# Chapter 6 Ship Resistance

As a ship moves through the water, it experiences forces that work against its forward movement. The sum of all these forces is the

- This is designated as

RT

- It is from this value that the Effective Horsepower, EHP, is calculated

Resistance Values and Coefficients
Resistance values, denoted by R, are dimensional values RT = Total hull resistance is the sum of all resistance

RT = RAA + RW + RV
• RAA = Resistance caused by calm air on the superstructure • RW = Resistance due to waves caused by the ship
- A function of beam to length ratio, displacement, hull shape & Froude number (ship length & speed)

• RV = Viscous resistance (frictional resistance of water)
- A function of viscosity of water, speed, and wetted surface area of ship

Total Resistance and Relative Magnitude of Components The amount of each resistance component will vary depending on speed: Resistance (lb) Air Resistance Hollow Hump Wave-making Viscous Speed (kts) .At low speeds Rv dominates .At higher speeds Rw is dominates .location is function of ship length and speed .Hump (Hollow).

Speed-Power Trends • EHP = (Resistance) x (Speed) .

Used extensively in modeling C .Allow the comparison of dissimilarly shaped vessels .Similar to the resistance components are the . . are dimensionless values of resistance .Resistance Coefficients.

Coefficients
CT = Coefficient of total hull resistance

C T = CV + C W
- CV = Coefficient of viscous resistance over the wetted area of the ship as it moves through the water - CF = Tangential component (skin resistance) - KCF = Normal component (viscous pressure drag) - CW = Coefficient of wave-making resistance

Coefficient of Viscous Resistance, CV Let’s look at the resistance due to the water, CV, first - Consists of tangential and normal components

CV = Ctangential + Cnormal = CF + KC F
al orm n

flow

bow

l tia en ng ta

ship

stern

- Tangential resistance, CF, is parallel to ship’s hull and causes a net force Skin Friction opposing the motion by the water - Normal resistance, KCF, is perpendicular to the ship’s hull. “K” is unique to the hull form

Coefficient of Viscous Resistance, CV Tangential Component, CF
Also called the hull frictional resistance, CF can be characterized by the fluid flow around the hull:

Laminar flow - Fluid flows in layers that do not mix transversely but
slide over one another

Turbulent flow -The flow is chaotic and mix transversely
- Denoted by the Boundary Layer - The boundary layer forms at the Transition point where flow changes from laminar to turbulent

Laminar Flow

Turbulent Flow

A high pressure is formed in the forward direction opposing the motion and a lower pressure is formed aft .Normal component generates the eddy behind the hull .Coefficient of Viscous Resistance.Causes a pressure distribution along the underwater hull form of ship . CV Normal Component.Is affected by hull shape Fuller shape ship has larger normal component than slender ship large eddy small eddy Full ship Slender ship . KCF .

Coefficient of Viscous Resistance. the Reynolds Number Rn = L V ν Reynolds Number Laminar Flow Rn < 5 x 105 Turbulent Flow Rn > 1 x 106 .The viscous resistance component CV can be related to another common dimensionless coefficient. CV .

narrow. a more slender ship decreases the pressure drag on the hull ∴ Very long. increasing the length decreases the skin resistance . slender hull is favorable ( A slender hull form will create a smaller pressure difference between bow and stern) .How to Reduce the Viscous Resistance Coefficient Increase L while keeping the submerged volume constant .For normal component.For tangential component.

688ft/s) . Fn The Froude Number is another dimensionless value derived from model testing Fn = V \/gL Also used.Froude Number.Velocity is typically expressed in Knots (1 knot = 1... is the Speed-to-Length Ratio: Speed-to-Length Ratio = V \/L . but not dimensionless.

CW Typical Wave Patterns are made up of TRANSVERSE and DIVERGENT waves Stern divergent wave Bow divergent wave L Transverse wave Wave Length .Coefficient of Wave Resistance.

