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Design of Fasteners

-V K Joshi
-Assistant Professor
--Mechanical Depart
-FETR
Riveted Joint


Riveted Joint
Riveted Joint

Riveted Joint
Types of Joint
– Permanent Joint
• Can’t be disassembled
• without damaging the connecting element
– Welded joint
– Brazed joint
– Soldered joint
– Adhesive joint
– Riveted joint
– Detachable Joint
• Can be disassembled
• without damaging the connecting element
– Threaded joint
– Pin joint
– Cotter joint
– Key joint


Riveted Joint
Riveted Joint
• Rivet is a short cylindrical bar with head
– Head
– body (shank)
– Tail

Riveted Joint
• Rivet material
– strong
– Ductile
• Mild steel
• Aluminum
• Brass
• Copper

Used when Strength is not
required
Riveted Joint
• Riveting Process


Riveted Joint
• The parts to be riveted
• Punched
• drilled
– Punching
• Cheapest
• thin plates
• Material damaged
– Rivet get red hot after cool down
• longitude tension
• Hold parts firmly
Riveted Joint
Riveted Joint
• Rivet provides
– Strength
– Rigidity
– Leak proof joint
– Can joint
• dissimilar material (welding X)
• Metallic and non metallic material
Riveted Joint
• Rivet could not provide
– Easily dissemble of parts
– As not leak proof as welding
– Weaken the parts
– Complicated shaped material joint
– Heads are inconvenient
Riveted Joint
• Type of rivet head
– Snap head
• Structural work
• Pressure vessel
• Machine


– Countersunk head
• Ship building
Riveted Joint
• Type of rivet head
– Conical head
• Hand hammering


– Pan head
• Maximum strong
• Difficult to make

Riveted Joint
• Type of rivet head

Riveted Joint
• Types of Rivet Joint
– Lap Joint
• Single riveted joint
• Double riveted joint
• Triple riveted joint
• Quadruple riveted joint

Chain joint
Zigzag Joint
Rivet Joint
Rivet
A) As per Arrangement
• Single Raw (Chain)
• Double Raw (Zigzag)
B) As per column
• Single Riveted
• Double Riveted
Plate
A) As per Arrangement of plate
• Lap
• Butt
B) As per number
• Single strap
• Double strap

Rivet Joint
• Lap Joint

Rivet Joint
• Lap Joint
Rivet Joint
• Butt Joint

Rivet Joint
• Butt Joint
Riveted Joint
• Quiz

Flat Countersunk Cone
Pan
Riveted Joint
• Quiz

Riveted Joint
• Quiz

Riveted Joint
• Quiz

Riveted Joint
• Quiz

Design of Riveted Boiler Joint
Design of Riveted Boiler Joint

Design of Riveted Boiler Joint
Lozenge or Uniform strength rivet
Design of Riveted Boiler Joint
Type of Joint Factor of Safety
Hand Machine
Lap 4.75 4.5
Single butt 4.75 4.5
Double butt 4.25 4.0

Given:
Tensile stress σ
t
= 90 Mpa
Shear stress σ
s
= 60 Mpa
Compressive stress σ
c
=120MPa
Plate thickness t = 7 mm

Note : t = 7 mm < 8mm
Shearing strength and crushing strength are same
Equation

Calculated d = 17.8 mm
Preferred d = 19 mm (Answer 1)

c s
dt d o o
t
2
4
2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

Two plates of 7 mm thickness are connected by a double riveted lap joint of zigzag
pattern. For 50 kN tensile load
Calculate :
1) rivet diameter, 2) rivet pitch , 3) strength of rivet joint
4) Number of rivets, 5) efficiency of joint, 6)width of plate
Assume σ
t
= 90 MPa σ
s
= 60 MPa and σ
c
=120MPa
Two plates of 7 mm thickness are connected by a double riveted lap joint of zigzag
pattern. For 50 kN tensile load
Calculate :
1) rivet diameter, 2) rivet pitch , 3) strength of rivet joint
4) Number of rivets, 5) efficiency of joint, 6)width of plate
Assume σ
t
= 90 MPa σ
s
= 60 MPa and σ
c
=120MPa

Given:
Tensile stress σ
t
= 90 Mpa
Shear stress σ
s
= 60 Mpa
Compressive stress σ
c
=120MPa
Plate thickness t = 7 mm
Equation


p = 73 mm (Answer 2)


( )
s t
d t d p o
t
o
2
4
2× = ÷
Two plates of 7 mm thickness are connected by a double riveted lap joint of zigzag
pattern. For 50 kN tensile load
Calculate :
1) rivet diameter, 2) rivet pitch , 3) strength of rivet joint
4) Number of rivets, 5) efficiency of joint, 6)width of plate
Assume σ
t
= 90 MPa σ
s
= 60 MPa and σ
c
=120MPa
Given:
Tensile stress σ
t
= 90 Mpa
Shear stress σ
s
= 60 Mpa
Compressive stress σ
c
=120MPa
Plate thickness t = 7 mm
From, Answer 1 and 2
Pitch = 73 mm
Diameter = 19 mm


