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UNIT-5

DIELECTRICS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS

Insulators
Some materials like glass, ceramic, polymers and papers are non-conducting materials. They prevent flow of current through them. They provide electrical insulation.

DIELECTRICS :the non-conducting materials when placed in electric field modifies the electric field and themselves undergo appreciable change are called dielectrics.

Energy Band Diagram


The forbidden gap Eg is very large for dielectric. Excitation of e- from the normally full valance band to empty conduction band cannot occurs. Conduction cannot occur even when dielectric contains impurities. Resistivity ranges from 1010 to 1020 ohmm.

Energy Band Diagram


Figure:

DIELECTRIC CONSTANT

The ratio of the capacitance of the given capacitor with the material filling the entire space between its plates to the capacitance of capacitor in vacuum.

Dielectric Constant

Dielectric Constant

Dielectric Constant

Dielectric Constant

Dielectric Constant

Dielectric Polarization
In atom, centre of mass of the electron coincides with the nucleus. Atom do not have permanent dipole moment. Atoms in electric field acquires an induced electric dipole moment, called dielectric polarisation.

DIELECRIC POLARIZATION
Atoms of the dielectrics acquire induced dipole moment when placed in an external electric field this process is called dielectric polarization. Atoms are said to be polarized.
P = .E IS MOLECULAR OR ATOMIC POLARIZIBILITY

Dielectric Polarization

Dielectric Polarization

Dielectric Polarization

Dielectric Polarization

DIELECRIC POLARIZATION
Atom

E
+

DIELECTRIC POLARIZATION

POLARIZATION AN ATOMIC VIEW

TYPES OF DIELECTRICS
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF DIELECTRICS:(1) POLAR DIELECTRICS (2) NON-POLAR DIELECTRICS

POLAR DIELECTRICS
A polar dielectric molecule is one in which center of gravity of positive charge is separated from centre of gravity of negative charge by finite distance.

POLAR DIELECTRICS

NON-POLAR DIELECTRICS
Molecules in which center of gravity of negative charge coincides with positive charges are called non-polar molecules. Symmetrical molecules are non-polar molecules.

NON-POLAR DIELECTRICS

GAUSSS LAW OF DIELECRICS


the total flux through a closed surface is ( 1/0 )times the total charge enclosed inside the closed surface.

r E0.ds =

q/o

T he m ag n it ud e o f e lec t r ic intensity vector is the force on unit positive charge at that point and the direction will be the direction of force. E = F/q0

ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY

ELECTRIC POLARIZATION
Induced dipole moment per unit volume is called electric polarization. P = n . Pin

ELECTRIC POLARIZATION

pin

- + - + -+
- + - + -+
- + - + - + - + - + - +

- +

E0
UNIT- coulomb/meter2

ELECTRIC DISPLACEMENT VECTOR


Displacement vector is defined as displacement flux linked with unit area at that point.

D = q / a =

RELATION BETWEEN D,E,P


+ +
+ + + + +

- - - - -- - E0 E +

+ + +

E0

- -

- - - - -
E0 = / 0

- - --- - - - E = / 0 (where E is induced electric field)

+ +++ + + +

(where E0 is field in absence of dielectrics)

RELATION BETWEEN D,E,P


P = (k 1) E

D = 0 . E + P

TYPES OF POLARIZATION
POLARIZATION OCCURS DUE TO FOLLOWING MECHANISM:(1) ELECTRONIC POLARIZATION (2) IONIC POLARIZATION (3) ORIENTATIONAL POLARIZATION

ELECTRONIC POLARIZATION
It results from a displacement of the centre of the negatively charged electron cloud relative to positive nucleus of an atom by electric field
No field
Applied field

ATOM

In ionic lattice, the positive ions are displaced in the direction of an applied field while the negative ions are displaced in the opposite direction, giving a resultant (apparent) dipole moment to the whole body. + - + + + + + + + + + + - + - + - + + + Electric field

IONIC POLARIZATION

IONIC POLARIZATION
When electric field is applied to the ionic material cations and anions get separated in opposite direction which give rise to net dipole moment.
No field Applied field

_
a

_
b

ORIENTATIONAL POLARIZATION

It is found only in materials having permanent dipole moment. In absence of electric field the orientation of molecule is random while after applying electric field they align with e l e c t r i c f i e l d .