.

the length of the transverse wave increases .Wave-Making Resistance Transverse Wave System .. the wave making resistance increases very rapidly .This is the main reason for the dramatic increase in Total Resistance as speed increases .As the wave length approaches the ship length.Travel at approximately the same speed as the ship .At slow speeds.As the ship increases speed. several crests exist along the ship length because the wave lengths are smaller than the ship length ..

Wave-Making Resistance When the transverse wave length equals the ship’s length the vessel has reached its HULL SPEED (Wave making resistance drastically increases above hull speed) Vs < Hull Speed Slow Speed Vs ≈ Hull Speed Wave Length High Speed Wave Length .

Hump: The bow and stern waves are in phase. the crests are added up creating a larger divergent wave system . the crests match the troughs so that smaller divergent wave systems are generated .Hollow: The bow and stern waves are out of phase.Divergent waves consist of Bow and Stern Waves .Interaction of the bow and stern waves create the Hollow or Hump on the resistance curve .Wave-Making Resistance Divergent Wave System .

.The calculation of the coefficient is far too difficult and inaccurate from any theoretical or empirical equation .Wave-making resistance is affected by: .Froude number .displacement .hull shape .beam to length ratio .Model test in the towing tank and Froude expansion are needed to calculate the Cw of the real ship .Wave-Making Resistance Calculation of Wave-Making Resistance Coeff.

34 \/Ls Note: Remember at the hull speed. the energy required is a square function of velocity! Lwave = 2πV2 g The limiting speed. and as speed increases. can be found as: V = 1. Lwave and Ls are approximately equal! . or hull speed.Wave-Making Resistance It takes energy to produce waves.

The waves interact with the bow wave resulting in smaller bow divergent waves .The hull speed will be greater for the longer ship (the wave-making resistance of longer ship will be small until the ship reaches to the hull speed) 2) Attaching Bulbous Bow to reduce the bow divergent wave .Bulbous bow generates the second bow waves .Hull speed will increase .Wave-Making Resistance Reducing Wave Making Resistance 1) Increasing ship length to increase the wave length .

Wave-Making Resistance Bulbous Bow .

bilge keels and struts . heaving.Resistance due to sea waves which will cause the ship motions (pitching.Other Type of Resistances Appendage Resistance .Frictional resistance caused by the underwater appendages such as rudder. propeller shaft.2∼ 24% of the total resistance in naval ship Steering Resistance . yawing) . rolling.Resistance caused by the rudder motion (small in warships but a problem in sail boats) Added Resistance .

so water velocity under the hull increases .Traveling through a canal can produce the same effect .The faster moving water decreases pressure causing the ship to “squat” .Other Type of Resistances Increased Resistance in Shallow Water Resistance caused by shallow water effect .Increases wetted surface .Water flow is restricted under the vessel.Waves tend to be larger compared to waves in deep water at the same speed .Increases surface friction .

their resistance coefficients (CT) should be the same. However. Fr) are the same.  = f ( Re. .Fr ) 2 ν Lg  2 ρ SV   When a model and its prototype are geometrically similar and their two dimensionless coefficients (Re. VL V  R CT = 1 = f . it can take the problem no further than the above conclusion. Dimensional analysis reduces the number of the related parameters involved in model tests.

bridge constructions. • A ship model is geometrically similar to its prototype. and ship buildings. breakwater. Therefore. etc. The size of the model is usually much smaller than that of the ship. such as harbor.Model Tests of Ship Resistance • Model tests are widely used in the design and study of large engineering constructions. the interaction between the hull and the propeller. model tests are very important in ship design and ship research. seakeeping properties of a ship. . • Ship model tests are employed to predict the resistance. Here we focus on model resistance tests.

V gL A typical resistance curve in a model test .

A Towing Carriage and A Ship Model .

Towing tank Resistance tests in calm water .