P
t
= 34020 N P
s
= 17003 N P
c
= 15960 N
(Answer 3)
( )
t t
t d p P o ÷ =
s s
d P o
t
2
4
=
c c
dt P o =
Two plates of 7 mm thickness are connected by a double riveted lap joint of zigzag
pattern. For 50 kN tensile load
Calculate :
1) rivet diameter, 2) rivet pitch , 3) strength of rivet joint
4) Number of rivets, 5) efficiency of joint, 6)width of plate
Assume σ
t
= 90 MPa σ
s
= 60 MPa and σ
c
=120MPa
Given:
Tensile stress σ
t
= 90 Mpa
Shear stress σ
s
= 60 Mpa
Compressive stress σ
c
=120MPa
Plate thickness t = 7 mm
Load =50 kN
From, Answer 3
Strength = 15960 N


Calculated N = 3.13
Preferred N = 4
(Answer 4)

{ }
S C t
P P P
W
N
, , min
=
15960
10 50
3
×
= N
Two plates of 7 mm thickness are connected by a double riveted lap joint of zigzag
pattern. For 50 kN tensile load
Calculate :
1) rivet diameter, 2) rivet pitch , 3) strength of rivet joint
4) Number of rivets, 5) efficiency of joint, 6)width of plate
Assume σ
t
= 90 MPa σ
s
= 60 MPa and σ
c
=120MPa
Given:
Tensile stress σ
t
= 90 Mpa
Shear stress σ
s
= 60 Mpa
Compressive stress σ
c
=120MPa
Plate thickness t = 7 mm
Load =50 kN
From, Answer 2 and 3
Pitch = 73 mm
Strength = 15960 N


Calculated η = 34%
(Answer 5)

{ }
t
S C t
pt
P P P
o
q
, , min
=
90 73 7
15960
× ×
= q
Two plates of 7 mm thickness are connected by a double riveted lap joint of zigzag
pattern. For 50 kN tensile load
Calculate :
1) rivet diameter, 2) rivet pitch , 3) strength of rivet joint
4) Number of rivets, 5) efficiency of joint, 6)width of plate
Assume σ
t
= 90 MPa σ
s
= 60 MPa and σ
c
=120MPa
Given:
Tensile stress σ
t
= 90 Mpa
Shear stress σ
s
= 60 Mpa
Compressive stress σ
c
=120MPa
Plate thickness t = 7 mm
Load =50 kN
From, Answer
Pitch = 73 mm
Number of rivet = 4
Margin = m = 1.5xd = 1.5x19 = 30
b = (N-1)p+2m
b = (4-1)x73 + 2x30
b = 279 mm
(Answer 6)






Try by yourself
MDID, Patil R.B. , Tech Max, pp: 2-25

Two plates of 6 mm thickness are connected by a single riveted lap joint of zigzag
pattern. For 50 kN tensile load
Calculate :
1) rivet diameter, 2) rivet pitch , 3) strength of rivet joint
4) Number of rivets, 5) efficiency of joint, 6)width of plate
Assume σ
t
= 120 MPa σ
s
= 85MPa and σ
c
=185MPa

c s
dt d o o
t
=
(
¸
(

¸

2
4
( )
s t
d t d p o
t
o
2
4
2× = ÷
( )
t t
t d p P o ÷ =
s s
d P o
t
2
4
=
c c
dt P o =
{ }
S C t
P P P
W
N
, , min
=
{ }
t
S C t
pt
P P P
o
q
, , min
=
b = (N-1)p+2m
Answer :
1)d = 16.62 mm
d = 17 mm (Preferred)
2)p = 44 mm
3)P
t
= 19440 N
P
s
= 19293.3 N
P
c
= 18870 N
4)N = 2.65
N = 3 (Preferred)
5) η = 59.56%
6) b = 139 mm
Design of Eccentrically
Riveted Joint
Design of Eccentrically Riveted Joint

Design of Eccentrically Riveted Joint





1 2
3 4
u
L
1
L
2
L
3.
L
4.
Design of Eccentrically Riveted Joint

A steel plate of 8 mm thickness subjected to a force of 5 kN and fixed to vertical
channel shown in figure with four identical rivets. Tensile yield strength of 220 N/mm
2
,
factor of safety id 2, determine the diameter of rivet, Assume that the yield strength in
compression is 30% more than yield strength in tension.

Given:
Yield tensile stress S
yt
= 220 N/mm
2
Yield Compressive stress S
yc


=1.3 x S
yt

Plate thickness t = 8 mm
Load W =500 kN
Number of rivet n = 4
Factor of safety Nf = 2
A steel plate of 8 mm thickness subjected to a force of 5 kN and fixed to vertical
channel shown in figure with four identical rivets. Tensile yield strength of 220 N/mm
2
,
factor of safety id 2, determine the diameter of rivet, Assume that the yield strength in
compression is 30% more than yield strength in tension.

