Computers Generations

The First Generation: 1946-1958 (The Vacuum Tube computers) First generation computers were huge, slow, expensive, and often undependable. In 1946 the first electronic computer ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was built which used vacuum tubes. The ENIAC used thousands of vacuum tubes, which took up a lot of space and gave off a great deal of heat just like light bulbs do. The ENIAC led to other vacuum tube type computers like the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) and the UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer). Without any moving parts, vacuum tubes could take very weak signals and make the signal stronger i.e amplify it and could also stop and start the flow of electricity instantly (switch). These two properties made the ENIAC computer possible. The ENIAC gave off so much heat that they had to be cooled by gigantic air conditioners. However even with these huge coolers, vacuum tubes still overheated regularly. It was time for something new. The Second Generation: 1959-1964 (Transistor Computers) In 1947 three scientists working at AT&T's Bell Labs invented what would replace the vacuum tube forever, the Transistor. The transistor functions like a vacuum tube in that it can be used to relay and switch electronic signals but its faster, more reliable, smaller, and much cheaper to build than a vacuum tube.

These transistors were made of solid material. They were also much smaller and gave off virtually no heat compared to vacuum tubes. The Third Generation: 1965-1970 (Integrated Circuits IC’s Computer) Transistors were a tremendous breakthrough in advancing the computer. space travel in the 1960's would not have been possible. Transistors were also found to conduct electricity faster and better than vacuum tubes. some of which is silicon. Placing such large numbers of transistors on a single chip vastly increased the power of a single computer and lowered its cost considerably. a new invention would even further advance our ability to use computers. an abundant element (second only to oxygen) found in beach sand and glass therefore they were very cheap to produce. Without this invention. However no one could predict that thousands even now millions of transistors (circuits) could be compacted in such a small space.One transistor replaced the equivalent of 40 vacuum tubes. The integrated circuit (semiconductor chip) packs a huge number of transistors onto a single chip of silicon. However. Their use marked a new beginning for the computer. .

Most electronic devices today use some form of integrated circuits placed on printed circuit boards (PCB) -. . The size of these machines dropped to the size of small file cabinets. Yet. the single biggest advancement in the computer era was yet to be discovered. The Fourth Generation: (The Microprocessor) 1971-Today This generation can be characterized by both the jump to monolithic integrated circuits (millions of transistors put onto one integrated circuit chip) and the invention of the microprocessor (a single chip that could do all the processing of a full-scale computer). These third generation computers could carry out instructions in billionths of a second. shrinking both the size and cost of computers even further and further enhancing its power. By putting millions of transistors onto one single chip more calculation and faster speeds could be reached by computers.sometimes called a mother board.thin pieces of bakelite or fiberglass that have electrical connections etched onto them -.Since the invention of integrated circuits. However what really triggered the tremendous growth of computers and its significant impact on our lives is the invention of the microprocessor. the number of transistors that can be placed on a single chip has doubled every two years.

e MC 4004 however it led to the invention of personal computers.Pentium and recently the Core processors (duo core. . not computers i. core 2 duo etc). which replaces von Neumann's single central processing unit design with a system harnessing the power of many CPUs to work as one.8086. Today we have all heard of Intel and its Pentium® Processors and now we know how it all got started. or microcomputers which uses microprocessors such as 8085. The computers of the next generation will have millions upon millions of transistors on one chip and will perform over a billion calculations in a single second. There is no end in sight for the computer movement. Two such engineering advances are parallel processing. The microprocessor was intially made to be used in calculators.Intel a new company invented a chip the size of a pencil eraser that could do all the computing and logic work of a computer. Many advances in the science of computer design and technology are coming together to enable the creation of fifth-generation computers. Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Defining the fifth generation of computers is somewhat difficult because the field is in its infancy. .

The most famous example of a fifth generation computer is the fictional HAL9000 from Arthur C. The ability to translate a foreign language is also a major goal of fifth generation computers. greatly improving the speed of information flow. For example. This feat seemed a simple objective at first. commandeering a spaceship and killing most humans on board. Using recent engineering advances. which allows the flow of electricity with little or no resistance. 2001: A Space Odyssey. use visual input. computers may be able to accept spoken word instructions and imitate human reasoning. With artificial intelligence. HAL was a little too human and had a psychotic breakdown. Clarke's novel. expert systems assist doctors in making diagnoses by applying the problem-solving steps a doctor might use in assessing a patient's needs. (Unfortunately. and learn from its own experiences. It will take several more years of development before expert systems are in widespread use.Another advance is superconductor technology. many of its functions are not. but appeared much more difficult when programmers realized that human understanding relies as much on context and meaning as it does on the simple translation of words . HAL performed all of the functions currently envisioned for real-life fifth generation computers.) Though the wayward HAL9000 may be far from the reach of real-life computer designers. Computers today have some attributes of fifth generation computers. HAL could reason well enough to hold conversations with its human operators.