Resistance Test in Towing Tank ‫تست مقاومت در حوضچه‬ ‫کشش‬ 30 .

.

.

Resistance Test in Towing Tank ‫تست مقاومت در حوضچه‬ ‫کشش‬ 33 .

.

Seakeeping test in Laboratory ‫تست حرکات کشتی در‬ ‫آزمايشگاه‬ 35 .

Propulsion .

P.) • Waterjet • Air Propeller ١٦٤ .‫انواع جلوبرنده‬ • Sub Cavitating Propeller • Fully Cavitated Propeller • Surface Piercing Propeller (S.P.

‫قسمتهاي اصلي‬ ‫سيستم رانش‬ ‫يك كشتي‬ Engine Reduction Gear Strut Seals Bearing Propulsor Shaft ١٦١ .

BLADE TIP TIP CIRCLE Screw Propeller HUB 37 ROOT SUCTION BACK PROPELLER DISC PRESSURE FACE ROTATION TRAILING EDGE LEADING EDGE .

Propeller Pitch The distance that the blade travels in one revolution. P .measured in feet pitch 57 diameter Hub .

Propeller ١٦٥ .

Propeller Geometry .

Propeller Coefficients .

Typical Chart .

B-Series Charts .

43 .

.

56 .

Blade Tip Cavitation Flow velocities at the tip are fastest so that pressure drop occurs at the tip first. Sheet Cavitation Large and stable region of cavitation covering the suction face of propeller. ١٦٩ .

Consequences of Cavitation 1) Low propeller efficiency (Thrust reduction) 2) Propeller erosion (mechanical erosion as bubbles collapse. up to 180 ton/in² pressure) 3) Vibration due to uneven loading 4) Cavitation noise due to impulsion by the bubble collapse ١٧٠ .

P.كنند‬ ‫چون اين پروانه ها كمتر از پروانه هاي‬ ‫معمول محدوديت انتخاب قطر دارند،‬ ‫معمول براي بدست آوردن راندمان بال‬ ‫َ‬ ‫.‫. P‬‬ ‫اين نوع از پروانه ها‬ ‫در سطح آب كار مي‬ ‫.قطر آنها را بزرگ در نظر مي گيرند‬ ‫١٧١‬ .‪S.

‫يك نمونه پروانه‬ ‫‪.P‬‬ ‫٢٧١‬ .S.P.

S.P‬در قايقهاي‬ ‫مسابقه اي‬ ‫٤٧١‬ .P.‫استفاده از پروانه هاي‬ ‫‪ .

Waterjet ١٧٥ .

‫سيستم واترجت با‬ ‫گرفتن آب دريا از‬ ‫منافذ مخصوصي‬ ‫در كف شناور و‬ ‫پرتاب آن با سرعت‬ ‫بال از شناور‬ ‫موجب حركت‬ ‫.شناور مي شود‬ ‫٦٧١‬ .

‫نمايش ورودي و خروجي جريان آب از يك سيستم‬ ‫واترجت در يك ترايماران‬ ‫٧٧١‬ .

‫مقايسه راندمان جلوبرنده هاي مختلف‬ ‫١٨١‬ .

Cavitation Tunnel ‫تونل کاويتاسيون‬ Applications: • Assessment of Propeller and Duct Performance • Flow Visualization and Determination of Drag Characteristics for Various Appendages • Cavitation Studies 58 .

Propeller Test .

‫تونل کاويتاسيون‬ ‫06‬ .

