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10 Famous Sculptures…

24, 000-22,000 BC

'Venus of Willendorf'

Discovered by: Archaeologist Josef Szombathy (1908) Location: Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna

Type: Oolitic limestone

The Venus of Willendorf, also known as the Woman of Willendorf, is an 11 cm (4.3 in) high statuette of a female figure estimated to have been made between 24,000 and 22,000 BCE. It was discovered in 1908 by archaeologist Josef Szombathy at a paleolithic site near Willendorf, a village in Lower Austria near the city of Krems. It is carved from an oolitic limestone that is not local to the area, and tinted with red ochre. The "Venus of Willendorf" is now in the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna.

2520-2494 BC

'The Great Sphinx of Giza'

Type: Hard Stone Artist: Ancient Egyptians

Location: Giza, Egypt

‘The Great Sphinx of Giza’ (Arabic: ‫أبو الهول‬‎Abū al Hūl, English: The Terrifying One) commonly referred to as the Sphinx, is a statue of a reclining or couchant sphinx (a mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head) that stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt. It is the largest monolith statue in the world, standing 73.5 metres (241 ft) long, 6 metres (20 ft) wide, and 20.22 m (66.34 ft) high. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture, and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of the pharaoh Khafra. It is made from hard stone.

470-440 BC

(Discus Thrower)

'Discobolus'

Artist: Unknown Location: Greece

Type: Bronze

The Discus Thrower, or the Discobolus, is a famous lost Greek bronze original. The sculpture of it is still unknown. The Discobolus was completed towards the end of the severe period (470-440 BC). It is known through numerous Roman copies, both full-scale ones in marble, such as the first to be recovered, the Palombara Discopolus, or smaller scaled versions in bronze. As always in Greek athletics, the Discus Thrower is completely nude.

130-100 BC

„Venus de Milo‟

Type: Marble Artist: Alexandros of Antioch Location: Louvre Museum, Milos

The Venus de Milo sculpture was created sometime between 130 and 100 B.C. it is believed to depict Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) the Greek goddess of love and beauty. It is a marble sculpture, slightly larger than life size at 203 cm (6 ft 8 in) high. Its arms and original plinth have been lost. From an inscription that was on its plinth, it is thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch; it was earlier mistakenly attributed to the master sculptor Praxiteles. It is at present on display at the Louvre Museum in Paris. Amazingly, the statue was discovered accidentally in a farmer’s field.

1012-1240 AD

'The Marble Tomb of Henry II'

Type: Marble Artist: Tilman Riemenschneider Location: The Bamberg Cathedral in Germany

The Bamberg cathedral is about 94 m long, 28 m broad, 26 m high, and the four towers are each about 81 m high. There are lots of sculptures in the cathedral. One of the most magnificent ones is the marble "Tomb of Henry II", the founder of the cathedral, and his wife, the empress Cunigunde. It took the famous sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider 14 years to carve. The tomb is slightly higher than floor level because below there is a crypt. The carvings round the side tell of various episodes in the lives of the imperial couple.

1498–1499 AD

„The Pietà‟

Type: Marble
Artist: Michaelangelo

Location: St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

"The Pietà" (Italian for pity) is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture by Michelangelo Buonarroti, housed in St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. It is the first of a number of works of the same theme by the artist. This famous work of art depicts the body of Jesus on the lap of his mother Mary after the Crucifixion. The theme is of Northern origin, popular by that time in France but not yet in Italy. Michelangelo's interpretation of the Pietà is unique to the precedents. It is an important work as it balances the Renaissance ideals of classical beauty with naturalism. Pietà is one of the three common artistic representations of a sorrowful Virgin Mary. The subject is strictly called Lamentation in English, although Pietà is often used for this as well, and is the normal term in Italian.

1504 AD

„David‟

Type: Carrara marble Artist: Michaelangelo Location: Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence

“David” is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created between 1501 and 1504, by the Italian artist Michelangelo. It is a 5.17 meter (17 feet) marble statue of a standing male nude. The statue represents the Biblical hero David, a favored subject in the art of Florence. Originally commissioned as one of a series to be positioned high up on the facade of Florence Cathedral, the statue was instead placed in a public square, outside the Palazzo Della Signoria, the seat of civic government in Florence, where it was unveiled on 8 September, 1504. Because of the nature of the hero that it represented, it soon came to symbolize the defense of civil liberties embodied in the Florentine Republic, an independent city-state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states and by the hegemony of the Medici family. The eyes of David, with a warning glare, were turned towards Rome. The statue was moved to the Academia Gallery in Florence in 1873, and later replaced at the original location by a replica.

