Chapter 5

Ship Stability


Contents

1- Definitions
2- Numerical Integration
3- Stability
5- Rules and Regulations
Definitions :

•Principal Dimensions (length, breadth, depth etc)
-Length.
Lbp ( or Lpp) Length between two perpendiculars

•FP – Forward perpendicular (vertical line through intersection
of stem and waterline (w.l).)
•AP – Backward perpendicular (vertical line through the center
of rudder pintle)

Loa – Overall Length
Lwl – Waterline Length (calculation length)

also see Table 6-2 at p142
W.L.
A.P
Loa
Lwl
Amid Ship
Lbp
F.P.
Forward Sheer
After Sheer
Sheer is the height measured between deck at side and base line.
•Line Drawing:

Using the methods of descriptive geometry, the form of
a hull is drawn on a scale (1:50 or 1:200) drawing,
which is called “Lines Drawing,” or simply the “lines”
or “lines plan”.

Lines drawing mainly consists of three plan views

•Sheer plane (Buttock plane, Buttock lines) : parallel
to the longitudinal central plane (2m, 4m, etc are the
distances from the center plane)


•Half-Breadth plane (Water plane, Waterline planes):
parallel to the base plane (2m, 4m, ….are the distance
form the base plane)

•Body Plan (Ordinate station, Transverse section,)
parallel to the mid-section (# of stations indicated the
distance from the mid-section or bow).

•Diagonals (Bilge Diagonal)
• Fair form and fairness of line, checking the
consistency of point, smoothness of lines
•Table of Offsets

Line Drawing
WATERLINE
D
E
P
T
H

O
F

H
U
L
L

D
R
A
F
T

F
R
E
E
B
O
A
R
D

RESERVE BUOYANCY
• Hull characteristics (coeff.)

• Displacement and Weight Relationship

B (buoyancy) = W (weight). (conventional ship)
– displacement B = Δ = γ

Appendage volume ≈ 1% Δ
V
V
Hull characteristics (coefficients
(non-dimensional)
- Coefficient of Form ( Fatness of a hull)
Block Coefficient C
B



where L= Lpp or Lbp and T = Draft
C
B
0.38~0.90 even bigger

- Miship Section Coefficient
C
M
= immersed area of mishap section (A) / (BT)
0.67~0.98
B
C
LBT
V
=
-Prismatic or Longitudinal Coefficient: 0.55~0.80




-Waterplane Coefficient






-Displacement /Length Ratio

B
P
M M
C
C
L A L B T C C
V V
= = =
· · · ·
area of water plane
0.67 - 0.87
where --Length of Load water plane
= Beam of W.P.
WP
C
LB
L
B
=
3 3
B
B
C LBT B T
C
L L L L
V
= =
-Breadth /Length Ratio :


-Draft/Length Ratio


-Draft/Breadth Ratio


-These coefficients are related to the resistance and
stability of the ship and can be used to estimate
them empirically.
B
L
T
L
T
B
•Important Hydro-Static Curves or Relations

•Displacement Curves (displacement [molded, total]
vs. draft, weight [SW, FW] vs. draft (T))

• Coefficients Curves (C
B
, C
M
, C
P
, C
WL
, vs. T)

• VCB (KB, Z
B
): Vertical distance of Center of
Buoyancy (C.B) to the baseline vs. T

•LCB (LCF, X
B
): Longitudinal Distance of C.B or
floatation center (C.F) to the midship vs. T
Numerical Integration for
Ship Forms
Representing the Hull Form
The Body Plan
Data of Ship forms

• Discrete data (Line drawings, stations, water plane
etc)

• Evenly distributed (most times)
Methods of Numerical Integration

•Trapezoidal rule (linear)

•Simpson’s first rule (quadratic)