ORIENTATION POLARIZATION:
The electric field tends to direct the permanent dipoles.

Electric field
+e

-e

INTERNAL FIELDS IN SOLIDS


The electric field which is responsible for polarizing a molecule inside dielectric is called molecular field. Assume dielectric consist of two parts(1) The dielectric outside the sphere is treated as continuum of dipoles.

(2) the molecules inside the sphere are treaded as individual dipoles

INTERNAL FIELDS IN SOLIDS


Ein = E0 + E Ein =external applied field + sum of all the fields due to surrounding. Total internal field is splitted into 4 componentsE = E0 + E1 +E2 + E3

INTERNAL FIELDS IN SOLIDS (1) E0 = external field due to charged capacitor.

(2) E1= depolarizing field due to bound charge on outer faces of dielectrics. (3) E2 = field at the centre due to induced polarized charge at the surface. (4) E3 = field due to polarized molecules present inside the sphere.

INTERNAL FIELDS IN SOLIDS

INTERNAL FIELDS IN SOLIDS

INTERNAL FIELDS IN SOLIDS

CLAUSIUS-MOSOTTI EQUATION
This is applicable to those dielectrics which exhibits Only electronic polarization

e.g. diamond, silicon and germanium.

= 30 (r-1) / n.(r + 2)

CLAUSIUS-MOSOTTI EQUATION
LIMITATIONS:This equation is applicable to neutral liquids and specially to gases . This is not applicable to strong solution and solids. Also we have used the assumption (1)Molecule is isotropic (2) Other short range force = 0

LANGEVINS THEORY OF DIPOLAR ORIENTATION


(1) As the temperature is increased polarization becomes smaller due to thermal agitation . (2) In polar dielectrics dielectric polarization,polarizibility,susceptibility depends on temperature.

LANGEVINS THEORY OF DIPOLAR ORIENTATION

E rsin

rd

MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS

DIAMAGNETIC MATERIALS
The materials when placed in magnetic field acquires feeble magnetism in the direction opposite to magnetic field are called diamagnetic materials.

DIAMAGNETIC MATERIALS
Properties:(1)Feebly magnetized by magnetic field in opposite direction .. (2)Negative magnetic susceptibility. (3)Relative permeability is less than unity. (4)Susceptibility is independent of temperature. (5)Magnetization M is linear function of magnetic field H. (6)Eg. Metals, hydrogen, air, gold , silver etc.

no field

applied field

Par amagne tic


no field applied field

Diamagne tic

Q(1) the atomic weight and density of sulphur are 32 and 2.08gm/cm3 .The electronic polarizibility of atom is 3.2810-40 F-m2 .If sulphur has cubical Symmetry ,what will be relative dielectric constant.

Q(2) If Nacl crystal is subjected to an electric field of 1000v/m And the resulting polarization is 4.310-8 c/m2 , calculate the relative permittivity Of Nacl.

- PARA MAGNETISM PARA MAGNETISM OF LIQUID OXYGEN

PARAMAGNETIC MATERIALS
Substance when placed in magnetic field are magnetized in the direction of field are called paramagnetic materials .

If no field is applied, these moments are randomly directed and there is no net magnetization of the material. However, when a magnetic field is present, the moments align preferentially along the direction of the external field. . The sum of these moments causes the magnetization.

PARAMAGNETIC MATERIAL

PARAMAGNETISM
no field applied field

Par amagne tic


no field applied field

Diamagne tic

PARAMAGNETIC MATERIAL
feebly magnetized in the direction of magnetic field . Susceptibility of paramagnetic has small positive value . Relative permeability is greater than 1 . It looses magnetism due to rise in temperature.

PARAMAGNETISM Each particular paramagnetic material has a characteristic Curie constant. Paramagnetism arises from atoms or ions with permanent magnetic dipole moments that exist independent of any applied field.

The orientation of each moment is independent of the orientation of its neighbors.