1886 AD

'The Statue of Liberty'

Artist: Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi Location: United States

Type: Pure copper

"The Statue of Liberty“ (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, designed by Frédéric Bartholdi and dedicated on October 28, 1886. The statue, a gift to the United States from the people of France, is of a robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom, who bears a torch and a tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law) upon which is inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. A broken chain lies at her feet. The statue has become an icon of freedom and of the United States. Originally conceived as a gesture of international friendship, the statue has become global symbol of freedom.

1889 AD

„The Kiss‟

Artist: Auguste Rodin Location: Musée Rodin, Paris

Type: Marble

‘The Kiss’ is an 1889 marble sculpture by the French sculptor Auguste Rodin. Like many of Rodin's best-known individual sculptures, including The Thinker, the embracing couple depicted in the sculpture appeared originally as part of a group of reliefs decorating Rodin's monumental bronze portal The Gates of Hell, commissioned for a planned museum of art in Paris. The couple were later removed from the Gates and replaced with another pair of lovers. The sculpture, The Kiss, was originally titled Francesca da Rimini, as it depicts the 13thcentury Italian noblewoman immortalised in Dante's Inferno (Circle 2, Canto 5) who falls in love with her husband Giovanni Malatesta's younger brother Paolo. Having fallen in love while reading the story of Lancelot and Guinevere, the couple are discovered and killed by Francesca's husband. In the sculpture, the book can be seen in Paolo's hand. The lovers' lips do not actually touch in the sculpture, suggesting that they were interrupted and met their demise without their lips ever having touched. When critics first saw the sculpture in 1887, they suggested the less specific title Le Baiser (The Kiss).

1902 AD

„The Thinker‟

Type: Bronze and Marble
Location: Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris

Artist: Auguste Rodin

“The Thinker” is one of the famous sculptures by Auguste Rodin .Originally named The Poet, the piece was part of a commission by the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris to create a monumental portal to act as the door of the museum. Rodin based his theme on The Divine Comedy of Dante and entitled the portal The Gates of Hell. Each of the statues in the piece represented one of the main characters in the epic poem. The Thinker was originally meant to depict Dante in front of the Gates of Hell, pondering his great poem. (In the final sculpture, a miniature of the statue sits atop the gates, pondering the hellish fate of those beneath him.) The sculpture is nude, as Rodin wanted a heroic figure in the tradition of Michelangelo, to represent intellect as well as poetry.

Modern Sculptures…

Land Art Sculpture

(above) Land Art Sculpture made up of gathered stones.

Recycle „found‟ Art Sculpture

(above) Recycle Art Sculpture made up of gathered bottles.

Ice Sculpture

(above) Dinosaurs Ice Sculpture

(above) Classic Car Ice Sculpture

Architectural Sculpture

(above) Sculpted pediment

Wax Sculpture

Michael Jackson‟s wax figure @ Madame Tussauds Wax Museum, London.
(below) Michael Jackson‟s wax figure in his signature move.

(above) Michael Jackson‟s wax figure close-up.

Kinetic Sculpture

(above)Theo Jansen‟s Kinetic Sculpture

“Beach Beast”

Theo Jansen’s Kinetic Sculpture. He builds large works which resemble skeletons of animals that are able to walk using the wind on the beaches of the Netherlands. His animated works are a fusion of art and engineering. Constructed as intricate assemblages of piping, wood, and wing-like sails, Jansen's creatures are constantly evolving and have become excellently adapted to their sandy beach environment. The creatures sport legs, which "prove to be more efficient on sand than wheels...they don’t need to touch every inch of the ground along the way, as a wheel has to". Theo Jansen has been creating wind-walking examples of artificial life since 1990. What was at first a rudimentary breed has slowly evolved into a generation of machines that are able to react to their environment: "over time, these skeletons have become increasingly better at surviving the elements such as storms and water and eventually I want to put these animals out in herds on the beaches, so they will live their own lives."

(above) Theo Jansen‟s “Beach Beast", exhibited on the Linz city square during Ars Electronica, 2005.

Did you know?
Bicycle Wheel is said to be the first kinetic sculpture.
Bicycle Wheel is a readymade by Marcel Duchamp consisting of a bicycle fork with front wheel mounted upside-down on a wooden stool. In 1913 at his Paris studio he mounted the bicycle wheel upside down onto a stool, spinning it occasionally just to watch it.
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Later he denied that its creation was purposeful, though it has come to be known as the first of his readymades. It was not until he began making readymades a few years later in New York that he decided Bicycle Wheel was a readymade. The original from 1913 was lost, and Duchamp recreated the sculpture in 1951.

