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 Encoding of digital data for transmission across interface  Full duplex transmission of B channel data  Full duplex transmission of D channel data  Multiplexing of channels to form basic or primary access   

transmission structure Activation and deactivation of physical circuit Power feeding from network termination to the terminal Terminal identification Faulty terminal isolation D channel contention access

Basic user network interface

Four key aspects of basic interface

 Line coding
 Physical connector  Framing and multiplexing  Contention resolution for multidrop configurations

Contact assignments for plugs and jacks of ISDN Physical Connector ISO 8887 CONTACT TE NT a b c d e f g h Power source 3 Power source 3 transmit receive receive transmit Power sink 2 Power sink 2 Power sink 3 Power sink 3 Receive Transmit Transmit Transmit Power source 2 Power source 2 .

Reference configuration for signal transmission and power feeding in normal operation mode Note3 a POWER SOURCE 3 TE NT a b Note 3 b note 2 c + d c note 1 c d + TRANSMIT -- RECEIVE Power sink1 e f Power source 1 _ note 1 e RECEIVE TRANSMIT f + g g -- Power h sink2 h Power source2 NOTE 1: Symbol refers to polarity of frames Note2: refers polarity of power during normal power conditions Note 3: refers to access lead assignments to provide for direct interface cable wiring .

FRAME ALLIGNMENT  TWO VIOLATIONS ARE INCLUDED for NT & TE ALLIGNMENT  Ist F bit is positive zero and last zero bit is positive  The 1st zero bit afeter the L bit should be negative .

Q BIT Identification and multiframe structure .

Frame structure at reference points T & S for basic rate access 48 Bits in 250µs TE -NT FL B1 LDL F L A B2 LDL B1 LDL B2 LDD FL B1 8bits B2 EDA F N A B2 8 bits E DM B1 8bits EDS E DL .

Bchannels bits(16 per frame) D.framing bit L-dc balancing bit D-echo channel bit A-Activation bit FA-Auxiliary bit N-set to opposite of FA M-Multiframing bit B1-B Channel bits(16 per frame) B2.Dchannel bits (4 per frame) S-spare bits .ABBREVIATIONS            F.

Basic interface wiring configuration .

Basic interface wiring configuration .

CONTENTION RESOLUTION  THREE TYPES OF TRAFFIC TO BE CONSIDERED  B CHANNEL Traffic : no addition functionality needed to control access to the 2 Bchannels as each channel is dedicated to TE at any time  Incoming D CHANNEL traffic: D Channel is available for control signalling and packet transmission so contention exists. LAPD addressing is used for addressing  Outgoing D channel traffic: Access regulated that only one device transmits at a time .

Contention resolution .

Example of contention resolution


Primary rate user network interface
 Multiplexes multiple channels

 Only point to point configuration is allowed
 It exists at the T reference point with digital PBX or

other multiple TE  Provides a synchronous TDM facility access to ISDN

Multiframe structure for 1.544 Mbps interface .

544Mbps  Based on North American DS-1 Transmission  It has 193bits per frame  Each frame has 24 .544Mbps  Frames repeat at 125µs or 8000 frames per second  Transmission structure support 23 B Channels and 1 D Channel  The framing bit is used for synchronization and other management purposes .INTERFACE AT 1. 8 bit time slots and a framing bit  Data rate 1.

MULTIFRAME STUCTURE  It has 24 .193 bit frames  6 of the bits form a frame alignment signal(FAS) with code 001011 repeats every multiframe.  The purpose of FAS is to for synchronization  The ei bits are used as a 6bit cyclic redundancy check of the framing bits  The m bits are used for various operations and maintenance functions .

pulses  B8ZS(Bipolar with 8 zero substitution)  If an octet of all zeros occur and last voltage pulse preceding this octet was positive then the eight zeros of the octet are encoded as 000+-0-+  If an octet of all zeros occurs and the last voltage pulse preceding this octet was negative then the eight zeros of the octet are encoded as 000-+0+- .Line coding is AMI USING B8ZS  BIPOLAR AMI(Alternate mark inversion)  Binary 0 for no line signal  Binary 1 for + & .

DIGITAL SIGNAL ENCODING FORMATS 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Bipolar AMI  1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  B8ZS 0 0 0 V B 0 V B  HDB3(High density bipolar 3 zeros)  0 0 0 V B 0 0 V .

8 bit time slots The Ist time slot is used for framing and synchronization purposes Frames repeat at the rate of 125µs or 8000 frames per second Each channel supports 64kbps The transmission structure support 30 B channels and 1 D channel .048 Mbps  The ISDN interface is based on European transmission       structure of the same data rate Bit stream is structured into repetitive 256 bit frames Each frame consists of 32 .INTERFACE AT 2.