•Simpson’s second rule (cubic)

f
n
(x) can be linear
f
n
(x) can be quadratic
Trapezoidal Rule
• Linear approximation
| | ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 0
1 1 0 0 i
1
0 i
i
b
a
x f x f
2
h
x f c x f c x f c dx x f
+ =
+ = ~
¿
}
=
x
0
x
1

x
f(x)
L(x)
Multiple Applications of Trapezoidal Rule
| | | | | |
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
n 1 n i 1 0
n 1 n 2 1 1 0
x
x
x
x
x
x
b
a
x f x f 2 x 2f x f 2 x f
2
h
x f x f
2
h
x f x f
2
h
x f x f
2
h
dx x f dx x f dx x f dx x f
n
1 n
2
1
1
0
+ + + + + + =
+ + + + + + =
+ + + =
÷
÷
} } } }
÷
 

 
x
0
x
1

x
f(x)
x
2
h h x
3
h h x
4

n
a b
h
÷
=
Simpson’s First Rule
• Approximate the function by a
parabola
| | ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1 0
2 2 1 1 0 0 i
2
0 i
i
b
a
x f x f 4 x f
3
h
x f c x f c x f c x f c dx x f
+ + =
+ + = ~
¿
}
=
x
0
x
1

x
f(x)
x
2
h h
L(x)
Multiple Applications of Simpson’s First Rule
 Applicable only if the number of segments is even
Multiple Applications of Simpson’s First Rule
n
a b
h
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + +
÷
=
¿ ¿
÷
=
÷
=
1 n
5 3 1 i
2 n
6 4 2 j
n j i 0
x f x f 2 x f 4 x f
n 3
a b
I
, , , ,
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
6
x f x f 4 x f
h 2
6
x f x f 4 x f
h 2
6
x f x f 4 x f
h 2 I
n 1 n 2 n
4 3 2 2 1 0
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
+ +
+ +
+ +
+
+ +
=
÷ ÷

n must be even
Simpson’s Second Rule (single application)
 Approximate by a cubic polynomial
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3 2 1 0
3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 i
3
0 i
i
b
a
x f x f 3 x f 3 x f
8
h 3
x f c x f c x f c x f c x f c dx x f
+ + + =
+ + + = ~
¿
}
=
x
0
x
1

x
f(x)
x
2
h h
L(x)
x
3
h






Stability
A floating body reaches to an equilibrium state, if
1) its weight = the buoyancy
2) the line of action of these two forces become collinear.

The equilibrium: stable, or unstable or neutrally stable.
• Stable equilibrium: if it is slightly displaced from its
equilibrium position and will return to that position.

• Unstable equilibrium: if it is slightly displaced form its
equilibrium position and tends to move farther away from
this position.

• Neutral equilibrium: if it is displaced slightly from this
position and will remain in the new position.

• Motion of a Ship:
6 degrees of freedom
- Surge
- Sway
- Heave
- Roll
- Pitch
- Yaw

Axis
Translation Rotation
x Longitudinal Surge Neutral S. Roll S. NS. US
y Transverse Sway Neutral S. Pitch S.
z Vertical Heave S. (for sub, N.S.) Yaw NS
Righting & Heeling Moments

A ship or a submarine is designed to float in the
upright position.

• Righting Moment: exists at any angle of
inclination where the forces of weight and buoyancy
act to move the ship toward the upright position.

• Heeling Moment: exists at any angle of inclination
where the forces of weight and buoyancy act to
move the ship away from the upright position.
SHIP’S STABILITY
METACENTER
m
B0
G---Center of Gravity, B---Center of Buoyancy

M--- Transverse Metacenter,
If M is above G, we will have a righting moment, and
if M is below G, then we have a heeling moment.
W.L
For a displacement ship,
For submarines (immersed in water)
G
B
G
If B is above G, we have righting moment
If B is below G, we have heeling moment
Upsetting Forces (overturning moments)

• Beam wind, wave & current pressure

• Lifting a weight (when the ship is loading or unloading in the
harbor.)

• Offside weight (C.G is no longer at the center line)

• The loss of part of buoyancy due to damage (partially flooded,
C.B. is no longer at the center line)

• Turning

• Grounding
Static Stability & Dynamical Stability

Static Stability: Studying the magnitude of the
righting moment given the inclination (angle) of the
ship*.
(That is, the rolling velocity and energy are not
considered.)

Dynamic Stability**: Calculating the amount of work
done by the righting moment given the inclination of
the ship.
• Static Stability
1. The initial stability (aka stability at small
inclination) &,
2. the stability at large inclinations.
• The initial stability: studies the right moments or right
arm at small inclination angles.
• The stability at large inclination (angle): computes the
right moments (or right arms) as function of the inclination
angle, up to a limit angle at which the ship may lose its
stability (capsizes). (Cross curves of stability (see Fig.
6-7 at pp 156) & Curves of Static Stability (see Fig. 6-8
at pp157) )

The initial stability is a special case of the latter.
MAIN STABILITY POINTS

• m metacenter
• G center of gravity
• B center of buoyancy
m
G
h
a
B1
Q
Wo
LO
W1
L1
Q
B
Initial stability
• Righting Arm: A symmetric ship is inclined at a small angle
dΦ. C.B has moved off the ship’s centerline as the result of the
inclination. The distance between the action of buoyancy and
weight, GZ, is called righting arm.