(left) Marcel Duchamp with his piece "Bicycle Wheel", the first of his "readymade" pieces, from 1913. He said about this piece "To see that wheel turning

was very soothing, very comforting, a sort of opening of the avenues onto other things than the material life of every day. I liked the idea of having a bicycle wheel in my studio. I enjoyed looking at it just as I enjoy looking at the flames dancing in a fireplace."

Famous Sculptors…

„Donatello‟
Donatello’s Profile
Birth name Born Died Nationality Field Training Movement Works Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi c. 1386 Florence, Italy 13 December 1466 (aged 80) Florence, Italy Florentine, Italian Sculpture Lorenzo Ghiberti Early Renaissance St. George, David, Equestrian Monument of Gattamelata

(above) Donatello's statue outside of the Uffizi Galleria.

„Michaelangelo‟
Michaelangelo’s Profile
Birth name Born Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni 6 March 1475 Caprese near Arezzo, Republic of Florence (present-day Tuscany, Italy) 18 February 1564 (aged 88) Rome, Papal States (present-day Italy) Italian Sculpture, painting, architecture, and poetry Apprentice to Domenico Ghirlandaio High Renaissance David, The Creation of Adam, Pietà, Sistine Chapel Ceiling

Died

Nationality Field
(above) Portrait of Michelangelo by Jacopino del Conte(after 1535) at the age of 60

Training Movement Works

„Da Vinci‟
Leonardo DaVinci’s Profile
Birth name
Born

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci
April 15, 1452 Vinci, Italy, near Florence

Died
Nationality Field

May 2, 1519 (aged 67) Amboise, France
Italian
architect, anatomist, sculptor, engineer, inventor, mathematician, musician, painter and humanist.

(above) Self-portrait in red chalk, circa 1512 to 1515 Royal Library of Turin.

Movement Works

High Renaissance Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, The Vitruvian Man

„Bernini‟
Bernini’s Profile
Birth name Born Gian Lorenzo Bernini 7 December 1598 Naples, Kingdom of Naples, in present-day Italy 28 November 1680 (aged 81) Rome, Papal States, in present-day Italy Italian Sculpture, painting, architecture Baroque David, Apollo and Daphne, The Rape of Proserpina, Ecstasy of Saint Theresa

Died

Nationality Field Movement
(above) Self-Portrait of Bernini, circa 1623

Works

„Rodin‟
Auguste Rodin’s Profile
Birth name François-Auguste-René Rodin

Born
Died Nationality Field (above) Auguste Rodin Works

12 November 1840 Paris
17 November 1917 (aged 77) Meudon, Île-de-France French Sculpture drawing The Age of Bronze, 1877 The Walking Man, 1877–78 The Burghers of Calais , 1889 The Kiss, 1889 The Thinker (Le Penseur), 1902 Légion d'Honneur

Awards

„Daniel French‟
Daniel Chester French
Born
Died Nationality Field
(above) Portrait of Daniel Chester French

April 20, 1850 Exeter, New Hampshire
October 7, 1931 (aged 81) Stockbridge, Massachusetts American Sculpture American Renaissance Hiram Powers, Thomas Ball
Seated Abraham Lincoln, etc.

Movement Influenced by Works

„Theo Jansen‟

(above) Theo Jansen with his kinetic sculpture, Beach Beast.

Theo Jansen’s Profile
Born
Nationality Known for

14 March 1948 (age 63) The Hague, Netherlands
Netherlands Kinetic sculpture

„Marcel Duchamp‟
Marcel Duchamp’s Profile
Birth name Born Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp 28 July 1887 Blainville-Crevon, France

Died
Nationality Field Movement Works

2 October 1968 (aged 81) Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
French, became a U.S. citizen in 1955 Painting, sculpture, film Dada, Surrealism • Les joueurs d'échec (Chess Players), 1911 • Roue de bicyclette (Bicycle Wheel), 1913/1964 • Fontaine (Fountain), 1917/1964 • Rotoreliefs No. 11-12, 1935 • La boîte-en-valise (Box in a Valise), 19361941/1968 • Prière de toucher (Please Touch), 1947

(above) Marcel Duchamp playing chess in 1952. (Kay Bell Reynal photo in the Smithsonian Institution Archives of American Art.)

„END‟ 

Presented by:
Humanities | Sculpture

BSCS II-A Group

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Presented to:
Prof. Myrtle Kawabata

Joanna Beltran Jojie Ann Fabia John Carlo Eclar Chester Sabio