Allocation of bits 1to8 of the frame in 2.048Mbps interface Bit 1 number alternate frames 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frame s1 0 containing note1 the frame allignment signal 0 1 1 0 1 1 Frame alignment signal Frame not s1 1 A containing note1 Note2 Note the frame 3 allignment signal Sa4 Sa5 Sa6 Note4 Sa7 Sa8 .

 Note1: bits reserved for international use eg CRC  Note2: this bit at 1 to assist in avoiding simulation of the frame alignment signal  Note3:remote alarm indication  Note4:Sa4-Sa8=additional spare bits .


U INTERFACE  Standard ANSI TI.  These channels produce a load of 144kbps are multiplexed over a 160kbps interface at the U reference point  Remaining capacity used for various framing and synchronization purposes .601 Standard  The basic access structure consists of two 64 kbps B channels and one 16kbps D channel.

5ms .Frame format  Synchronous TDM Scheme with repetitive basic access transmission  Fixed length format  For a frame of 240bits long at 160kbps frames must repeat at a rate of one frame every 1.

User data  The next 12 groups of 108 bits each carry B and D channels data channel for maintenance and other purpose. This word allows the receiver to synchronize easily  2.  3.M channel  The last 6 bits of the frames form a 4kbps M .Frame structure has 3 parts  1. synchronization part  The 1st nine symbols (18 bits) of the frame form a synchronization word.


Data link protocols for D & B channels
 LAPD – Data link protocol for D Channel

 LAPB- is used for packet switched connections for B

Channel traffic  end – end circuit – is used for circuit switched connections for B channel traffic.  LAPF- Supports the frame mode bearer service

 Multiple terminals at the user network installation

 Multiple layer 3 entities (eg. X.25 Level 3, Q.931)
 Unacknowledged information service  Acknowledged information transfer service

 three phases
 1. connection establishment phase  2. data transfer phase

 3. connection termination

 Both user information and protocol control information     

and parameters are transmitted in frames Two types of operation 1 .Unacknowledged operation: Layer 3 information is transferred in unnumbered frames. No error control or flow control 2. Acknowledged operation: Layer 3 information is transferred in frames that include sequence numbers and that are acknowledged. Error control and flow control are included

Frame structure 8 bits 16 bits 8 or16 bits variable 16 8  Original pattern fla g Address control rIInformation FCS fla g  Original pattern:  11111111111101111110111110  After bit stuffing  1111101111101101111101011111010 .

Problem in bit stuffing   Fla frame g Bit inverted Transmitted  flag • fflag flag RECEIVED FRAME ffla g flag flag flag • • BIT INVERTED TRANSMITTED FRAME flag RECEIVED FRAME • .

Address field LAPD has two levels of multiplexing 1st at the subscriber site there may be multiple user device sharing the same physical interface 2nd within each user device there may be multiple types of traffic like packet switched data and control signalling .

LAPD 2 PART ADDRESS  1. TERMINAL ENDPOINT IDENTIFIER  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 O C/ R SAPI 1 TEITEI  C/R = Command /response  SAPI= Service access point identifier  TEI= Terminal endpoint Identifier TTE 1 VALUE 0-63 64-126 127 USUSER TYPE Nonautomatic TE1 assignment user equipment Automatic TE1 assignment user equipment Used during automatic TE1 assignment .

SAPI Assignments SAPI Value rRelated protocol or Management Entity 0 16 32-61 63 All others Call control procedures Packet communication conforming to x.25 level 3 Frame relay communication Layer 2 management procedures Reserved for future standarization .

Control field format  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  INFORMATION TRANSFER 0 N(s) P / F 0 0 0 P / F N(R) 1  0 S S P / F 0 N(R) SUPERVISORY 1       1 M M M M M UNNUMBERED N(S) = Transmitter send sequence number N(R)= Transmitter receive sequence number S= supervisory function bit M= modifier function bit’ P/F=Poll/final bit.response frames . p –command frames – f.

In order to ensure that the bit pattern of the frame delimiter flag does not appear in the data field of the frame (and therefore cause frame misalignment). a technique known as Bit Stuffing is used by both the transmitter and the receiver.Flag  Flag The value of the flag is always (0x7E). .

 The receiver then performs the same calculation on the received frame and compares its value to the CRC.  The sequence is first calculated by the transmitter using an algorithm based on the values of all the bits in the frame.FCS  The Frame Check Sequence (FCS) enables a high level of physical error control by allowing the integrity of the transmitted frame data to be checked. .

