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Corporate Strategy and its Connection to Supply Chain Management

Fit Between Corporate and Functional Strategies (Chopra & Meindl)
Corporate Competitive Strategy

Product Development Strategy

Supply Chain or Operations Strategy

Marketing and Sales Strategy

Information Technology Strategy Finance Strategy Human Resources Strategy

what it contributes to society states the rationale for its existence provides boundaries and focus defines the concept(s) around which the company can rally • Functional areas and business processes define their missions such that they support the overall corporate mission in a cooperative and synergistic manner.e.Corporate Mission • The mission of the organization – – – – defines its purpose.. . i.

• . global air-ground transportation of high-priority goods and documents that require rapid. A complete record of each shipment and delivery will be presented with our request for payment. We will be helpful. courteous. FedEx: FedEx is committed to our People-Service-Profit philosophy. positive control of each package will be maintained utilizing real time electronic tracking and tracing systems. and professional for each other. and the public. competitively superior. We will produce outstanding financial returns by providing totally reliable.Corporate Mission Examples • Merck: The mission of Merck is to provide society with superior products and services-innovations and solutions that improve the quality of life and satisfy customer needs-to provide employees with meaningful work and advancement opportunities and investors with a superior rate of return. We will strive to have a completely satisfied customer at the end of each transaction. time-certain delivery. Equally important.

e. e. Fashion Industry. Uniqueness. Generic Drugs) Differentiation (Quality. Brand Name Drugs) . Dell. Luxury cars.g.. Wal-Mart. Flexibility. Quickness. Overnight Delivery Services) Competitive Advantage through which the company market share is attracted Cost Leadership (Price. Southwest Airlines.Defining the Corporate Strategy Responsiveness (Reliability.. e.g.g..

i.. Operations. The corporate strategy dictates the detailed strategies for each functional area (i. all these strategies seek to exploit (external) opportunities and (internal) strengths.. Collectively. Marketing) but it is also affected by those areas.e. neutralize (external) threats. and address (internal) weaknesses • • . Finance.e. – cost leadership and – product differentiation requirements.Defining the Corporate Strategy • Corporate Strategy: The organization’s positioning in terms of – responsiveness. the sought competitive advantage(s).

Factors affecting Corporate Strategy • External – Emerging strengths and weaknesses of competitors => new threats and opportunities. environmental concerns and regulations) – Economic and political developments (e.g. new international agreements. political crises) • Internal – Company politics and restructuring – Modified relationships with customers and suppliers – Product Life Cycle . respectively – New industry entrants – Development of substitute products – Development of new technologies – Legal developments (e.g...

Strategy and Issues during a Product’s Life (J. Prentice Hall) Introduction • Best period to increase market share •R&D engineering critical Growth •Practical to change price or quality image •Strengthen niche Maturity •Poor time to change image. Render. “Operations Management”. Heizer & B. price or quality •Competitive costs become critical •Defend market position Decline •Cost control critical Sales Time • Frequent product and process changes •Short production runs •High production costs •Limited models •Attention to quality •Forecasting critical •Products and process reliability •Increase capacity •Shift towards product focus •Enhance distribution •Standardization minor product changes •Optimum capacity •Process stability •Long production runs •Little product differentiation •Overcapacity in the industry •Reduce capacity and eventually prune line to eliminate items not returning good margin .

The “zone of strategic fit” (adapted from Chopra & Meindl) Responsive Supply Chain Responsiveness Spectrum f e o Fit n Zo tegic a Str Efficient Supply Chain Certain Demand Implied Uncertainty Spectrum Uncertain Demand Implied Demand Uncertainty: The uncertainty that exists due to the portion of Demand that the supply chain is required to meet. .

and the operational effectiveness Responsiveness Cost Leadership Differentiation .The operations frontier. trade-offs.

with short delivery times and affordable prices. • Dell’s success in PC market: .Expanding the operations frontier: Dell’s “revolution” in the PC market • Dell’s competitive advantage: Provide customized PC configurations.

delivery time 15 minutes to 1 hour • Suppliers own inventory until used in production • Demand pull throughout value chain – “information for inventory” substitution • Demand forecasting is critical – changes are shared immediately within Dell and with supply base • Customers frequently steered to “recommended configurations” with high availability to balance supply and demand • External logistics supplier used to manage inbound supply chain .Supporting Dell’s competitive advantage through a new operational model • Focused on strategic partnerships: suppliers down from 200 to 47 • Suppliers maintain nearby ship points.