PARAMAGNETISM Another common magnetic behavior is paramagnetism, which is described by a positive susceptibility that depends inversely on the absolute temperature:

C T

This equation is known as the Curie-Weiss law, and C is the Curie constant.

PARAMAGNETISM

At magnetizing fields H paramagnetic magnetization (Langevin, 1904).

> 10 T, saturates

Below the paramagnetic Curie temperature (q), which is near 0 Kelvin in paramagnetic solids, paramagnetism disappears.

PARAMAGNETISM PARAMAGNETISM
according to Curie-Weisss law, as temperature increases the paramagnetic magnetization decreases, with some exceptions in metals M = C x (H / T - q) M : induced magnetization q : paramagnetic Curie T H : inducing magnetic field in Kelvins C : Curies cst. T : temperature

however, these forces are extraordinarily small compare to the forces generated by the thermal motion of electrons.

PARAMAGNETISM

Diamagnetism no Fe, Mn, ... w hite minerals Qtz, Kfs, Plag, Cal

Paramagnetism low to medium-Fe contents ferromagnesians Ol, Px, Amp, Bt, Ms Tur, Chl

THE CURIE-WEISS LAW

THE CURIE-WEISS LAW paramagnetism is stronger at low T where the deranging effects of collisions are less

most pure mafic silicates are paramagnetic, but also Fe-sulphides and Fe-carbonates

=C/ T

THE CURIE-WEISSLAW THE CURIE WEISS LAW

Ferromagnetism is not found in liquids and gases. Susceptibility of ferromagnetic has large positive value . Relative permeability is greater than 1 . Ferromagnetism decreases with temperature at curie temperature ferromagnetic properties of material disappear all of a sudden and material behaves as paramagnetic .

FERROMAGNETISM

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS


1. Can Exhibit a Very High Magnetization, or Magnetic Moment 2. Generally a Metal or Metal-Oxide 3. Magnetization will decrease as Temperature increases 4. Exhibits the Phenomenon of Magnetic

Hysteresis

FERROMAGNETISM In ferromagnetic materials, all magnetic moments permanently line up and lock together.

This effect is about 104 times stronger than the paramagnetic alignement and can be explained only by quantum mechanics, the magnetic susceptibility is usually large.

FERROMAGNETISM
Magnetic Domains

Magnetic domains in an unpolarized ferromagnetic solid are random because of the random orientation of the grains within the material.

Under the influence of an external field, the polarization direction of the individual domains and their size may change irreversibly, creating a permanent magnet.

FERROMAGNETISM
We have seen that in diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials a NET magnetization may be induced in the PRESENCE of an applied magnetic field

* In FERROMAGNETIC materials however a SPONTANEOUS magnetization may even exist in the ABSENCE of any external magnetic field
M

Ms
Mr

FERROMAGNETISM
M
saturation magnetization
Ms

isothermal remanent magnetization coercitive force


Hcr

Mrs

Hc

remanent coercivity

FERROMAGNETISM
* We begin by applying a magnetic field to a piece of ferromagnetic material that is initially UNMAGNETIZED With increasing magnetic field strength the magnetization increases and eventually SATURATES at some characteristic value

Ms .

When the external magnetic field is then reduced to back ZERO the magnetization does NOT return to zero but a REMNANT magnetization Mr instead

FERROMAGNETISM

as the magnetic field strength is increased the magnetization saturates at a value Ms to zero a spontaneous magnetization Mr known as the remnant magnetization or remance persists

when the magnetic field is returned

FERROMAGNETIM
*To overcome the spontaneous remnance it is necessary to REVERSE the magnetic field strength to a value Hc known as the COERCIVE FIELD
* Solids with large remnant magnetizations and coercive fields are referred to as HARD magnetic materials *A complete cycle of the magnetic-field strength through positive and negative values gives rise to a HYSTERESIS CURVE

HYSTERESIS CURVE
M

Hc

HARD AND SOFT MAGNET


*ferromagnetic material showing the coercive field required to demagnetize the ferromagnet * for a hard magnetic material the area enclosed by the hysteresis curve is large * when the area enclosed is small however the ferromagnetic is referred to as soft indicating the ease with which the material may be magnetized and demagnetized