LAPD COMMANDS & RESPONSES Name Comman d/ Response C/R Description Information Supervisory(s) Receive ready(RR) Receive not ready(RNR) Reject(REJ) Unnumbered(U) Set asynchronous balanced Mode extended(SABME) Disconnect mode(DM) Unnumbered Information (UI) Exchange user data C/R C/R C/R C R C/R +ve acknowledgement ready to receive I frame +ve acknowledgement not ready to receive -ve acknowledgement go back N Request logical connection Unable to establish or maintain logical connections Used to unacknowledged information transfer service .

LAPD COMMANDS & RESPONSES Disconnect (DISC) Unnumbered acknowledgement(UA) Frame reject (FRMR) Exchange identification(XID) C R R C/R Terminate logical link connection Acknowledge SABME or DISC Report receipt of unacceptable frame Exchange identification information .

ACKNOWLEDGED OPERATION  EXCHANGE OF I-FRAMES. S-FRAMES AND U-     FRAMES BETWEEN TE & NETWORK OVER D CHANNEL Connection establishment Data transfer Disconnect Frame reject frame .

Connection establishment  Logical connection requested by either network or       subscriber ie response from a layer 3 entity by transmitting a SABME (set synchronous balanced mode extended) The SABME contains TEI & SAPI of layer 3 entity The peer LAPD entity receives the SABME frame and gives a connection request to the layer 3 entity The layer 3 respnds with an acceptance of the connection The LAPD entity transmits a UA frame back On receipt the frame LAPD transmits a confirmation to the requesting user If destination user reject the connection request its LAPD entity returns a DM frames and .

Data transfer  When connection request has been accepted and      confirmed and accepted the connection is established Both side send user data in I frames The N(S)& N(R) fields of the I frame are sequence numbers that support error and flow control The RR is used to acknowledge the last I frame received by indicating the next I frame expected RNR acknowledges an I frame and suspends transmission REJ indicates the frame is rejected and retransmission from beginning with N(R) is required .

Disconnet  LAPD entity can initiate a disconnect or fault on request from layer 3 user  LAPD entity issues a disconnect on a particular logical connection by sending a DISC frame to the peer entity on the connection  The remote entity must accept the disconnect by replying with a UA(unnumbered acknowledgement) and informing its layer 3 user that connection is terminated .

sequence no from the last acknowledged frame to the sequence no of the last transmitted frame. the receipt of a control field that is undefined ie not one of the encodings listed  2.  The receipt of an I frame with an information field that exceeds the maximum established length. the receipt of S frame or u frame with incorrect length  3. .Frame reject frame(FRMR)  FRMR is used to indicate that an improper frame has arrived with the following conditions  1. the receipt of invalid N(R) )range.

Examples of acknowledged operation  LINK SETUP DISCONNECT  SIMULTANEOUS LINK SETUP TE SABME SABME NT      TE SABME Time out SABME NT UA UA    UA DISC UA .

4.4 RR.F I.0.3.4 I.0    RR.4.F RR.3.4 I.5.0 I.R.P I.0 .4.0 RR.F I.P RNR.2.4.0 RNR.P REJECT RECOVERY TE I.3 J RR.6.0 I.4.            BUSY CONDITION RECOVERY TE NT NT 1.0 REJ.O .0 RR.0 R.3.O.0 NT TE TIMEOUT I.5.

Messages for TEI management procedures Message name Identity request Identity request Identity request Direction Parameters Description Request automaticTEI assignment Assigns TEI Value Ri=random Ai=127 Network-user Ri= match identity request value Ai=TEI assignmet(04-126) Ri=match the identity request value Ai=Denied TEI value(64126) AI= 127(No TEI value available Network-user Denies an identity request Identity Network-user check request AI=TEI value to be checked (64-126) AI= 127(Check all values) Allows network to either establish the TEI value is in user or verify .

Messages for TEI management procedures Identity check response User-network Ai=TEI value(0126) Ri=Random Ai=TEI Value=(0126) Ai=TEI value to be checked(0—126) Ri=0 Responser by user equipment with matching TEI Removes a TEI VALUE Allows user side to request that the network invoke the identity check procedure for verification of duplicate TEI assignment Identity remove Identity verify Network-user User-network .

8 7 6 1 5 4 3 2 Management entity identifier(00001111) Messages for TEI management procedures Reference number Message type E .

