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Prof. Dr. Salina A. Samad Mr. Iskandar Yahya

Information

2 Lectures (Thursday the 14th and 21st FEB) Email: iskandar@vlsi.eng.ukm.my Reserved computers with MATLAB application

**at the Microcomputer Lab:
**

Monday – Thursday (2pm – 5pm) Friday (3pm – 5pm)

MATLAB 7.5 (MATLAB R2007b)

History of MATLAB

Ancestral software to MATLAB Fortran subroutines for solving linear (LINPACK) and eigenvalue (EISPACK) problems Developed primarily by Cleve Moler in the 1970’s Later, when teaching courses in mathematics,

**Moler wanted his students to be able to use LINPACK and EISPACK without requiring knowledge of Fortran
**

MATLAB developed as an interactive system

History of MATLAB

MATLAB gained popularity primarily through

word of mouth because it was not officially distributed In the 1980’s, MATLAB was rewritten in C with more functionality (such as plotting routines)

The Mathworks, Inc. was created in 1984 The Mathworks is now responsible for

development, sale, and support for MATLAB The Mathworks is located in Natick, Massachusetts MA, USA.

MATLAB Environment

When you open MATLAB, you will see this

window:

Variable lists /Current Directory

Main typing/command window

Command history

MATLAB Environment

MATLAB can function as normal calculator:

**Can define variables in MATLAB:
**

>> a = 5; >> b = 3; >> c = 8; >> x = a + b/c x= 5.3750 Can be any character or strings of character as long as it is not separated by “space”. **But we cannot use names that have already been used by MATLAB as the predefined functions and variables.

MATLAB Environment

To see the variables currently stored: WHO

>> who Your variables are: A a b c x

**Detailed variable information: WHOS
**

>> whos Name Size Class A array a array b array c array 1x1 1x1 1x1 1x1 Bytes 8 double 8 double 8 double 8 double

MATLAB Environment

To clear variables: CLEAR

>> clear a b c >> who Your variables are: A x >> clear >> who >>

**Saving and loading variables: SAVE/LOAD
**

>> save >> save test Saving to: matlab.mat >> load test >> load Loading from: matlab.mat

MATLAB is Case-Sensitive. Be careful when

typing.

MATLAB Environment

Most powerful command in MATLAB: HELP Try typing “help” - list of all help topics You can get help of specific functions and commands that you like Try “help variables”, and also “help save variables” etc. All about MATLAB is accessible by clicking

**START and then choose MATLAB Help.
**

Effectively, you can leave this lecture now

and learn everything from MATLAB Help. On the MATLAB Help window, run demos.

MATLAB Environment

Built-in math functions:

MATLAB Environment

Predefined Variables: “Ans”, “sin()” and “pi” are examples of predefined variables. Do Not define a variable with these names, or try to change them. What other predefined variables are there? Handle Complex numbers:

>> n = 3+4i; >> m = 1+i; >> mul = m*n mul = -1.0000 + 7.0000i >> real(mul) ans = -1

MATLAB Environment

Matrices and Vectors: Create matrices by using square brackets, separate rows by semicolon, each element separated by 3 ; 4 5 ; >> Matrix_A = [1 2 coma6or space: Matrix_B = >>

7 8 9] Matrix_A = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 [9,8,7;6,5,4;3,2,1] Matrix_B = 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Inverse a matrix using “inv(A)”, where “A” is

**your matrix. Similarly, we can get the Determinant by using “det(A)”.
**

Find out what other predefined functions are

MATLAB Environment

Strings:

Character strings are enclosed in single quote –

>> Y = 'MATLAB is very powerful‘ Y= MATLAB is very powerful

To use quotes, use double single quotes for a

**single quote, and one double quote for a double quote (What?!) E.g:
**

>> word = 'did''t‘ word = did't >> word = 'did"t‘ word = did"t

String indexing is used to refer to a specific

“letter” in the string:

MATLAB Environment

Example:

>> me = 'Iskandar‘ me = Iskandar >>me(1) ans = I >>me(5) ans = n >>me(8) ans = r

MATLAB Environment

Other string funtions: length - Return the number of character strings strcmp - Compares two strings str2num - Converts a string to a numerical value, i.e. converts ‘123’ to 123. strrep - Replaces characters in a string with different characters (very useful in editing programs and debugging) upper - Converts a string to uppercase lower - Converts a string to lowercase

MATLAB Environment

Input and Output statement: Use semicolon at the end of your line to suppress the display- matlab will carry out the calculation without displaying the result. Try this fprintf – Use this command to generate a text >> fprintf('This is a test. \n') line: is a test. This

>> fprintf('is included a \n test. \n ') The “\n” This \n is \n to prompt the

display to start a

This line, e.g.: new is a test.

MATLAB Environment

fprintf – to display the value of variables, we

**can include a “%g” format character:
**

>> A = 3.45 A= 3.4500 >> fprintf('The value of A is %g. \n', A) The value of A is 3.45.

Information from user can be asked using

input function:

>> num = input('Specify a number. \n'); Specify a number. 2 >> fprintf('The number u entered is %g. \n', num); The number u entered is 2.

MATLAB Environment

Plotting in MATLAB Intro: Use plot function. Example of plotting then function y=|x|sin(x). Use linspace function to generate domain variable x, i.e. linspace(x1,x2,n). This function generates n equally spaced values from x1 to x2 and stores them in x as a onedimensional array with one row: >> x = linspace(0,5,11)

x= Columns 1 through 9 0 0.5000 1.0000 1.5000 3.5000 4.0000 Columns 10 through 11 4.5000 5.0000 2.0000 2.5000 3.0000

MATLAB Environment

Plotting in MATLAB Intro: Use plot as plot(x,y). This function plots the values stored in array y versus the array of x. The two arrays must have the same number of values: >> x=linspace(-100,100,5000);

>> y=abs(x).*sin(x); >> plot(x,y)

• The abs function returns the absolute values of x. •This is the generated plot:

MATLAB Environment

Plotting in MATLAB Intro: We can also plot multiple traces on a single plot: >>

x=linspace(0,2*pi,100) ; >> y1=sin(x); >> y2=cos(x); >> y3=sin(x).*sin(x); >> plot(x,y1,x,y2,x,y3)

MATLAB Environment

Plotting in MATLAB Intro: We use xlable, ylable, title and legend tocomplete the plot:

>> xlabel('x'); >> ylabel('y'); >> title('Various trigonometric Function'); >> legend('sin(x)', 'cos(x)', 'sin(x)*sin(x)'); • This example is just a tiny fraction of MATLAB’s full range plotting capabilities. We shall see that later.

MATLAB Environment

Predefined Functions in this chapter:

sin load rand lower title abs sqrt det input legend fprintf real lentgh plot lookfor log imag strcmp linspace which help angle str2num xlabel roots save inv upper ylabel

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