SOFT MAGNETIC MATERIALS


*Easy to Demagnetize *Easy to Change the Direction of Magnetization *Coercivity is small (~ 0.02 to ~ 10 Oe) *Hard to Demagnetize

HARD MAGNETIC MATERIALS

*Hard to Change the Direction of Magnetization *Coercively is large (~ 100 to ~ 10,000 Oe)

VARIOUS SOFT MAGNETIC MATERIALS

Iron Fe-Si alloys Fe-Ni alloys Fe-Al & Fe-Al-Si alloys Soft ferrites MoFe2O3, [M,Zn]Fe2O4 Amorphous alloys(e.g.,Fe72Co8Si5B15) Nanocrystalline alloys (e.g.,Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9)

Propertis relevant to soft magnetic materials

VARIOUS HARD MAGNETIC MATERIALS Iron & cobalt steel Nickel and cobalt alloys (alnicos) Oxides (Hard ferrites) Rare earth inter-metallic compounds

Hysteresis loop of hard magnetic materials

FERROMAGNETISM
The saturation magnetization is temperature DEPENDENT and VANISHES completely above the CURIE TEMPERATURE (TC ).
*

* At temperatures higher than this ferromagnets becomePARAMAGNETIC

CURIES TEMPERATURE FOR FEROMAGNETIC MATERIALS


Ms METAL PARAMAGNETIC
Fe Co Ni Gd

MS(0)

TC (K)
1043 1404 631 289

MS(0) (A/m)
1.75 1.45 0.51 5.66 x x x x 106 106 106 106

FERROMAGNETIC

TC

FERROMAGNETISM For ferromagnetism the Curie temperature and the constant q in the Curie-Weiss law are ALMOST identical A SMALL difference exists however since the transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism is GRADUAL

FERROMAGNETIS M
In ferromagnetic materials the spins of electrons in UNFILLED d-BANDS spontaneously align parallel to each other below TC

* This alignment results in the formation of magnetic DOMAINS and occurs even in the ABSENCE of an applied magnetic field

FERROMAGNETISM

FERROMAGNETISM
With NO applied field however the spins of different domains are RANDOMLY oriented with respect to each other and the net magnetization is ZERO . An external field ALIGNS the domains and gives rise to a NET magnetization that PERSISTS even when the external field is removed.

FERROMAGNETISM

UNALIGNED DOMAINS IN A FERROMAGNET IN ITS VIRGIN STATE

ALIGNED DOMAINS IN A FERROMAGNET IN THE PRESENCE OF AN EXTERNAL FIELD

MOLECULAR-FIELD THEORY OF FERROMAGNETISM In diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials we have discussed how an EXTERNAL magnetic field may be used to align magnetic moments

* Weiss postulated that in ferromagnetic materials the spontaneous alignment of moments may occur due to the presence of an internal MOLECULAR FIELD

MOLECULAR-FIELD THEORY OF FERROMAGNETISM


* In the presence of an applied magnetic field the TOTAL magnetic field that acts on the magnetic moments can then be written as

H Tot H e H m

(14 .1)

In this expression He is the EXTERNAL field and is the MOLECULAR field

Hm

* Quite generally it is found that the molecular field may

be written as

H m M

(14 .2)

Here is the so-called MOLECULAR FIELD CONSTANT

MOLECULAR-FIELD THEORY OF FERROMAGNETISM


M(T)/M(0) T > Tc 1 T = Tc T < Tc

MOLECULAR-FIELD THEORY OF FERROMAGNETISM

the intersection point of these curves yields the value of the spontaneous magnetization at zero magnetic field only when the temperature is less than the curie temperature is a non-zero spontaneous magnetization possible when the temperature equals the curie temperature the intersection of the curves is located at the origin indicating that the ferromagnetic behavior is lost completely

SUMMARY OF MAIN IDEAS:


1. Ferromagnetic Materials have the strongest magnetization and are the most commercially important magnetic materials. 2. Ferromagnetism arises from the electronic structure, specifically the electronic spins, within an atom. 3. Macroscopically, magnetic materials want to form Magnetic Domains. 4. Manipulating domains is the key to manipulating macroscopic magnetic properties.