This method of transmission is used when data is sent intermittently as opposed to in a solid stream. The extra one (or zero depending on parity bit) at the start and end of the transmission tells the receiver first that a character is coming and secondly that the character has ended. The start and stop bits must be of opposite . In the previous example the start and stop bits are in bold.Asynchronous transmission  uses start and stop bits to signify the beginning bit ASCII character would actually be transmitted using 10 bits e.g.: A "0100 0001" would become "1 0100 0001 0". .This allows the receiver to recognize when the second packet of information is being sent.

parity bit  A parity bit is a bit that is added to ensure that the number of bits with the value one in a set of bits is even or odd. . Parity bits are used as the simplest form of error detecting code.

the parity bit is set to 1 if the number of ones in a given set of bits (not including the parity bit) is even. In other words. it may be referred to as mark parity (when the parity bit is always 1) or space parity (the bit is always 0). When using odd parity.  If the parity bit is present but not used. When using even parity. an even parity bit will be set to "1" if the number of 1's + 1 is even. and an odd parity bit will be set to "1" if the number of 1's +1 is odd. where the 1-bit CRC is generated by the polynomial x+1. .  Even parity is a special case of a cyclic redundancy check (CRC). keeping the number of ones in the entire set of bits (including the parity bit) odd. making the number of ones in the entire set of bits (including the parity bit) even.Odd and even parity  There are two variants of parity bits: even parity bit and odd parity bit. the parity bit is set to 1 if the number of ones in a given set of bits (not including the parity bit) is odd.

Odd and even parity  An even parity bit will be set to "1" if the number of 1's + 1 is even  An odd parity bit will be set to "1" if the number of 1's +1 is odd. .

Odd and even parity 7 bits of data (number of 1s) even 8 bits including parity odd 0000000 (0) 1010001 (3) 1101001 (4) 1111111 (7) 00000000 11010001 01101001 11111111 10000000 01010001 11101001 01111111 .

for a 10-bit character frame. the presence or absence of a parity bit. followed by eight data bits (bits 0-7). The start signal serves to prepare the receiving mechanism for the reception and registration of a symbol and the stop signal serves to bring the receiving mechanism to rest in preparation for the reception of the next symbol. At the end of each character. A common kind of start-stop transmission is ASCII over RS-232. the stop period of the transmitter may be arbitrarily long. the form of parity (even or odd) and the transmission speed must be pre-agreed by the communicating parties. each consisting of a start bit. The last data bit is sometimes used as a parity bit. usually 1 to 2 bit times. The number of data and formatting bits. The receiver requires a shorter stop period than the transmitter.  In the diagram. and one stop bit. the receiver stops briefly to wait for the next start bit. for example for use in teletypewriter operation. character or code word and a stop signal is sent after each code word.  The "stop bit" is actually a "stop period". It cannot be shorter than a specified amount. two bytes are sent. It is this difference which keeps the transmitter and receiver synchronized . the order of data bits.Asynchronous serial communication  Asynchronous serial communication describes an asynchronous. serial transmission protocol in which a start signal is sent prior to each byte.

as the clocks will eventually get out of sync. Due to there being no start and stop bits the data transfer rate is quicker although more errors will occur. so some bytes could become corrupted (by losing bits)Ways to get around . A continual stream of data is then sent between the two nodes. and the receiving device would have the wrong time that had been agreed in the protocol for sending/receiving data.Synchronous transmission  It uses no start and stop bits but instead synchronizes transmission speeds at both the receiving and sending end of the transmission using clock signal(s) built into each component].

Synchronous versus Asynchronous Transmissions  There exists a hierarchy of synchronization tasks:    Bit level : recognizing the start and end of each bit Character or byte level : recognizing the start and end of each character (or small unit of data) Block or message level : recognize the start and end of each large unit of data (in networks this is a frame). .

g.Synchronous Transmissions  More efficient..e. . biphase coding). less overhead  Blocks of characters transmitted without start and stop codes  The transmitted stream is suitably encoded so the receiver can stay in “synch” by:   Using a separate clock line Embedding clocking information into data (e. i.

Synchronous versus Asynchronous Transmissions A fundamental requirement of digital data communications is that the receiver knows the starting time and the duration of each bit. Asynchronous transmission :: each character (or byte) is treated independently for clock (bit) and character (byte) synchronization purposes and the receiver resynchronizes at the start of each character received. Synchronous transmission :: the complete frame is transmitted as a contiguous string of bits and the receiver endeavors to keep in synchronism with the incoming bit stream for the duration of the frame. .