Given:
Yield tensile stress S
yt
= 220 N/mm
2
Yield Compressive stress S
yc


=1.3 x S
yt

Plate thickness t = 8 mm
Load W =500 kN
Number of rivet n = 4
Factor of safety Nf = 2
Calculation
L
3
2
=

50
50
L
3
2 2
50 50 +
71 . 70
=

L
1
= L
2
=

L
3
= L
4
= 70.71 mm



A steel plate of 8 mm thickness subjected to a force of 5 kN and fixed to vertical
channel shown in figure with four identical rivets. Tensile yield strength of 220 N/mm
2
,
factor of safety id 2, determine the diameter of rivet, Assume that the yield strength in
compression is 30% more than yield strength in tension.

Given:
Yield tensile stress S
yt
= 220 N/mm
2
Yield Compressive stress S
yc


=1.3 x S
yt

Plate thickness t = 8 mm
Load W =5000 N
Number of rivet n = 4
Factor of safety Nf = 2
Calculation
W x e = w x l
1
2
+ w x l
2
2
+ w x l
3
2
+ w x l
3
2

F
s
= w x l

F
s1
= w x l
1
F
s2
= w x l
2
F
s3
= w x l
3
F
s4
= w x l
4
W x e = F
S1
xl
1
+ F
S2
xl
2
+ F
S3
xl
3
+ F
S4
xl
4

2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
l l l l
e W
w
+ + +
×
=
2
75 . 70 4
250 5000
×
×
= w
= 62.5 N/mm
A steel plate of 8 mm thickness subjected to a force of 5 kN and fixed to vertical
channel shown in figure with four identical rivets. Tensile yield strength of 220 N/mm
2
,
factor of safety id 2, determine the diameter of rivet, Assume that the yield strength in
compression is 30% more than yield strength in tension.

Given:
Yield tensile stress S
yt
= 220 N/mm
2
Yield Compressive stress S
yc


=1.3 x S
yt

Plate thickness t = 8 mm
Load W =5000 N
Number of rivet n = 4
Factor of safety Nf = 2
Calculation
50
50
L
3
θ
θ
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷
50
50
tan
1
=45
0
Secondary Shear Force
F
s1
= w x l
1
=62.5x70.75=4419.38N
F
s2
= w x l
2
=62.5x70.75=4419.38N

F
s3
= w x l
3
=62.5x70.75=4419.38N

F
s4
= w x l
4
=62.5x70.75=4419.38N

A steel plate of 8 mm thickness subjected to a force of 5 kN and fixed to vertical
channel shown in figure with four identical rivets. Tensile yield strength of 220 N/mm
2
,
factor of safety id 2, determine the diameter of rivet, Assume that the yield strength in
compression is 30% more than yield strength in tension.

Given:
Yield tensile stress S
yt
= 220 N/mm
2
Yield Compressive stress S
yc


=1.3 x S
yt

Plate thickness t = 8 mm
Load W =5000 N
Number of rivet n = 4
Factor of safety Nf = 2
Calculation
Primary shear force =F
p
=

n
W
Primary shear force =F
p
= 1250 N

A steel plate of 8 mm thickness subjected to a force of 5 kN and fixed to vertical
channel shown in figure with four identical rivets. Tensile yield strength of 220 N/mm
2
,
factor of safety id 2, determine the diameter of rivet, Assume that the yield strength in
compression is 30% more than yield strength in tension.

Given:
Yield tensile stress S
yt
= 220 N/mm
2
Yield Compressive stress S
yc


=1.3 x S
yt

Plate thickness t = 8 mm
Load W =5000 N
Number of rivet n = 4
Factor of safety Nf = 2
Calculation
Resultant shear force =F
R
u cos 2
1 1
2
s p s p R
F F F F F + + =
45 cos 1250 2 38 . 4419 1250
2
× × + + =
R
F
= 5376.42 N
A steel plate of 8 mm thickness subjected to a force of 5 kN and fixed to vertical
channel shown in figure with four identical rivets. Tensile yield strength of 220 N/mm
2
,
factor of safety id 2, determine the diameter of rivet, Assume that the yield strength in
compression is 30% more than yield strength in tension.

Given:
Yield tensile stress S
yt
= 220 N/mm
2
Yield Compressive stress S
yc


=1.3 x S
yt

Plate thickness t = 8 mm
Load W =5000 N
Number of rivet n = 4
Factor of safety N
f
= 2
Calculation
Rivet Size

55
5 . 0
=
×
= =
f
yt
f
ye
N
S
N
S
t
N/mm
2
143
3 . 1
=
×
= =
f
yt
f
ye
N
S
N
S
o N/mm
2
55
4
42 . 5376
2
=
×
= =
d
A
F
R
t
t d = 11.16 mm (calculated)
d = 13.5 mm(preferred)
A steel plate of 8 mm thickness subjected to a force of 5 kN and fixed to vertical
channel shown in figure with four identical rivets. Tensile yield strength of 220 N/mm
2
,
factor of safety id 2, determine the diameter of rivet, Assume that the yield strength in
compression is 30% more than yield strength in tension.