& = . ν s = ν m. . for a model and its prototype having the same Fr & Re. Since m ? 1 . ( Fr ) m = ( Fr ) s and ( Re ) m = ( Re ) s .Geometrical similarity indicates the main characteristics of a model & its prototype are in the same ratio. Ls =m Lm or λ. it is almost impossible to satisfy both. Vm Lm Vm Lsνm m if both are run in water at the similar density & temperature. then we requir e Vs Ls Vs Lmν s 1 = = m.

depends only on the Froude # .  V  R  VL  = CT = CF + CR = f1   + f2  2 1  gL   ρ SV  ν  2   RF  VL  Frictional Resistance: CF = 1 = f1   2  ν  2 ρV S  V  RR Wave-making Resistance: CR = 1 = f2  2  gL   ρV S 2   .1. and the frictional-resistance coeff. depends only on the Reynolds #. In order to overcome this fundamental difficulty to satisfy the similarity laws. a major (first) assumption was made by Froude that the frictional and the wave-making resistances are independent. The wave-making or residual resistance coeff.

3. we may determine the resistance of a ship at a constant velocity given the results of model resistance test. . of a ship (or a model) is the same as that of a smooth flat plate with the same length and wetted surface area as the ship (or the model). It is also assumed that the frictional resistance coeff. At Vm . Thus CTm = RTm . CF or RF of a ship (or a model) can be computed given the length according to the half-analytically & half-empirically friction formulas. can be measured. 2 1 2 ρ S mVm where Sm is the model's wetted surface area. The steps are detailed below. the total resistance of a model. RTm . Therefore. a.2. Based on these two assumptions.

CTS = CFS + CRS = CFS + CRm = CFS + CTm − CFm = CTm − ( CFm − CFS ) . f. CFm . CFS can be computed given the ship's length. The total resistance coeff. If Vs Vm Vs = .b. According to the 2 nd assumption. namely. Computing the model's residual resistance coefficient CRm = CTm − CFm . = Vm gLs gLm Ls = m . c. can be computed given the length of model according to a friction coefficient formula. of a ship is given by. then Lm  V  CRm = CRS = f 2  . Same as in Step b. d.  gL     the ship's residual resistance coefficient is computed. . e.

Frs = Frm . When 2 two geometrically similar ships are running at speeds which conform to the Froude Law. for understanding the computation using the method & its validity. CF & CR are independent. wave-making and eddy-making resistances in detail. CFS of a ship is equal to that of a flat plate with the same length).g. at VS = mVm . However. It is noticed that. the total resistance of a ship can be determined accurately based on the model test results using the above method. =   = m2 . RS = CTS × 1 ρ SS Vs2 . We will study the frictional. they are said to be running S s  Ls  at corresponding speeds. The total resistance of a naked ship (excluding appendages) can be obtained. . b. the method is based on the 2 major assumptions (a. S m  Lm  2 In most cases. Sometimes the errors due to the approximations may be significant.

Turbulent flow: is characterized by fluctuations in velocity at all points of the flow field and these fluctuations with no definite frequency. For a plate flow. when Re < 10 6 Re > 108 the flow is laminar.5. the flow is turbulent.5 Frictional Resistance • Laminar and Turbulent Flow (review of CVEN 311) Laminar flow: the fluid appears to move by the sliding of laminations of the infinitesimal thickness relative to adjacent layers. Whether a flow is laminar or turbulent flow depends mainly on its Reynolds #. 106 < Re < 108 the flow is transitional .

for Re ≤ 4. CF 4) 1957 ITTC line formula (known as ship -model correlation line not a friction coef ficient for a flat plate. CF = 0.5× 10 8. (Laminar flow) CF = 1. Re < 4.32 / Re. RF ∝ V 1.5.8 .075 CF = .5× 10 5. for Re ≥ 10 7.• Friction formulas for a flat plate The following formulas are commonly used. thus. CF = ν RF . derived based on 2)) 0. thus. turbulent flow ) 0. Re = VL .074( RN ) − 5.242 = log 10 ( Re CF ) . CF 3) Schoenherr formula (1947 ATTC line . RF ∝ V 1. 2 ( log10 Re − 2 ) . 1) Blasius formula. 1 ρ SV 2 2 2) Prandtl and von Karman formula (turbu lent flow) A 1 = log 10 ( Re⋅ CF ) + M .

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