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Ship Stability

Contents

1- Definitions

2- Numerical Integration

3- Stability

5- Rules and Regulations

Definitions :

•Principal Dimensions (length, breadth, depth etc)

-Length.

Lbp ( or Lpp) Length between two perpendiculars

•FP – Forward perpendicular (vertical line through intersection

of stem and waterline (w.l).)

•AP – Backward perpendicular (vertical line through the center

of rudder pintle)

Loa – Overall Length

Lwl – Waterline Length (calculation length)

also see Table 6-2 at p142

W.L.

A.P

Loa

Lwl

Amid Ship

Lbp

F.P.

Forward Sheer

After Sheer

Sheer is the height measured between deck at side and base line.

•Line Drawing:

Using the methods of descriptive geometry, the form of

a hull is drawn on a scale (1:50 or 1:200) drawing,

which is called “Lines Drawing,” or simply the “lines”

or “lines plan”.

Lines drawing mainly consists of three plan views

•Sheer plane (Buttock plane, Buttock lines) : parallel

to the longitudinal central plane (2m, 4m, etc are the

distances from the center plane)

•Half-Breadth plane (Water plane, Waterline planes):

parallel to the base plane (2m, 4m, ….are the distance

form the base plane)

•Body Plan (Ordinate station, Transverse section,)

parallel to the mid-section (# of stations indicated the

distance from the mid-section or bow).

•Diagonals (Bilge Diagonal)

• Fair form and fairness of line, checking the

consistency of point, smoothness of lines

•Table of Offsets

Line Drawing

WATERLINE

D

E

P

T

H

O

F

H

U

L

L

D

R

A

F

T

F

R

E

E

B

O

A

R

D

RESERVE BUOYANCY

• Hull characteristics (coeff.)

• Displacement and Weight Relationship

B (buoyancy) = W (weight). (conventional ship)

– displacement B = Δ = γ

Appendage volume ≈ 1% Δ

V

V

Hull characteristics (coefficients

(non-dimensional)

- Coefficient of Form ( Fatness of a hull)

Block Coefficient C

B

where L= Lpp or Lbp and T = Draft

C

B

0.38~0.90 even bigger

- Miship Section Coefficient

C

M

= immersed area of mishap section (A) / (BT)

0.67~0.98

B

C

LBT

V

=

-Prismatic or Longitudinal Coefficient: 0.55~0.80

-Waterplane Coefficient

-Displacement /Length Ratio

B

P

M M

C

C

L A L B T C C

V V

= = =

· · · ·

area of water plane

0.67 - 0.87

where --Length of Load water plane

= Beam of W.P.

WP

C

LB

L

B

=

3 3

B

B

C LBT B T

C

L L L L

V

= =

-Breadth /Length Ratio :

-Draft/Length Ratio

-Draft/Breadth Ratio

-These coefficients are related to the resistance and

stability of the ship and can be used to estimate

them empirically.

B

L

T

L

T

B

•Important Hydro-Static Curves or Relations

•Displacement Curves (displacement [molded, total]

vs. draft, weight [SW, FW] vs. draft (T))

• Coefficients Curves (C

B

, C

M

, C

P

, C

WL

, vs. T)

• VCB (KB, Z

B

): Vertical distance of Center of

Buoyancy (C.B) to the baseline vs. T

•LCB (LCF, X

B

): Longitudinal Distance of C.B or

floatation center (C.F) to the midship vs. T

Numerical Integration for

Ship Forms

Representing the Hull Form

The Body Plan

Data of Ship forms

• Discrete data (Line drawings, stations, water plane

etc)

• Evenly distributed (most times)

Methods of Numerical Integration

•Trapezoidal rule (linear)

•Simpson’s first rule (quadratic)

•Simpson’s second rule (cubic)

f

n

(x) can be linear

f

n

(x) can be quadratic

Trapezoidal Rule

• Linear approximation

| | ) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

1 0

1 1 0 0 i

1

0 i

i

b

a

x f x f

2

h

x f c x f c x f c dx x f

+ =

+ = ~

¿

}

=

x

0

x

1

x

f(x)

L(x)

Multiple Applications of Trapezoidal Rule

| | | | | |

| | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

n 1 n i 1 0

n 1 n 2 1 1 0

x

x

x

x

x

x

b

a

x f x f 2 x 2f x f 2 x f

2

h

x f x f

2

h

x f x f

2

h

x f x f

2

h

dx x f dx x f dx x f dx x f

n

1 n

2

1

1

0

+ + + + + + =

+ + + + + + =

+ + + =

÷

÷

} } } }

÷

x

0

x

1

x

f(x)

x

2

h h x

3

h h x

4

n

a b

h

÷

=

Simpson’s First Rule

• Approximate the function by a

parabola

| | ) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

2 1 0

2 2 1 1 0 0 i

2

0 i

i

b

a

x f x f 4 x f

3

h

x f c x f c x f c x f c dx x f

+ + =

+ + = ~

¿

}

=

x

0

x

1

x

f(x)

x

2

h h

L(x)