19: Modems for parallel data transmission using telephone signalling frequencies V.18: Operational and interworking requirements for DCEs operating in the text telephone mode V.7: Definitions of terms concerning data communication over the telephone network V.13: Simulated carrier control V.1-V.17: A 2-wire modem for facsimile applications with rates up to 14 400 bit/s V.10-V.27: Electrical characteristics for balanced double-current interchange circuits operating at data signalling rates up to 10 Mbit/s V.2: Power levels for data transmission over telephone lines V.1: Equivalence between binary notation symbols and the significant conditions of a two-condition code V.15: Use of acoustic coupling for data transmission V.34 : Interfaces and voiceband modems V. 5 code for character oriented data transmission over public telephone networks V.14: Transmission of start-stop characters over synchronous bearer channels V.8 bis: Procedures for the identification and selection of common modes of operation between data circuit-terminating equipments (DCEs) and between data terminal equipments (DTEs) over the public switched telephone network and on leased point-to-point telephone-type circuits V.9 : General V.11/X.10/X.8: Procedures for starting sessions of data transmission over the public switched telephone network V.12: Electrical characteristics for balanced double-current interchange circuits for interfaces with data signalling rates up to 52 Mbit/s V.21: 300 bits per second duplex modem standardized for use in the general switched telephone network V.26: Electrical characteristics for unbalanced double-current interchange circuits operating at data signalling rates nominally up to 100 kbit/s V.                      V series: Data communication over the telephone network V.4: General structure of signals of International Alphabet No.22 bis: 2400 bits per second duplex modem using the frequency division technique standardized for use on the general switched telephone network and on point-to-point 2-wire leased telephone-type circuits .16: Medical analogue data transmission modems V.22: 1200 bits per second duplex modem standardized for use in the general switched telephone network and on point-to-point 2-wire leased telephone-type circuits V.

c. c. a}  Nested concatenations and replication operator are possible:  {b. c.Replication Operator  Replication operator is used to replicate a group of bits n times. Say you have a 4 bit variable and you want to replicate it 4 times to get a 16 bit variable: then we can use the replication operator. d} . {3{c. d. a. n times Repetition multipliers (must be constants) can be used:         {3{a}} // this is equivalent to {a. d}}} // this is equivalent to {b. d. Operator Description {n{m}} Replicate value m.

{Note this is 7E in hex}  Whenever sender data link layer encounters five consecutive ones in the data stream. it automatically stuffs a 0 bit into the outgoing stream. it automatically destuffs the 0 bit before sending the data to the network layer. .  When the receiver sees five consecutive incoming ones followed by a 0 bit.Bit Stuffing  Each frame begins and ends with a special bit pattern called a flag byte [01111110].

Bit Stuffing Input Stream 0110111111100111110111111111100000 Stuffed Stream 01101111101100111110011111011111000000 Stuffed bits Unstuffed Stream 0110111111100111110111111111100000 .

25 conversion: converting functions of non-ISDN X.931 – X. existing ISDN-incompatible data communication devices can use a terminal adapter (TA).Terminal Adaption            During transition period.25 devices to operate on the B and/or D channels – Physical interface conversion: mapping non-ISDN interface onto ISDN’s twp twisted pairs at the S or T interface – Digitization: analog-to-digital conversion for analog devices . • TA function iS to map a non-ISDN terminal to an ISDN interface. • Functions that performed in this mapping are: – Rate adaption: mapping low data stream into 64 kbps – Signaling conversion: mapping signaling protocol into Q.

or 32 kbps. 16.Rate Adaption  It is desirable to have devices at data rates < 64 on B       channel – much existing equipment operates at data rates less than 64 kbps – having advantages of multiplexing • ISDN is circuit-switched: all subchannels are on a single circuit • one B channel for fax and PC (multiplexed) and one B channel for phone • Rate adaption: to adapt a terminal with < 64 to a data rate of 64 – For rates of 8. simple bit positioning technique is used. .

Alternatives for rate adaption to 64kbps B channel .

16. then in second stage (RA2) bit positioning method used. – In circuit-switching rate adaption. or 32 kbps. or 32 kbps  Synchronous circuit-mode devices  – For rates < 32 kbps. – The user data rate is first converted to an intermediate rate of 8. a two-stage adaption function     is used. . 16.Rate adaption for rates other than 8. the two subscriber operate at the same data rate (which is identified during call setup).

110) .463/V.RATE ADAPTION (I.

Adaption of 2400-bps user rate to 8-kbs intermediate rate .

this 17 bits is for frame alignment pattern for synchronization  The 6th octet is 1 followed by E BITS i.e the user data 110 indicates user data rate is 2400 kbps  The s bits are status bits convey channel associated status information  The X bits are unused for future use .1st bit of remaining 9 octets is 1. Ist octet is all zeros.

a three stage method is used. Asynchronous circuit-mode devices  – For handling asynchronous devices.  – The technique is to add additional stop bits between characters to  step up data rate to the nearest intermediate rate acceptable by RA1. .  – In first stage (RA0) asynchronous stream converts to sync data rate.

