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A Study on the Effectiveness of Ad-Campaigns.

A Marketing Management Project. By: Roll nos : 280,281,

INTRODUCTION- what is an Advertisement?

Advertising term is originated from Latin word advertere which means to turn the mind towards. MEANINGS The Dictionary meaning of the term advertising is to give public notice or to announce publicity. The American Marketing Association has defined advertising as any paid form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.


The first ever advertisement was in the French newspaper La

Presse in 1836, first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability.
In INDIA the first advertising agency was established in 1905,

by B. Datram and Company.

5 Ms of Advertisements


Institutional Advertising: aims at creating goodwill and reputation. purpose is to create feelings favorable to the advertisers company. importance is given to the activities and contribution of the company in social, education and cultural areas. Eg: Tata Steel, Amway. Product Advertising: Refers to advertising of tangible goods can be advertised through all media like T.V., radio or outdoor media etc.

is used extensively for information, education, persuasion and sales promotion. Emotional appeal can be used. Eg: advertising for soaps, shoes, toothpaste, cosmetics, etc.

Service Advertising: advertising of intangible services by airlines, banks, etc. use of picture/illustration is a little difficult. Eg: insurance, courier, airline, etc.

Public Service Advertising: directed towards improving social welfare of a community and of the nation. aimed at generating lot of goodwill. Eg: MTNL, insurance companies, bank, gas company, etc.

Public Relations Advertising: undertaken to build, enhance and maintain a good corporate image of the company in the eyes and minds of the general public. deals with issues rather than advertising of products or services. Eg: government, individuals, social groups, trade groups, group of employees, etc.

Financial Advertising: is required for production and marketing of goods and services. Eg: IDBI, Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI), UTI, etc.

What is an Advertisement Campaign?

An Advertisement Campaign is a series of related Advertisements focusing on a common theme, goal, slogan and set of Advertisement appeals for a specific period of time.

A successful campaign requires a number of important decisions including:

Creative Decisions Media Decisions Evaluate the Campaign

Determine the Ad Objectives

TYPES of Advertising Research- How do you measure the effectiveness of an Ad Campaign?

Pre-testing or evaluative research is measurement done before the campaign is implemented. It can occur anytime from the idea generation to the final version of a campaign but before it is implemented. Concurrent testing is conducted while a campaign is running in the marketplace. Its biggest advantage is its ability to measure the effects of communication in progress and make adjustments immediately. Post-testing occurs after the audience has been exposed to the communication campaign. It is designed to determine how far marketing communication objectives have been attained, and how this information should guide future planning.


Also known as copy testing, is a form of customized research that predicts in-market performance of an ad, before it airs, by analyzing audience levels of attention, motivation, entertainment, and communication, as well as breaking down the ads Flow of Attention and Flow of Emotion. Pre-testing is also used to identify weak spots within an ad to improve performance, to more effectively edit.


Focus Groups Individual Interviews Anteroom Trailer Consumer Juries Ethnography Programme Analysis On-Air Testing Brain Waves

Dummy Advertising Vehicles Readability Tests Physiological Measures Eye Tracking Pupil Dilation Galvanic Skin Response


There are essentially 3 types of pretests which come at different stages of the advertising decision-making process. The first is Developmental Pretesting. done as the advertising is being created. used to determine whether certain components of advertising work. measures tend to be either gross physiological ones or on the other hand, consumer "expert" opinions about the content of advertising. Eg: Focus Groups, Brain Waves, Physiological Measures, Eye Tracking.

The second type is Selection-Scheduling Pretesting. its goal is to determine which of several alternatives should be included and how those alternatives should be run or scheduled. sampling is more representative of the audience, and measurement is made to determine realistic communication response . The aim is to predict the response for the advertisement which is the Objective of the campaign. Eg: Behavioral analysis, Media Models. The third type is Limited Post Testing. this is used as a final check in many cases to assure decision makers that the commercial they are about to run.
The disadvantages are a limitation in both measurement and possible variation of alternatives. Also, the cost can be too high.

The advantage of limited post testing are natural exposure and quick measurement.

Concurrent testing takes place while a campaign is running.

Tracking Studies-Evaluating Behavioural Results

1. 2. 3. 4.

Communication Effects-

1. 2.

Coincidental Surveys Attitude tests

Wave Analysis Consumer Diaries Pantry Checks Single-Source Tracking


One often face the problem of artificiality while conducting pretesting. This problem is easily overcome by post-testing. Post Testing is the most common of all testing procedures because it is only after a campaign has run its course that its full effects can be analysed.

While it cannot improve the campaign it evaluates and can provide a basis for future planning. It attempts to measure the actual effect of real advertisements in real situations.
Types of Post-Testing are:Recognition Tests, Recall Tests, Inquiry Tests, Sales Tests, Comprehensive Measures.




improves Internal Validity but sacrifices External Validity -- There is no way of judging whether the process of pre-testing actually influenced the results because there is no baseline measurement against groups that remained completely untreated. In the Solomon Four group method & the Research method it is impossible and unethical to separate the participants in terms of the target audience, selection bias also arises which afflicts the sociological & educational research programs.
The two-group control group design is an exceptionally useful research method, as its limitations are fully understood.

design that is more costly, but avoids many weaknesses of the simple pretest-posttest designs.

Research Method The cut-outs of contribution on various types on advertisements


In order to get the most out of testing, researchers have to adhere to many dos and donts of measurement. Good research depends on sound objectives; hence the objective should be clearly specified in terms of communication or behavioural impact. While pre-tests lay out the opportunity cost of a campaign and may prevent costly failures, post-tests determine actual performance of the campaign Also, principles of good research design such appropriate sample size, ample number of ad exposures, controlling extraneous factors etc. should be practiced for best results.

Future in Advertising

Future success in advertising depends on the ability to

understand not just advertising but also all the areas of promotion, and assist clients in developing and implementing Integrated Marketing Communications program.
The Integrated Marketing Communications program includes

Sales Promotion, Direct Marketing and Public Relations.