Given:
Yield tensile stress S
yt
= 220 N/mm
2
Yield Compressive stress S
yc


=1.3 x S
yt

Plate thickness t = 8 mm
Load W =5000 N
Number of rivet n = 4
Factor of safety N
f
= 2
Calculation
Rivet checking in crushing

143 78 . 49
8 5 . 13
42 . 5376
s =
×
= =
dt
F
R
t N/mm
2
A bracket plate of 12.5 mm thickness is riveted to column by 6 rivets of equal
size as shown in figure. It carries a load of 50 kN at the distance of 150 mm
from the center of column. If the permissible shear stress for the rivet are 75
N/mm2 and 140 N/mm2 respectively, determine the diameter of rivet.
A bracket plate of 12.5 mm thickness is riveted to column by 6 rivets of equal
size as shown in figure. It carries a load of 50 kN at the distance of 150 mm
from the center of column. If the permissible shear stress for the rivet are 75
N/mm2 and 140 N/mm2 respectively, determine the diameter of rivet.
A bracket plate of 12.5 mm thickness is riveted to column by 6 rivets of equal
size as shown in figure. It carries a load of 50 kN at the distance of 150 mm
from the center of column. If the permissible shear stress for the rivet are 75
N/mm2 and 140 N/mm2 respectively, determine the diameter of rivet.
Given :
t = 12.5 mm n = 6
W = 50000 N e = 150 mm
τ
all
= 75 N/mm
2
σ
all
= 140 N/mm
2


W x e = F
S1
xl
1
+ F
S2
xl
2
+ F
S3
xl
3
+ F
S4
xl
4
+ F
S5
xl
5
+ F
S6
xl
6

2
6
2
5
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
l l l l l l
e W
w
+ + + + +
×
=
F
s
= w x l
Primary shear force =F
p
=

n
W
u cos 2
1 1
2
2 s p s p R
F F F F F + + =
4 4 S P R
F F F + =
{ } { }
2
4
, max , max
4 2 4 2
d
F F
A
F F
R R R R
×
= =
t
t
A bracket plate of 12.5 mm thickness is riveted to column by 6 rivets of equal
size as shown in figure. It carries a load of 50 kN at the distance of 150 mm
from the center of column. If the permissible shear stress for the rivet are 75
N/mm2 and 140 N/mm2 respectively, determine the diameter of rivet.
Given :
t = 12.5 mm n = 6
W = 50000 N e = 150 mm
τ
all
= 75 N/mm
2
σ
all
= 140 N/mm
2

Answer
l
1
= l
2
= l
5
=l
6
=90.138 mm
l
3
= l
4
= 50 mm
F
p
= 8333.33 N
w = 200 N/mm
F
s2
= F
s6
= 18027.87 N
F
s4
= 10000 N
F
R4
=18333.33 N
F
R2
= 23687.88 N
τ = 20.05 mm
σ
c
= 88.14 N/ mm
2




A steel plate is subjected to a force of 8 kN is fixed to a channel by means of
three identical rivets as shown I figure. The rivets are made of 15C8 (S
yt
= 250
N/mm
2
), If the required FOS is 3, determine the size of Rivets.

A steel plate is subjected to a force of 8 kN is fixed to a channel by means of
three identical rivets as shown I figure. The rivets are made of 15C8 (S
yt
= 250
N/mm
2
), If the required FOS is 3, determine the size of Rivets.
Given
W = 8000 N n = 3
S
yt
= 250 N/mm2 N
f
= 3
e = 300 mm
A steel plate is subjected to a force of 8 kN is fixed to a channel by means of
three identical rivets as shown I figure. The rivets are made of 15C8 (S
yt
= 250
N/mm
2
), If the required FOS is 3, determine the size of Rivets.
Given
W = 8000 N n = 3
S
yt
= 250 N/mm2 N
f
= 3
e = 300 mm
n
W
F
P
=
2
3
2
1
l l
e W
w
+
×
=
F
s
= w x l
u cos 2
1
2 2
s p s p R
F F F F F + + =
f
yt
all
N
S ×
=
5 . 0
t
2
4
1
d
F
R
all
×
=
t
t
A steel plate is subjected to a force of 8 kN is fixed to a channel by means of
three identical rivets as shown I figure. The rivets are made of 15C8 (S
yt
= 250
N/mm
2
), If the required FOS is 3, determine the size of Rivets.
Given
W = 8000 N n = 3
S
yt
= 250 N/mm2 N
f
= 3
e = 300 mm
N F
P
67 . 2666 =
mm N w / 33 . 213 =
F
s
= 16000 N
N F
R
7 . 16220 =
2
/ 66 . 41 mm N
all
= t
mm d 26 . 22 =
Quiz
C =100
e=400
P=50kN
Quiz

Welded Joint
Welding is a
• process of
• Joining two metallic parts together
• by heating to a plastic state
• with or without
• the application of pressure and filler metal
Semi molten
Welded Joint
Permanent joint
• The heat obtained by
– burning of gas (gas welding)
– an electric arc (electric arc welding).