25 packets are transmitted in LAPB frames accepted from subscriber and buffered in TA.  Each frame is then transmitted onto the B channel at 64 kbps with gaps being filled with flag (01111110): interframe flag stuffing  Two-stage rate adaption is also possible but it is less flexible. .Packet-mode support  support of packet-mode equipment over ISDN operated < 64 kbps  X.

.Circuit-mode support using LAPD framing  An alternative method of supporting synchronous circuit-mode equipment is to encapsulate the incoming synchronous bit stream into LAPD frames and then adapted to 64 kbps by flag stuffing.  The advantage of this method compared to the previously discussed method is that the data are transmitted now using a data link control protocol which provides for the benefits of flow and error control that are inherent in a link-control protocol.

460 Rate adaption 8.16or32kbps Async circuit mode syn circuitmode packet mode circuit mode LAPD framing using    stop bit filling PSPDN SERVICE <32kbps >32kbps ISDN SERVICE Framing Replicate bits 64kbps Replicate bits Flag stuffing Flag stuffing 64kbps 64kbps 64kbps Bitbit 64kbps positioning .Alternatives for rate adaption to 64kbps B channel I.

23: 600/1200-baud modem standardized for use in the general switched telephone network V.25: Automatic answering equipment and general procedures for automatic calling equipment on the general switched telephone network including procedures for disabling of echo control devices for both manually and automatically established calls V.26 bis: 2400/1200 bits per second modem standardized for use in the general switched telephone network V.26 ter: 2400 bits per second duplex modem using the echo cancellation technique standardized for use on the general switched telephone network and on point-to-point 2-wire leased telephone-type circuits V.32: A family of 2-wire.               V.29: 9600 bits per second modem standardized for use on point-to-point 4-wire leased telephone-type circuits V. duplex modems operating at data signalling rates of up to 9600 bit/s for use on the general switched telephone network and on leased telephone-type circuits .26: 2400 bits per second modem standardized for use on 4-wire leased telephone-type circuits V.31: Electrical characteristics for single-current interchange circuits controlled by contact closure V.24: List of definitions for interchange circuits between data terminal equipment (DTE) and data circuitterminating equipment (DCE) V.27 bis: 4800/2400 bits per second modem with automatic equalizer standardized for use on leased telephone-type circuits V.27 ter: 4800/2400 bits per second modem standardized for use in the general switched telephone network V.27: 4800 bits per second modem with manual equalizer standardized for use on leased telephone-type circuits V.25 bis: Synchronous and asynchronous automatic dialling procedures on switched networks V.28: Electrical characteristics for unbalanced double-current interchange circuits V.31 bis: Electrical characteristics for single-current interchange circuits using optocouplers V.

49 : Error control V.39 : Wideband modems V.36: Modems for synchronous data transmission using 60-108 kHz group band circuits V.53: Limits for the maintenance of telephone-type circuits used for data transmission .59 : Transmission quality and maintenance V.35-V.44: Data compression procedures V.33: 14 400 bits per second modem standardized for use on point-to-point 4-wire leased telephone-type circuits V.                 V.50: Standard limits for transmission quality of data transmission V.34: A modem operating at data signalling rates of up to 33 600 bit/s for use on the general switched telephone network and on leased point-to-point 2-wire telephone-type circuits V.38: A 48/56/64 kbit/s data circuit-terminating equipment standardized for use on digital point-to-point leased circuits V.51/M.42 bis: Data compression procedures for data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) using error correction procedures V.42: Error-correcting procedures for DCEs using asynchronous-to-synchronous conversion V.37: Synchronous data transmission at a data signalling rate higher than 72 kbit/s using 60-108 kHz group band circuits V.32 bis: A duplex modem operating at data signalling rates of up to 14 400 bit/s for use on the general switched telephone network and on leased point-to-point 2-wire telephone-type circuits V.50-V.40-V.41: Code-independent error-control system V.43: Data flow control V.729: Organization of the maintenance of international public switched telephone circuits used for data transmission V.