SUMMARY OF MAIN IDEAS:


5. The Hystersis Loop is a primary tool for characterizing magnetic materials. 6. Magnetic Recording produces two different magnetization states to produce the 0 and 1 of digital data. 7. Data is written Inductively, and can be Read-Back by Induction or Magneto-Resistance (MR, GMR) 8. Practical Applications include Hard Disk Drives, Floppies, VCRs, Mag Stripes, Credit Cards, and others.

Summary
Diamagnetism Paramagnetism Non-perfect Antiferromagnetism Antiferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism

Ferrimagnetism

important for rock and paleomagnetism

ANTIFERROMAGNETISM

103 Tn T

ANTIFERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS
Antiferromagnetic materials include chromium and manganese. In antiferromagnetic materials, the magnetic moments of individual atoms are strong, but adjacent atoms align in opposite directions. The macroscopic magnetization of the material is negligible even in the presence of an applied field.

ANTIFERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS
manganese and chromium exhibits antiferromagnetism. most of the antiferromagnetic materials are ionic compound.Mno,MnS,Cr2O3,etc

FERRIMAGNETIC MATERIALS
Ferrimagnetic materials include oxides of iron, nickel, or cobalt. The magnetic moments of adjacent atoms are aligned opposite to each other, but there is incomplete cancellation of the moments because they are not equal. Thus, there is a net magnetic moment within a domain.

FERRIMAGNETIC MATERIALS (CONTD)


In the absence of applied magnetic field, the domains are randomly oriented so that the net macroscopic magnetization is zero.

In the presence of an applied magnetic field, the domains align themselves with the applied field.
The magnetic effects are weaker than in ferromagnetic materials, but are still substantial.

Ferrites are the most useful ferrimagnetic materials. Ferrites are ceramic material containing compounds of iron. Ferrites are non-conducting magnetic media so eddy current and ohmic losses are less than for ferromagnetic materials. Ferrites are often used as transformer cores at radio frequencies (RF).

FERRITES

FERROMAGNETISM
Ferromagnetic s.l. (below Curie-Nel temperature)
no field applied field

Fe rromagne tic s.s.

no field

applied field

Antife rromagne tic

no field

applied field

Fe rrimagne tic

FERROMAGNETISM
This alignment persist up to the Curie temperature Tc where forces from the thermal motion of electrons become stronger than the self-alignment forces ; at this point, the magnetic susceptibility becomes the paramagnetic susceptibility and varies according to the Curie-Weiss law.

Soft Magnetic Materials


Magnetic materials which are easily magnetized and de-magnetized. They are characterized by thin hysteresis loop. Materials reaches its saturation magnetization with relatively low applied field. It exhibits low hysteresis energy losses.

Soft Magnetic Materials


Smaller the area, the lower the power losses and greater the possibility of using the material at high frequency. Magnetic flux through a conducting material changes, voltage are induced.

Types of Soft Magnetic Materials


Heay duty flux multipliers: these are the cores of transformers, motors and generators. Electrical steel is used for manufacturing cores. Light duty flux multipliers: These are the cores of small special purpose transformers, inductors used in communication equipment. Ni-Fe alloys and soft ferrites are used in these applications.

Types of Soft Magnetic Materials


Square loop Materials: They are used in magnetic amplifiers, saturable core devices, computers. Ni-Fe alloys and soft ferrites are used. Microwave System Components: Soft ferrites and garnets are used in these applications.

Hard Magnetic Materials


They have a high resistance to demagnetized. They are characterized by thick hysteresis loop. They loss magnetization by ac fields,mechanical illtreatment and change in temperature.