More speed
then gas
welding
Welded Joint
• Alternative method for casting or forging
– Replacement for bolted and riveted joints.
• It is also used as a repair medium
– Reunite metal at a crack,
– To build up broken part
• such as gear tooth or
• worn surface such as a bearing surface.

Welded Joint
Lap or Fillet Joint
Welded Joint
Symbol (AWS)
Welded Joint

Welded Joint
Joint Type Sub type
Welded
Joint
Butt
Square
V
Single
Double
U
Single
Double
Fillet
Parallel
Transverse
Single
Double
Other
Corner
Edge
T
Welded Joint

Welded Joint
Butt Joint
Welded Joint
Other Joint
Welded Joint
Symbols
Welded Joint
Symbols

Welded Joint
Symbols

Welded Joint
Symbols

Welded Joint

Welded Joint
hl
P
= o
σ
t
= average tensile stress in weld , N/mm
2

P = tensile force on the weld, N
h = weld throat thickness
= plate thickness
l = length of the weld
Tensile Stress
Butt Weld
Welded Joint
( )l h h
P
t
2 1
+
= o
Double Butt Weld
σ
t
= average tensile stress in weld , N/mm
2

P = tensile force on the weld, N
h
1
= weld throat thickness at top
h
2
= weld throat thickness at bottom
l = length of the weld
Tensile Stress
Welded Joint
hl
P
= t
= average tensile stress in weld , N/mm
2

P = tensile force on the weld, N
l = length of the weld
t
t
Machined off
reinforcement
to avoid stress
concentration
Shear Stress
Welded Joint

tl
P
= t
l h
P
×
=
0
45 cos
t
l h
P
×
=
707 . 0
t
Fillet Weld
Two plates joined by fillet welds,
are subjected to tensile load 200 N.
If the allowable shear stress for the
weld material is 85Pa.

Given :
l
1
= 125 mm
l
2
= 100 mm
l
3
= 125 mm
P = 200 x 10
2
N/ mm
2
ς = 85 x10
6
Pa = 85 N/ mm
2

( ) t l l l
P
× + +
=
3 2 1
t
( ) t × + +
×
=
125 100 125
10 200
85
3
t = 6.722 mm
0
45 cos
t
h =
h= 10 mm
Two plates joined by
unsymmetrical fillet welds,
are subjected to axial force P.
Lengths of weld should be
such a way that the
sum of resisting moments
About the axis of force
is zero.
For top weld,
Moment = force x distance
= stress x area x distance
= ς x t x l
a
x a
For bottom weld,
Moment = force x distance
= stress x area x distance
= ς x t x l
b
x b
For balance condition,
ς x t x l
a
x a = ς x t x l
b
x b

And, l = l
a
+ l
b

l
b a
a
l
l
b a
b
l
b
a
×
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
×
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
A 200x150x10 mm steel angle is to be
welded to a steel plate by fillet welds along
the edges of 200 mm leg. The angle is
subjected to static load 200 kN. Find the
length of weld for allowable shear stress is
75 MPa.
Given :
P = 200 x10
3
N
ς = 75 N / mm
2

h = 10 mm

l
b a
a
l
l
b a
b
l
b
a
×
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
×
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
t l
P
×
= t
2
h
l
P
×
= t
10 75
2 10 200
3
×
× ×
= l
mm l 378 =
( ) | | | |
( ) | | | |
mm a
a
mm b
b
A A
y A y A
b
11 . 139
88 . 60 200
88 . 60
10 150 10 10 200
5 10 150 105 10 10 200
2 1
2 2 1 1
=
÷ =
=
× + × ÷
× × + × × ÷
=
+
+
=
mm l
l
l l l
mm l
l
b
b
a b
a
a
937 . 262
06 . 115 378
06 . 115
378
200
88 . 60
=
÷ =
÷ =
=
×
|
.
|

\
|
=
190
10
10
150
Eccentric Loading
Eccentric Loading
• Primary shear stress

• Secondary shear stress

• J = I
XX
+I
YY

• Moment of Inertia about YY axis I
YY
= MOI about axis parallel to CG + A
1
H
1
2




• Moment of Inertia about XX axis I
xx
= MOI about axis parallel to CG + A
1
H
1
2

A
P
d
= t
J
r T
r
×
= t
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
× +
|
.
|

\
|
× =
2
2
1 1
3
2 12
1 l
t l l t I
XX
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ × +
|
.
|

\
|
× =
2
1
1
3
1
2 12
1
X
l
t l t l I
YY
Eccentric Loading
A
1
= l
1
t
= 150 t
A
2
= l
2
t
= 150t
A = A
1
+A
2

= 150t+150t
= 300t
90
2
180
75
2
150
= =
= =
Y
X
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4 3
2
2
2
1
3
2
2
1 1
3
10 2430
90 150 2 2
90 150 0
2
180
150 0
12
1
2 12
1
mm t
t I
t I
t l I
l
t l l t I
XX
XX
XX
XX
× =
× × = ×
× + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
× +
|
.
|