Multiple Applications of Simpson’s First Rule

Applicable only if the number of segments is even

Multiple Applications of Simpson’s First Rule

n

a b

h

÷

=

)

`

¹

¹

´

¦

+ + +

÷

=

¿ ¿

÷

=

÷

=

1 n

5 3 1 i

2 n

6 4 2 j

n j i 0

x f x f 2 x f 4 x f

n 3

a b

I

, , , ,

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

) (

6

x f x f 4 x f

h 2

6

x f x f 4 x f

h 2

6

x f x f 4 x f

h 2 I

n 1 n 2 n

4 3 2 2 1 0

) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+ +

=

÷ ÷

n must be even

Simpson’s Second Rule (single application)

Approximate by a cubic polynomial

| | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3 2 1 0

3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 i

3

0 i

i

b

a

x f x f 3 x f 3 x f

8

h 3

x f c x f c x f c x f c x f c dx x f

+ + + =

+ + + = ~

¿

}

=

x

0

x

1

x

f(x)

x

2

h h

L(x)

x

3

h

Stability

A floating body reaches to an equilibrium state, if

1) its weight = the buoyancy

2) the line of action of these two forces become collinear.

The equilibrium: stable, or unstable or neutrally stable.

• Stable equilibrium: if it is slightly displaced from its

equilibrium position and will return to that position.

• Unstable equilibrium: if it is slightly displaced form its

equilibrium position and tends to move farther away from

this position.

• Neutral equilibrium: if it is displaced slightly from this

position and will remain in the new position.

• Motion of a Ship:

6 degrees of freedom

- Surge

- Sway

- Heave

- Roll

- Pitch

- Yaw

Axis

Translation Rotation

x Longitudinal Surge Neutral S. Roll S. NS. US

y Transverse Sway Neutral S. Pitch S.

z Vertical Heave S. (for sub, N.S.) Yaw NS

Righting & Heeling Moments

A ship or a submarine is designed to float in the

upright position.

• Righting Moment: exists at any angle of

inclination where the forces of weight and buoyancy

act to move the ship toward the upright position.

• Heeling Moment: exists at any angle of inclination

where the forces of weight and buoyancy act to

move the ship away from the upright position.

SHIP’S STABILITY

METACENTER

m

B0

G---Center of Gravity, B---Center of Buoyancy

M--- Transverse Metacenter,

If M is above G, we will have a righting moment, and

if M is below G, then we have a heeling moment.

W.L

For a displacement ship,

For submarines (immersed in water)

G

B

G

If B is above G, we have righting moment

If B is below G, we have heeling moment

Upsetting Forces (overturning moments)

• Beam wind, wave & current pressure

• Lifting a weight (when the ship is loading or unloading in the

harbor.)

• Offside weight (C.G is no longer at the center line)

• The loss of part of buoyancy due to damage (partially flooded,

C.B. is no longer at the center line)

• Turning

• Grounding

Static Stability & Dynamical Stability

Static Stability: Studying the magnitude of the

righting moment given the inclination (angle) of the

ship*.

(That is, the rolling velocity and energy are not

considered.)

Dynamic Stability**: Calculating the amount of work

done by the righting moment given the inclination of

the ship.

• Static Stability

1. The initial stability (aka stability at small

inclination) &,

2. the stability at large inclinations.

• The initial stability: studies the right moments or right

arm at small inclination angles.

• The stability at large inclination (angle): computes the

right moments (or right arms) as function of the inclination

angle, up to a limit angle at which the ship may lose its

stability (capsizes). (Cross curves of stability (see Fig.

6-7 at pp 156) & Curves of Static Stability (see Fig. 6-8

at pp157) )

The initial stability is a special case of the latter.

MAIN STABILITY POINTS

• m metacenter

• G center of gravity

• B center of buoyancy

m

G

h

a

B1

Q

Wo

LO

W1

L1

Q

B

Initial stability

• Righting Arm: A symmetric ship is inclined at a small angle

dΦ. C.B has moved off the ship’s centerline as the result of the

inclination. The distance between the action of buoyancy and

weight, GZ, is called righting arm.

• Transverse Metacenter: A vertical line through the C.B

intersects the original vertical centerline at point, M.

sin

if 1

Small angle inclination

5 0.087266

GZ GM d

GMd d

d

= u

~ u u

u s =

Location of the Transverse Metacenter

Transverse metacentric height : the distance between

the C.G. and M (GM). It is important as an index

of transverse stability at small angles of

inclination. GZ is positive, if the moment is

righting moment. M should be above C.G, if GZ

>0.

If we know the location of M, we may find GM, and

thus the righting arm GZ or righting moment can

be determined given a small angle dΦ.

; the distance from C.B. to

( ) the distance from the baseline to .

,

where is the vertical coordinates of the C.B.

The vertical distance between the metacenter

x

M

x

M B

B

I

BM BM M

H KM M

I

KM = H = +Z

Z

= ÷ ÷

V

V

.