• Transverse Metacenter: A vertical line through the C.B
intersects the original vertical centerline at point, M.
sin
if 1
Small angle inclination
5 0.087266
GZ GM d
GMd d
d
= u
~ u u
u s =
Location of the Transverse Metacenter

Transverse metacentric height : the distance between
the C.G. and M (GM). It is important as an index
of transverse stability at small angles of
inclination. GZ is positive, if the moment is
righting moment. M should be above C.G, if GZ
>0.

If we know the location of M, we may find GM, and
thus the righting arm GZ or righting moment can
be determined given a small angle dΦ.
; the distance from C.B. to
( ) the distance from the baseline to .
,
where is the vertical coordinates of the C.B.
The vertical distance between the metacenter
x
M
x
M B
B
I
BM BM M
H KM M
I
KM = H = +Z
Z
= ÷ ÷
V
V
.
& C.G,
x
M G B G
I
GM H Z +Z Z = ÷ = ÷
V
Examples of
computing KM
d
B
3
2
2
3
2
2
) Rectangular cross section
1
, ,
2 12
12
12 2
) Triangular cross section
2 1 1
, ,
3 12 2
6
2
6 3
B x
x
B
B x
x
B
a
d
Z I LB LBd
I B
BM
d
B d
KM BM Z
d
b
d
Z I LB LBd
I B
BM
d
B d
KM BM Z
d
= = V =
= =
V
= + = +
= = V =
= =
V
= + = +
d
B
W L
DYNAMIC STABILITY
ROLLING PERIOD
• SHIP”S STABILITY AND ROLLING PERIOD
W
L
T=
C B
GM
ROLLING PERIOD
The rolling period of the ship’s dependenced from ship’s stability. The formula
Between ship,s stability and rolling :

T = c*B/sqr GM

In this formula:
T – rolling period in sec.
c - constanta
B – the ship’s beam to outside of hull.

Note: the constanta c dependenced from ship’s displacements.
There are the followings meanings:
c=0.88 – when ship is empty or ballast;
c=0.78 - when the ship has on board amout 20 %
c=0.75 – when liquids on board 10%
c=0.73 – when all liquids on board amout 5%

HOWEVER, for all lagers ships Lloyd’s Register of shipping and the 1991 HMSO
Code of Practice for Ro-Ro ships use c= 0.7

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS
• FREE LIQUID AREA
P0
W0
L0
C0
G0
SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS
• FREE LIQUID AREA
P1
W0
L0
C0
G0
m
M Moment liquid
M Moment upserting
P1
C1
W1
L1
Q
SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS
• HANGING CARGO
Q
lz
P
Mcargo= Pcargo lz sin Q
Mcargo
W0
L0
W1
L1
Rules and Regulations
• The rules and regulations are issued by organizations
which may be divided into three categories:

-Classification societies: have established standards
of construction by the production of rules which
have done much to ensure the safety of ships.

-Governmental Authorities: concern for the safety
of ships and the well being of all who sail the ships.
(behavior of the people)
WNA
W
S
T

F
TF
PLIMSOL MARKS (Load lines)

Markings of minimum allowable freeboard for registred cargo-
Carryng ships.Located amidships on both the port and starboard
sides the ship.
Since the required minimum freeboard varies with water density
and severity of weather, different markings are used for:

- TF – Tropical Fresh Water
- F - Fresh Water
- T - Tropical Water (sea water)
- S - Standard Summer
- W - Winter
- WNA-Winter North Atlantic
Classification Societies
Abbreviation Full Name Headquarters
ABS
American Bureau of Shipping N.Y.
BV
Bureau Veritas Paris
GL
Germanisher Lloyd Hamburg
HR
Hellenic Register of Shipping Greece
LR
Lloyd’s Register of Shipping London
NK(K)
Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Tokyo
NV(DNV)
Norske Veritas Oslo
PC
Registry of Shipping of USSR Moscow
RI (NA)
Registro Italiano (Navale) Genoa

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