\
|
× =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
× +
|
.
|

\
|
× =
( )
( ) ( )
3
3
3
2
1
3
2
1
1
3
1
10 5 . 562
150
12
1
2 2
0 150
12
1
0 150
12
1
2 12
1
× =
|
.
|

\
|
× × = ×
+
|
.
|

\
|
× =
× +
|
.
|

\
|
× =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ × +
|
.
|

\
|
× =
t
t I
t I
t l t I
X
l
t l t l I
YY
YY
YY
YY
J = I
XX
+I
YY
=2430t x 10
3
+ 562.5t x 10
3
= 2992.5t x 10
3
mm
4
For shear stress = 80 N/ mm
2
Eccentric Loading
2
3
/
667 . 66
300
10 20
mm N
t
t
A
P
d
d
=
×
=
=
t
t
J = I
XX
+I
YY
=2430t x 10
3
+ 562.5t x 10
3
= 2992.5t x 10
3
mm
4
2
3
/
6 . 156
10 5 . 2992
15 . 117 4000
mm N
t
J
Tr
r
r
=
×
×
=
=
t
t
75
90
r

θ
mm
r
15 . 117
75 90
2 2
=
+ =
T

= P x e
= 20 x 10
3
x 200
= 4000 x 10
3
N - mm
0
1
194 . 50
75
90
tan
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
÷
u
u
( )
t
t t t t
r d r d
755 . 205
194 . 50 cos
6 . 156 667 . 66
2
6 . 156 667 . 66
cos 2
0
2 2
2 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ + =
t
t
u t t t t t
For shear stress = 80 N/ mm
2
mm t
t
t
3 57 . 2
80
755 . 205
80
755 . 205
~ =
=
= = t
For shear stress
= 110 N/ mm
2
J = I
XX
+I
YY
x l e
l
y
A A A
X A X A X A
x
÷ + =
=
+ +
+ +
=
1
2
3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
300
2
( ) ( )
2
1
3
1
2
12
1
Y t l t l I
XX
× +
|
.
|

\
|
× =
( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + × + × =
2
1
1
3
1
2
2
2
2 X
l
t l t l X t l I
YY
A = A
1
+A
2
+A
3

A
P
= t
( )
2
2
2
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
l
X l r
T =P x e
( )
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
X l
l
1
2
2
1 tan u
J
Tr
t
= t
u t t t t t cos 2
2 2
t d t d
+ + =
t
mm N
t
mm r
mm N T
mm N
t
mm t J
mm t I
mm t I
e
mm Y
mm X
tmm A
t
d
YY
XX
55 . 719
/
20 . 617
49 . 59
144 . 232
10 2 . 50143
/
428 . 171
10 86 . 18
10 52678 . 1
10 333 . 17
86 . 417
200
14 . 32
700
2
0
3
2
4 6
4 6
4
2
6
=
=
=
=
÷ × =
=
× =
× =
× =
=
=
=
=
t
t
u
t
t=6.54 mm
h=10 mm
J = I
XX
+I
YY
x l e
A A
Y A Y A
y
A A
X A X A
x
÷ + =
+
+
=
+
+
=
2
2 1
2 2 1 1
2 1
2 2 1 1
120
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2
2
1
1
3
1
2 12
1
Y l t l
l
Y t l t l I
XX
÷ × +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ × +
|
.
|

\
|
× =
( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + + × =
2
1
2
3
2
2
1
2 12
1
X
l
t l t l X t l I
YY
A = A
1
+A
2

A
P
= t
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
1
2
2
Y X r
Y l X l r
b
a
+ =
÷ + ÷ =
T =P x e
( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
÷ =
Y
X
X l
Y l
b
a
1 tan
1 tan
1
1
u
u
u t t t t t cos 2
2 2
t d t d
+ + =
J
Tr
t
= t
2 2
2 2
0 0
6
2
4 6
4 6
4
2
/
11 . 493
, /
148 . 502
/
77 . 501
, /
888 . 430
78 . 10 , 358 . 29
887 . 106 , 788 . 91
10 4
/
80
10 85208 . 0
10 23333 . 0
10 61875 . 0
200
105
20
250
6
mm N
t
mm N
t
mm N
t
mm N
t
mm r mm r
mm N T
mm N
t
mm t J
mm t I
mm t I
e
mm Y
mm X
tmm A
b a
tb ta
b a
b a
d
YY
XX
= =
= =
= =
= =
÷ × =
=
× =
× =
× =
=
=
=
=
t t
t t
u u
t
t=6.2768 mm
h=9 mm
Welded Joint
Bending
Moment
( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ × × =
2
2
1
3
2
2 12
1
2
l
t l t l I
XX
Solid rectangular bar of cross section 50 mm
x 75 mm is welded to a support by fillet weld
subjected to a static load of 14 kN at a
distance of 150 mm from the plane of weld
σ
s
is 70 N/mm
2
.

( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ × × =
2
3
2
75
50 75
12
1
2 t t I
XX
4 3
10 937 . 210 mm t I
XX
× =
A = A
1
+A
2
+A
3
+A
4
=2(l
1
t+l
2
t)
=2(50t+75t)
= 250t mm
2
2
/
56
250
10 14
3
mm N
t
t
A
P
d
=
×
=
= t
M= P x e
=14 x 10
3
x 150
=2100 x 10
3
N-mm

mm
l
y 5 . 37
2
75
2
2
= = =
Solid rectangular bar of cross section 50 mm
x 75 mm is welded to a support by fillet weld
subjected to a static load of 14 kN at a
distance of 150 mm from the plane of weld
σ
s
is 70 N/mm
2
.

XX
b
I
y M.
= t
3
3
10 937 . 210
5 . 37 10 2100
×
× ×
=
t
b
t
2
/
33 . 373
mm N
t
b
= t
2 2
d b
t t t + =
2 2
56 33 . 373
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
t t
t
t
51 . 377
= t
70
51 . 377
=
t
t =
70
51 . 377
h t = × = × 2
70
51 . 377
2
h=7.62mm
≈8mm
t=h/√2=5.65 mm
I
xx
=210.937tx10
3
mm
4

Y=37.5mm
M =2100x10
3
N-mm
2
/
56
mm N
t
d
= t
A = A
1
+A
2
+A
3
( ) t l
l
t l I
XX
3
2
2
2
1
12
1
2
2 +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
× =
A
P
d
= t
XX
b
I
y M.
= t
M= P x e
2 2
d b
t t t + =
2
2
l
y =
A= 250t mm
2
y=75mm
h=7mm
t =4.95 mm
2
/
80
mm N
t
d
= t
2
/
44 . 444
mm N
t
b
= t
2
/
587 . 451
mm N
t
= t
h t = × 2
A = A
1
+A
2
+A
3
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2
1
1
3
2
2 12
1
2 y t l y
l
t l t l I
XX
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + × =
A
P
d
= t
XX
b
I
y M.
= t
M= P x e
2 2
d b
t t t + =
y y
A A A
y A y A y A
y
÷ =
+ +
+ +
=
50
3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
h t = × 2
2
4 4
/
857 . 342
10 833 . 5
10
mm N
t
mm t I
mm y
b
xx
=
× =
=
t
h=6mm
t =3.6474 mm
8
3
3
t d
t r I
XX
× ×
= × × =
t
t
2
66 . 5
,
d h
M
prove
× ×
×
=
t
t
2
d
r y = =
XX
I
My
= t
( )
8
2
3
t d
d
M
t
t =
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
4
2
h d
M
t
t
2
66 . 5
d h
M
× ×
×
=
t
t
Quiz
• Find CG and MOI of
3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
A A A
X A X A X A
X
+ +
+ +
=
2
0
2
1
3
2
1
1
l
X
X
l
X
=
=
=
t l A
t l A
t l A
1 3
2 2
1 1
=
=
=
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t l t l t l
l
t l t l
l
t l
X
1 2 1
1
1 2
1
1
2
0
2
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
( )
2 1
2
1
2 l l
l
X
+
=
( )t l l
t l t l
X
2 1
2
1
2
1
2
2 2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
X
Y
3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
A A A
Y A Y A Y A
Y
+ +
+ +
=
2 3
2
2
1
2
0
l Y
l
Y
Y
=
=
=
t l A
t l A
t l A
1 3
2 2
1 1
=
=
=
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t l t l t l
l t l
l
t l t l
Y
1 2 1
2 1
2
2 1
2
0
+ +
+ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
2
l
Y =
( )t l l
t l l
l
Y
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
X
Y
X
Y
2
2
l
Y =
( )
2 1
2
1
2 l l
l
X
+
=
I
YY1
= Moment of inertia of weld 1
Parallel vertical axis
Through part 1
st
C.G.
+ A
1
H
1
2
I
YY1
=
3
12
1
bd
2
1 1
H A +
I
YY1
=
3
1
12
1
tl
( )
2
1
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + X
l
t l
X
Y
2
2
l
Y =
( )
2 1
2
1
2 l l
l
X
+
=
I
YY2
= Moment of inertia of weld 2
Parallel vertical axis
Through part 2
nd
C.G.
+ A
2
H
2
2
I
YY2
=
3
12
1
bd
2
2 2
H A +
I
YY2
=
3
2
12
1
t l
I
YY2
=
( )( ) ( )
2
2
X t l
( )( ) ( )
2
2
X t l +
X
Y
2
2
l
Y =
( )
2 1
2
1
2 l l
l
X
+
=
I
YY3
= Moment of inertia of weld 3
Parallel vertical axis
Through part 3
rd
C.G.
+ A
3
H
3
2
I
YY3
=
3
12
1
bd
2
3 3
H A +
I
YY3
=
3
1
12
1
tl
( )
2
1
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + X
l
t l
X
Y
I
YY1
=
3
1
12
1
tl
( )
2
1
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + X
l
t l
I
YY2
=
( )( ) ( )
2
2
X t l
I
YY3
=
3
1
12
1
tl
( )
2
1
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + X
l
t l
I
YY
= I
YY1
+ I
YY2
+ I
YY3