HP. etc. IBM.PC SUPPLY CHAINS Customer Customer PULL Distribution Channels Virtual Integration PULL Dell PUSH Manufacturer Suppliers Suppliers PUSH Typical PC Supply Chain (Compaq.) Dell Supply Chain .

The CSF’s underlying Dell’s competitive advantage • Very high product (configurable) variety – mass customization! • Direct fulfillment .no intermediaries • No production launch until customer order booked (pure pull!) • Very low finished goods inventory (costs) – high inventory turns (raw material inventory influenced by “recommended configurations”) • High velocity material flows & fulfillment .

Dell performance .

Emerging factors and trends enabling Dell’s strategy • The commoditization of the PC industry – Standardized and interchangeable components – Emergence of reliable manufacturing service providers • Recent advances in Supply Chain Management – Information Technology (IT) platforms that allow the effective and efficient information exchange and coordination across the entire supply chain – 3rd party logistics service providers – Emerging emphasis on virtual rather than vertical company integration .

The primary “drivers” for achieving strategic fit in Supply Chain Strategy (adapted from Chopra & Meindl) Corporate Strategy Supply Chain Strategy Efficiency Responsiveness Facilities Inventory Transportation Information Market Segmentation .

The role of Facilities • Facilities: The locations where inventory is – processed and transformed into another state (manufacturing) or – staged before being shipped to the next stage (warehousing) • • In general. functional focus • Flexible vs. while decentralization boosts responsiveness (but not always…) Primary decisions: – Location • • • • • Proximity to the customer Proximity to resources Access to markets (ability to circumvent quotas and tariffs) Infrastructure Operational costs and tax incentives – Capacity • Capital cost vs. dedicated capacity – Warehousing methodology • SKU-based storage • Job lot storage • Cross-docking . responsiveness – Operations Methodology for Manufacturing Facilities • Product vs. centralization boosts efficiency.

The role of Inventory • Primary inventory components: – Raw Material – Work In Process (WIP) – Finished Goods • • It exists because of the finiteness of the production and transportation rates (Little’s Law: I=TH*T) Types of Inventory – Cycle Inventory: It is incurred in an effort to control the impact of “fixed” ordering and set-up costs. and develop the contracts that will govern the relationship.e. • Sourcing: Determine the set of suppliers / subcontractors to be used. – Seasonal Inventory: It is used to help the supply chain deal with predictable variability in demand. it is set so that it meets the supply chain to meet some “service level” (i.. – Safety Inventory: It is used to deal with the randomness in the experienced demand. . – Opportunistic Inventory: Takes advantage of “bargains”. control the probability that no stock-out will be experienced at any replenishment cycle).

Primary decisions: – Mode(s) of Transportation • • • • • • Air: fastest but most expensive Truck: Relatively quick.The role of Transportation • • Transportation: The SC element that moves product between its different stages. inexpensive and very flexible mode Rail: Inexpensive mode to be used for large quantities Ship: Slowest but often the most economical choice for large overseas shipments Pipeline: Used (primarily) for oil and gas Electronic transportation: for goods as music and movies – Route and Network Selection – Inhouse or Oursource to some 3PL provider .

• . primarily for “backend” operations of the SC. • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP): enables transactional tracking and global visibility of information in the SC. Information-related decisions – – – – – Push vs.The role of Information • Information exchange is necessary for the most extensive modes of coordination sought in contemporary supply chains. • Supply Chain Management (SCM) software: decision support tools. It allows the supply chain to improve simultaneously its efficiency and responsiveness. pull Extent and modes of information sharing and coordination Forecasting and Aggregate Planning schemes Pricing and revenue management policies Enabling Technologies: • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Enables paperless transactions. • The Internet and the WWW.

Current Trends and Challenges in the SCM • • • • Increasing variety of products Decreasing product life cycles Increasingly demanding customers Fragmentation of Supply Chain Ownership: vertical vs. virtual integration • Globalization and Market Segmentation • “Closed Loop” SC Production Distribution Consumption Retrieval Disposal Disassembly/ Reprocessing Reverse Logistics and Re-manufacturing network .

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