Chapter 9.

Embedded Systems
Computer Organization

Embedded System Overview
 Computing

systems are everywhere  Most of us think of “desktop” computers
- PC’s - Laptops - Servers
 But

there is another type of computing system
- Far more common…

Embedded System Overview
What is an embedded system? A physical system that employs computer control for a specific purpose, rather than for general-purpose computation.

A “Short List” of Embedded Systems
                

Anti-lock brakes Auto-focus cameras Automatic teller machine Automatic toll systems Automatic transmission Avionic systems Battery chargers Camcorders Cell phones Cell-phone base stations Cordless phones Cruise control Digital cameras Disk drives Electronic card readers Electronic toys/games Fax machines

Fingerprint identifiers Home security systems Medical testing systems Modems MPEG decoders Network cards Network switches/routers Pagers Photocopiers Printers Scanners Stereo systems TV VCR Video game controllers Video phones Washers and dryers

Embedded Systems

Embedded systems

information processing systems embedded into a larger product Desktop – produced millions/year Embedded – billions/year PCs, servers, and notebooks Automobiles, entertainment, communication, aviation, handheld devices, military and medical equipments.

Two types of computing
 

Non-Embedded Systems

The future of computing!

Components of Embedded Systems
Memory Controllers Interface

Software

Coprocessors

Processor

ASIC Converters

Analog

Digital

Analog

Components of Embedded Systems
 

Analog components
- Sensors, controllers,…

Digital components
- Processor, coprocessors - Memories - Controllers, busses - ASIC: Application-Specific Integrated Circuit, a chip designed

for a particular application
 

Converters – A/D, D/A, … Software
- Application programs - Exception handlers

Characteristics

Application specific
- Application are known a priori - Optimize for cost, area, power, and performance

   

Digital signal processing
- Signals are represented digitally

Reactive
- Reacts to changes in the system’s environment

Real-time
- Compute certain tasks before deadline

Distributed, networked,…

Characteristics

Reliability
- Probability of system working correctly at t=0

Maintainability
- Probability of system working correctly d time units after error occurred

Safety
- Not harmful for user

Security
- Confidential and authentic communication

Traditional Design Challenges
      

Low cost Light weight Reliability Low power Portable Complexity Ease of use

   

Mixed digital/analog requirements Shrinking time-tomarket Short product lifetime Real-time processing Inherent concurrency HW/SW co-design

Recent Design Challenges
 

Design complexity Ultra low power
- Highly adaptive - Active power management (voltage scaling, etc.) - Alternative energy source (solar, etc.)

Internet aware
- Incorporate RF (radio frequency) technologies - Networking capabilities
* Larger OS, middleware, etc. * Understanding of many/changing protocols

 

Verification Security

Embedded System Example – Microwave Oven
EMBEDDED PROCESSOR CHIP Processor ROM RAM Bus

Input interface

Output interface

Input keys

Door open

Magnetron

Fan

Displays

Light Speaker

Figure 9.1. A block diagram of a micro wave oven. Figure 9.1. A block diagram of a microwave oven

Embedded System Example – Digital Camera
Lens Optical sensors A/D conversion Motor

User switches

System controller

Flash unit

Image storage

LCD screen

Computer interface

Cable to PC

Figure 9.2. A simplified block diagram of a digital camera. Figure 9.2. A simplified block diagram of a digital camera.

Block Diagram of an Embedded Processor
Parallel To external memory Processor core I/O ports

Serial I/O ports Internal memory Counter/Timer

A­to­D conversion

D­to­A conversion

Figure 9.3.  A block diagram of an embedded processor.

A Simple Microcontroller
Address Data Control Serial I/O Processor core Parallel I/O Port A Port B

Receive data Transmit data

Internal memory

Counter/Timer

Counter_in Timer_out

Figure 9.4.  An example microcontroller.

Access to Parallel Port
Read_Port Di Output data D Write_Port Q Q PA i

D Write_DIR

Q Q

Data direction

Figure 9.5. Access to one bit in Port A in Figure 9.4.

Access the Serial Interface
Receive shift register Serial input Recei ve buffer

D7

D0 Transmit buffer

Transmit shift re gister

Serial output

Figure 9.7.

Recei ve and transmit structure of the serial interf ace.

Design Issues
         

Cost I/O capability Size Power consumption On-Chip memory Performance Software Instruction set Development tools Testability and reliability

System-On-a-Chip (SOC)
 In

an embedded application, it is desired to use as few chips as possible.  Some microcontroller chips are targeted for specific applications.  Developing a complex microcontroller takes time.  Consumer products need short development time.  IP (Intellectual property) reuse

FPGA
 Field

Programmable Gate Array  Allow complete freedom in the design process.  Make it easy to include certain standard units and then build the rest of the system as desired.  Processor core: key component of any system on a chip
 

Soft processor core Hard processor core

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