100: Interconnection between public data networks (PDNs) and the public switched telephone networks (PSTN) V.110/I.90: A digital modem and analogue modem pair for use on the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) at data signalling rates of up to 56 000 bit/s downstream and up to 33 600 bit/s upstream V.92: Enhancements to Recommendation V.70: Procedures for the simultaneous transmission of data and digitally encoded voice signals over the GSTN. with optional automatic switching to data-only signalling rates of up to 14 400 bit/s.60-V.0: Modem-over-IP networks: Foundation .130: ISDN terminal adaptor framework V.54: Loop test devices for modems V.120/I.80: In-band DCE control and synchronous data modes for asynchronous DTE V.75: DSVD terminal control procedures V. for use on the General Switched Telephone Network and on leased point-to-point 2-wire telephone type circuits V.55/O.76: Generic multiplexer using V.463: Support by an ISDN of data terminal equipments with V-series type interfaces V.42 LAPM-based procedures V. or over 2-wire leased point-to-point telephone type circuits V.61: A simultaneous voice plus data modem.140: Procedures for establishing communication between two multiprotocol audiovisual terminals using digital channels at a multiple of 64 or 56 kbit/s V.56: Comparative tests of modems for use over telephone-type circuits V.56 bis: Network transmission model for evaluating modem performance over 2-wire voice grade connections V.199 : Interworking with other networks V.465: Support by an ISDN of data terminal equipment with V-series type interfaces with provision for statistical multiplexing V.90 V.                       V.99 : Simultaneous transmission of data and other signals V.71: Impulsive noise measuring equipment for telephone-type circuits V.100-V.59: Managed objects for diagnostic information of public switched telephone network connected V-series modem DCEs V.56 ter: Test procedure for evaluation of 2-wire 4 kHz voiceband duplex modems V.150.58: Management information model for V-Series DCEs V. operating at a voice plus data signalling rate of 4800 bit/s.91: A digital modem operating at data signalling rates of up to 64 000 bit/s for use on a 4-wire circuit switched connection and on leased point-to-point 4wire digital circuits V.

251: Procedure for DTE-controlled call negotiation V.150.324 terminals by a DTE V.151: Procedures for the end-to-end connection of analogue PSTN text telephones over an IP network utilizing text relay V.299 : Control procedures V.152: Procedures for supporting voice-band data over IP networks V.252: Procedure for control of V.38 and ITU-T V.249 : Interface layer specifications for data communication V.300-V.230: General data communications interface layer 1 specification V.1: Modem-over-IP networks: Procedures for the end-to-end connection of V-series DCEs V.153: Interworking between ITU-T T.399 : Modems on digital circuits V.152 using IP peering for real-time facsimile services V.254: Asynchronous serial command interface for assistive and multi-functional communication devices V.200-V.253: Control of voice-related functions in a DCE by an asynchronous DTE V.               V.250-V.70 and H.250: Serial asynchronous automatic dialling and control V.300: A 128 (144) kbit/s data circuit-terminating equipment standardized for use on digital point-to-point leased circuits V supplements : Supplements to the Series V Recommendations .

200bps n*600bps 64kbps .RATE ADAPTION (I.200 bps Time fill with extra stop bits Synchronous 2n*600bps <32kbps Replic ate bits Forma t into 80 bit frames 2k*8 kbps k kbps 0 8 1 16 2 32 Step up tp 64kbp s 50-19.110)  R RAO RAI RA2 S/T Asynchronous 50-19.463/V.

 For data rate of 8. • always allows subrate streams to be multiplexed up to the 64kbps limit Of B channel – Both methods are examples of synchronous TDM .  fixed-format multiplexing  • bit positions are fixed according to the data rate of incoming stream  • the 64-kbps capacity may not be utilized effectively        flexible-format multiplexing • first.Multiplexing  combining traffic from multiple <64 terminals onto a 64 B ch. subrate stream using fixed-format procedure is attempted. • If it fails. 16. subrate stream is added by inserting each successive bit of the new stream into the earliest available bit position in the B channel octet. are interleaved within each octet. up  to a total of 64 kbps. bits from different streams. or 32 kbps.

.  • Second. the resulting streams are multiplexed.Multiplexing for rates other than 8. user can simultaneously establish multiple logical links  over a single B channel circuit.   Circuit-mode support using LAPD framing  using the 13-bit logical link identifier (LLI) field of LAPD frame  with LLI. each stream is rate adapted to 8.  Packet-mode support multiplexing function is provided by layer 3 Virtual circuit mechanism of X. 16. or 32 kbps. multiple VCs can be set up across that connection. to a packet-switching  node.  LLI enables recipient to sort out the incoming traffic and to route it. or 32 kbps  Circuit-mode devices  A two-stage approach is used:  • First.25  once a connection is made via a B or D ch. 16.

External virtual circuit 1 A 2 5 3 6 4 Packet switchin g network 1 2 3 B 4 5 6 B .

.ISDN NETWORK LAYER  Network layer protocol Q.932 Provides additional function for controlling supplementary service services.  It provides out of band call control for B & H channels traffic  It makes use of the D channel and operates at the network level OSI model  It used for both circuit mode and packet mode communication  Q.931 is used.

maintain and terminate network connections  Provides generic procedures for the invocation and operation of supplementary services.Overview of ISDN Network layer  It is a D Channel nerwork layer protocol  Used to establish. .