& C.G,

x

M G B G

I

GM H Z +Z Z = ÷ = ÷

V

Examples of

computing KM

d

B

3

2

2

3

2

2

) Rectangular cross section

1

, ,

2 12

12

12 2

) Triangular cross section

2 1 1

, ,

3 12 2

6

2

6 3

B x

x

B

B x

x

B

a

d

Z I LB LBd

I B

BM

d

B d

KM BM Z

d

b

d

Z I LB LBd

I B

BM

d

B d

KM BM Z

d

= = V =

= =

V

= + = +

= = V =

= =

V

= + = +

d

B

W L

DYNAMIC STABILITY

ROLLING PERIOD

• SHIP”S STABILITY AND ROLLING PERIOD

W

L

T=

C B

GM

ROLLING PERIOD

The rolling period of the ship’s dependenced from ship’s stability. The formula

Between ship,s stability and rolling :

T = c*B/sqr GM

In this formula:

T – rolling period in sec.

c - constanta

B – the ship’s beam to outside of hull.

Note: the constanta c dependenced from ship’s displacements.

There are the followings meanings:

c=0.88 – when ship is empty or ballast;

c=0.78 - when the ship has on board amout 20 %

c=0.75 – when liquids on board 10%

c=0.73 – when all liquids on board amout 5%

HOWEVER, for all lagers ships Lloyd’s Register of shipping and the 1991 HMSO

Code of Practice for Ro-Ro ships use c= 0.7

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS

• FREE LIQUID AREA

P0

W0

L0

C0

G0

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS

• FREE LIQUID AREA

P1

W0

L0

C0

G0

m

M Moment liquid

M Moment upserting

P1

C1

W1

L1

Q

SHIP’S STABILITY VARIATIONS

• HANGING CARGO

Q

lz

P

Mcargo= Pcargo lz sin Q

Mcargo

W0

L0

W1

L1

Rules and Regulations

• The rules and regulations are issued by organizations

which may be divided into three categories:

-Classification societies: have established standards

of construction by the production of rules which

have done much to ensure the safety of ships.

-Governmental Authorities: concern for the safety

of ships and the well being of all who sail the ships.

(behavior of the people)

WNA

W

S

T

F

TF

PLIMSOL MARKS (Load lines)

Markings of minimum allowable freeboard for registred cargo-

Carryng ships.Located amidships on both the port and starboard

sides the ship.

Since the required minimum freeboard varies with water density

and severity of weather, different markings are used for:

- TF – Tropical Fresh Water

- F - Fresh Water

- T - Tropical Water (sea water)

- S - Standard Summer

- W - Winter

- WNA-Winter North Atlantic

Classification Societies

Abbreviation Full Name Headquarters

ABS

American Bureau of Shipping N.Y.

BV

Bureau Veritas Paris

GL

Germanisher Lloyd Hamburg

HR

Hellenic Register of Shipping Greece

LR

Lloyd’s Register of Shipping London

NK(K)

Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Tokyo

NV(DNV)

Norske Veritas Oslo

PC

Registry of Shipping of USSR Moscow

RI (NA)

Registro Italiano (Navale) Genoa

- Resistance
- Ship tecnic Sharif university Lecture 2
- lecture 1
- 02105jokulfellfinal
- Ship tecnic Sharif university Lecture 3
- Planing Vessels 1
- Pages From Ship Knowledge - Part1
- Ship tecnic Sharif university Lecture 4
- Ship Construction Ions
- Specifications of a Naval Ship
- Amphibious Architectures Thesis
- B2b Ship Operation
- Cargo Mark
- Ship tecnic Sharif university Lecture 8
- Ship tecnic Sharif university Lecture 6
- Ship Stability Demo
- abschn01
- Preliminary Ship Design
- Compas Adjustment
- Safety of HSMV
- Ship tecnic Sharif university Lecture 7
- ies paper-1
- Experiment 6
- Celestial Navigation
- Design Methodology
- Empirical Formula
- Ship Stability criteries
- Ship Design - Main Dimensions
- Metacentric Heights

- 47483_1920-1924
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- 43466_1920-1924
- 43483_1925-1929
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- 60720_1885-1889
- Colonial Sand & Stone Co., Inc., as Owner of the Scow Windowlight, Also Known as the C-8, Libellant-Appellee v. Fehlhaber Corporation, 326 F.2d 98, 2d Cir. (1964)
- 50744_1930-1934
- 53377_1940-1944
- The Sea Witch, 73 U.S. 242 (1868)
- 48782_1925-1929
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- Asbury Park Press front page, Saturday, December 12, 2015
- 43471_1925-1929
- The Syracuse, 76 U.S. 672 (1870)
- 53378_1935-1939
- 43461_1920-1924
- 44647_1930-1934
- 44667_1940-1944
- Coastal Patrol Base 17 News
- 43436_1935-1939
- 53379_1935-1939
- 53363_1935-1939
- Arctic2-1-56
- 53376_1940-1944

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