy ATP

- ATP consists of phosphate bonds which can be easily broken down to release energy.
energy released

ATP

ADP + phosphate + energy

- Anaerobic respiration a process in which the cells continue to generate ATP without utilising oxygen.

Anaerobic respiration in cells

oxygen debt oxygen debt

Oxygen debt is the amount of oxygen needed to remove the lactic acid.

Oxygen deficit and oxygen debt


Oxygen deficit

Start of exercise

End of exercise

End of recovery

The concentration of lactic acid may reach a level high enough to cause muscular cramps and fatigue. - After vigorous activity stopped, fast and deep breathing enables a person to inhale more oxygen to oxidise the lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water. - Therefore, the oxygen debt is the amount of oxygen needed to remove the lactic acid from the muscle cells. The equation: Lactic acid + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy - Oxidation of lactic acid occurs mainly in liver. - Some lactic acid is oxidised to produce energy. - The remaining lactic acid is converted to glucose. - The oxygen debt is said to have been paid when all the lactic acid has been eliminated through increased breathing.
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Comparison between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration

Aerobic respiration

Differences

Anaerobic respiration

Aerobic respiration

Differences

Anaerobic respiration
or 2 ATP

or 38 ATP

7.2 The Respiratory Structures and Breathing Mechanisms in Humans and Animals Adaptation of respiratory structures The movement of the respiratory gaseous between the respiratory surface and the external environment is entirely by diffusion.

To ensure adequate gaseous exchange, the respiratory structures of most organisms share three common characteristics: 1. The respiratory surface is moist 2. Cells lining the respiratory surface are thin 3. The respiratory structure has a large surface area.

Breathing mechanism in Amoeba sp. - No need any special respiratory structure - The outer surface provides an adequate surface area for the diffusion of gases. - Have a large surface area compared to the volume of their body. - Diffusion alone is sufficient to transport gases into and out of the body. - Their aquatic habitat ensures that the plasma membrane is constantly moist gases can dissolve easily. - The thin plasma membrane allows for rapid diffusion of gases.

The respiratory structure and breathing mechanism of insects (Pg 155, Fig 7.4 & 7.5) - The respiratory system of insects tracheal system. - Composed of : Trachea air tubes that reinforced with chitin rings to prevent them from collapsing Spiracles a series of opening located on both sides of the thorax and abdomen Tracheoles the tracheae branch into finer tubes which are in direct contact with insects tissues and organs.

Gill arch
Consist of lamellae

The respiratory structure and breathing mechanism of amphibians -The respiratory structures skin and lungs -When on land and in water frogs breathe to a large extent through the skin. - Characteristics of frogs skin: 1. thin and highly permeable to gases 2. Kept moist by the secretion of mucus by glands on the body surface. 3.Beneath the skin, there is a large number of blood capillaries.

BREATHING MECHANISMS IN ANIMALS


(Refer text book from pg. 154 157) Animals Amoeba sp. Breathing Mechanisms
The concentration of oxygen is higher in the water than in Amoeba, oxygen enters the Amoeba using diffusion transport. The concentration of carbon dioxide is higher in Amoeba than in the water, carbon dioxide removes from the Amoeba using diffusion transport.

Insects Fish Amphibians

The respiratory structure and breathing mechanism of humans

diaphragm

Breathing mechanism of humans

7.3 Gaseous Exchange across the respiratory surfaces and transport of gases in humans

PO2 partial pressure


of oxygen

PCO2 partial
pressure of carbon dioxide Partial pressure is used to compare the proportions of gases in a mixture.

(in air)

(HCO3-) (H2CO3)

7.4 The Regulatory Mechanism in Respiration The relationship between the rate of respiration and the oxygen and carbon dioxide contents During active activity, to supply more oxygen to the muscles and discharge more carbon dioxide from the lungs: * the rate and depth of breathing increases * we breathe faster * the heartbeat rate increases to pump more blood into circulation

The human respiratory response and rate of respiration in different situation - When a person is resting the breathing rate 16-18 breaths/minute the heartbeat 60-70 beats/minute During vigorous activity the breathing rate - 30 breaths/minute the heartbeat - 120 beats/minute - to meet the demand of a higher respiration rate in the cells. - The increased breathing rate means an increase in ventilation rate the rate of gaseous exchange between the alveoli and blood capillaries.

The regulatory mechanism of oxygen and carbon dioxide contents in the body
Carotid bodies

Aortic bodies

Central chemoreceptors

Peripheral chemoreceptors

7.5 The importance of Maintaining a Healthy Respiratory System Read by yourself.

7.6 Respiration in Plants Energy requirement in plants The energy requirement for living processes in plants is much lower than animals because plants do not move about like animals do.

7.6 Respiration in Plants


The intake of oxygen by plants for respiration Most plants take in oxygen through leaves, stems and roots. Gaseous exchange between plant cells and the environment occurs by diffusion mainly through stomata and lenticels. (Pg 167, Photo 7.3 & 7.4)

Respiration and photosynthesis


-

Respiration and photosynthesis are dependent on each other. Photosynthesis produces the raw materials for respiration and respiration produces the raw materials for photosynthesis.

-Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide from respiration and produces oxygen needed for respiration. -Eventually, a point is reached whereby all the carbon dioxide produces during respiration is reused during photosynthesis. -At this point, there is no net gain or loss in carbon dioxide by the plant and no net gain or loss in the sugar produced. The plant reached the compensation point. -The compensation point is the light intensity at which the rate of carbon dioxide production during respiration is equal to that of carbon dioxide consumption during photosynthesis. (Pg 168, Fig 7.18)