ISDN User network interface layer 3-general aspects i.Specification for frame –mode basic call control – specifies procedures for establishing maintaining and clearing frame mode connections at the user NW interface .e the general terms the D channel layer 3 functions and protocols employed  Q.932 –Generic procedures for the control of ISDN supplementary services in association with the existing calls or outside any existing calls  Q.Specifications for call control contained in six recommendations  Q.931.Specification for basic call control –establishing .maintaining and clearing network connections at the user network interface  Q.933.930.

939 – Typical DSS 1 service Indicator codings for ISDN Telecommunications services – provides specific codings for telecommunications services  Q. Q.950 – Supplementary services protocols – structure and general principles –provides detailed procedures applicable for individual supplementary services .

431 Q.931) Q.431 .430/I.931 messages LAPD I.Model of Basic and supplementary services Terminal call processing Exchange call processing Supplementary services protocol ( facility) Basic service protocol (Q.931) Supplementary services protocol ( facility) Basic service protocol (Q.931 messages LAPD I.430/I.

931 message is encapsulated in a link layer frame. This link layer is transmitted on the D channel which is multiplexed at the physical layer with 0ther channels according to I.BASIC CALL CONTROL  Q. Q.931 Specifies procedures for establishing     connections on B and h Channel .430 or I.431 . It also provides user –user control signaling over the D channel This protocol relies on LAPD to transmit messages over the D channel.

Basic functions to be performed at the network layer for call control  Interaction with the data link layer (LAPD ) to     transmit and receive messages Generation and interpretation of layer 3 messages Administration of timers and logical entities (e.25) Verification that services provided are consistent with user requirements .g call references) used in the call control procedures Administration of access resources including B channels and packet layer logical channels(X.

Other functions  Routing and relaying  Network connection control  Conveying user to network and network to user        information Network connection multiplexing Segmenting and reassembly Error detection error recovery Sequencing Congestion control and user data flow control restart .

430) (I.921) Basic Primary interfac interface e (I.931 LAPD (Q.431) .Call control Protocol architecture Q.

g handset lifted.931 messages and parameters for call control Stimulus terminals These are devices with rudimentary signaling capability e. key depression) Signaling messages contain instruction regarding the operations to be performed by the terminal Control functions are centralised in the exchange and functional exchange .Terminal types  Functional terminals  Are intelligent devices and can employ the full range of      Q.g digital telephone Usually generated by the actions by the terminal user(e.

The contents of the remainder of the message depend on the message type .931 or Q.Messages         Common message format defined in Q.932 message is being sent.931 Common fields Protocol discriminator: Used to distinguish messages for user network call control from other message types Call reference: Identifies the B or H channel call to which this message refers Message type: Identifies which Q.

General message format Protocol discriminator 0000 flag Length of call reference value Call reference value 0 Message type Other information elements required .

25 .Protocol identifier  Used for Q.931 is binary 00001000.  Other values are available  Other types of layer 3 messages that may be carried in a LAPD frame are assigned other numbers  Large subset of possible 8 bit numbers are for use in X.

Call reference field  Three subfields  Length field  Specifies the length of the remainder of the field in octets  The length is 1 octet for basic rate interface and 2 octets for primary rate interface  The call reference value is the number assigned to the call  This number is assigned by the TE or NTS .

FLAG  The flag indicates which end of the LAPD logical connection initiated the call  Value is 0 if the message if from the side that originated the call  Value is 1 if the message is to the side that originated this call reference  The flag is need to prevent conflict in the event that both the NT and TE simultaneously select the same unused call reference value for a new connection .

931 are grouped along two dimensions Applications supported Functions they perform Messages apply to these applications circuit mode connection control Packet mode access connection control User-user signaling not associated with circuit switched calls Message used with the global call reference .Type of messages         Q.

Call information .Functions performed by messages  Call establishment  Used to set up a call  Includes messages between the calling terminal and NW  Supports services set up by a B channel call in response to user request  Provides network facilities to the call  Inform the user of the progress of the call establishment process.

 Call clearing  Miscellaneous .













Alternative for multiplexing on a 64Kbps .

Bearer Channel Data Link Control  I.465/V. .120 provides a technique for supporting      non-ISDN terminals over a B channel using a data link protocol that is a modified form of LAPD. – Asynchronous protocol sensitive – HDLC synchronous protocol sensitive – Bit transparent • I.120 provides a flexible and useful data link protocol for B ch.465/V.

or H11. H10. H10. H0.120 standard may be used in circuit-switching or      frame relay – Over either circuit-mode or frame-mode connections – Using either demand or semipermanent establishment of communications – Over any of the following types of access channel: • for circuit-mode connections: D. or D . V. or H11 • for frame-mode connections: B. Ho.

120 TE Connections .465/V.Types of I.

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