INTRODUCTION TO

MAGNETO-OPTICS

ISOM2000 Tutorial

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Light and Magnetism What is the Magneto-Optical Effect? Electromagnetism and Magneto-Optics Electronic Theory Measurement of Magneto-Optical Effect

INTRODUCTION
MAGNETO-OPTICAL EFFECT :- Discovered by Faraday on 1845 PHENOMENON :- Change of Linear Polarization to Elliptically Polarized Light Accompanied by Rotation of Principal Axis CAUSE :-Difference of Optical Response between LCP and RCP APPLICATION: Magneto-Optical Disk Optical Isolator Current Sensors Observation Technique

MO EFFECT IN WIDE MEANING

3.What is the Magneto-Optical Any change of Effect? optical response induced by


magnetization

MO EFFECT IN NARROW MEANING Change of intensity or polarization induced by magnetization Faraday effect MOKE (Magneto-optical Kerr effect) Cotton-Mouton effect

In magnetic media (ferro-magnetic or ferri-magnetic) the effects are much larger, although difficult to detect. In these cases it is usual and convenient to refer to three principal orientations. These are:

The Polar Orientation The Longitudinal Orientation The Transverse Orientation


The three orientations are defined in terms of the direction of the magnetisation vector M with respect to the surface of the material and the plane of incidence of an incident optical beam.

LONGITUDINAL CASE
In the longitudinal case the magnetisation vector is in the plane of the surface and parallel to the plane of incidence The effect is that radiation incident in either of these linearly polarised states is, on reflection, converted to elliptically polarised light.

LONGITUDINAL CASE

POLAR CASE
In the Polar case the magnetisation vector is perpendicular to the plane of the surface. The effect is that radiation incident in either of these linearly polarised states is, on reflection,

converted to elliptically polarised light.

POLAR CASE

TRANSVERSE CASE

in such a case, the reflected radiation remains linearly polarised and there is only a change in reflected (or transmitted) amplitude such that as M changes sign from +M to -M the reflectivity changes from R+ R to R- R.

TRANSVERSE CASE

4. Electromagnetism

and Magneto optics

Light is the electromagnetic wave.

Transmission of EM waveMaxwell equation

Phase difference between RCP and LCProtation

Amplitude difference circular dichroism

PHENOMENOLOGY OF MO EFFECT
Linearly polarized light can be decomposed to LCP and RCP Difference in phase causes rotation of the direction of Linear polarization Difference in amplitudes makes Elliptically polarized light In general, elliptically polarized light With the principal axis rotated

ELECTRON THEORY OF MAGNETOOPTICS


MagnetizationSplitting of spin-states No direct cause of difference of optical response between LCP and RCP Spin-orbit interactionSplitting of orbital states Absorption of circular polarizationInduction of circular motion of electrons Condition for large magneto-optical response Presence of strong (allowed) transitions Involving elements with large spin-orbit interaction Not directly related with Magnetization

MICROSCOPIC CONCEPTS OF ELECTRONIC POLARIZATION

Wave function perturbed by electric field Unperturbed wave function

+ P-like

S-like

Expansion by unperturbed orbital

MEASUREMENT OF MO EFFECT
1. Cross-polarizer technique 2. Vibrating polarizer technique 3. Rotating analyzer technique 4. Faraday modulation technique

5. Optical retardation modulation 6. Measuring system for MO spectrum 7. Measurement of elleipticity

MO SPECTRA OF MATERIALS
Magnetic garnets

Metallic ferromagnetFe, Co, Ni


Intermetallic compounds and alloysPtMnSb etc. Magnetic semiconductorCdMnTe etc. SuperlatticesPt/Co, Fe/Au etc. AmorphousTbFeCo, GdFeCo etc.

GranularAl2O3:Co

Q:-an electric field of 9104 v/m is applied

on a sample of neon gas at N.T.P .calculate dipole moent induced in each atom ,if the dielectric constant of neon at N.T.P is 1.000134 . find the atomic polarizibility of neon . Q:- the number of atom in volume of one cubic meter of hydrogen gas is 9.81026 . the radius If hydrogen atom is 0.53 A0 .calculate polarizibility and relative permittivity.

Q:-a magnetic material has magnetization of2300A/m and produces a flux Density of 0.000314wb/m2 .calculate magnetizing force and relative permeability Of material.

Q:- diamagnetic Al2O3 is subjected to an external magnetic field Of 105A/m .Evaluate magnetization and magnetic flux density in Al2O3. (susceptibility Of Al2O3 = 510-5 ) Q:-the susceptibility of paramagnetic FeCl3 is 3.710-3 at 270C what will be The value of its relative permeability r at 200K and 500K