( ) ( )( ) ( )
2
2
2
1
1
3
1
2 12
1
2 X t l X
l
t l l t I
YY
+
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
|
.
|

\
|
=
X
Y
2
2
l
Y =
( )
2 1
2
1
2 l l
l
X
+
=
I
xx1
= Moment of inertia of weld 1
Parallel horizontal axis
Through part 1
st
C.G.
+ A
1
H
1
2
I
xx1
=
3
12
1
bd
2
1 1
H A +
I
xx1
=
1
3
12
1
l t
( )
2
1
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
+
l
t l
( )
2
1
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
l
t l I
xx1
=
X
Y
2
2
l
Y =
( )
2 1
2
1
2 l l
l
X
+
=
I
xx2
= Moment of inertia of weld 2
Parallel horizontal axis
Through part 2
nd
C.G.
+ A
2
H
2
2
I
xx2
=
3
12
1
bd
2
2 2
H A +
I
xx2
=
3
2
12
1
tl
( )( )
2
1
0 t l +
I
xx2
=
3
2
12
1
tl
X
Y
2
2
l
Y =
( )
2 1
2
1
2 l l
l
X
+
=
I
xx3
= Moment of inertia of weld 1
Parallel horizontal axis
Through part 3
rd
C.G.
+ A
3
H
3
2
I
xx3
=
3
12
1
bd
2
3 3
H A +
I
xx3
=
1
3
12
1
l t
( )
2
1
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
+
l
t l
( )
2
1
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
l
t l I
xx3
=
X
Y
I
xx
= I
xx1
+ I
xx2
+ I
xx3

( )
2
1
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
l
t l I
xx1
=
I
xx2
=
3
2
12
1
tl
( )
2
1
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
l
t l I
xx3
=
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
= t l
l
t l I
XX
3
2
2
2
1
12
1
2
2
C.G. Inertia






( )
2 1
2
1
2 l l
l
X
+
=
2
2
l
Y =
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
= t l
l
t l I
XX
3
2
2
2
1
12
1
2
2
( ) ( )( ) ( )
2
2
2
1
1
3
1
2 12
1
2 X t l X
l
t l l t I
YY
+
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
|
.
|

\
|
=

Cotter Joint

COMPARISON BETWEEN KEY AND COTTER
– Key is usually driven parallel to
– the axis of the shaft which is
– subjected to torsional or twisting stress.
– Whereas cotter is normally driven at right angles to
– the axis of the connected part which is
– subjected to tensile or compressive stress along its axis.

– A key resists shear over a longitudinal section
– whereas a cotter resist shear over two transverse section.
Cotter Joint


• A flat wedge link piece of steel
– of rectangular cross section
• uniform in thickness
– but tapering in width
– on one side
– usually the taper is 1 in 30
• The end made narrow
– to facilitate the hammering
– use to fasten rigidly two rods
– subjected to axial tensile or compressive stress
• connect two circular rods.
– not suitable where the member are subjected under rotation.
– differ from key joints which are used to
– fasten shaft and hubs subjected to tensional stress


Cotter Joint
Cotter Joint
1. Diameter of rod =d
2. Diameter of spigot =d
1
3. Thickness of cotter =t
4. Outside diameter of socket =D
1
5. Distance between slot end and spigot end =a
6. Diameter of socket collar = D
2

7. Thickness of socket collar =c
8. Diameter of spigot collar =d
2
9. Thickness of spigot collar =t
1
10. Width of Cotter =b
11. Failure of cotter under bending

Diameter of rod =d
Spigot
1. Diameter of spigot =d
1
2. Diameter of spigot collar =d
2
3. Thickness of spigot collar =t
1
4. Distance between slot end and spigot end =a
Socket
1. Outside diameter of socket =D
1
2. Diameter of socket collar =D
2

3. Thickness of socket collar =c
Cotter
1. Width of Cotter =b
2. Thickness of cotter =t
Failure of cotter under bending
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
4
d
P
t
t
o
Diameter of Rod
F
F
Diameter of Spigot d
1
and Thickness of cotter t
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
t d d
P
t
1
2
1
4
t
o
t=0.3d
( ) t d
P
c
1
= o

Outside diameter of socket D
1
( ) | | |
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
=
t d D d D
P
t
1 1
2
1
2
1
4
t
o
( ) a d
P
1
2
= t
Distance from the end of slot to the end of spigot
a


diameter of socket collar D
2
( )t d D
P
c
1 2
÷
= o
( )c d D
P
1 2
2 ÷ ×
= t
thickness of socket collar
C


Diameter of spigot collar
d
2
( )
2
1
2
1
4
d D
P
c
÷
=
t
o

Thickness of spigot collar t
1
1 1
t d
P
t
t =

Width of cotter b

bt
P
2
= t

Failure of cotter under bending

yy
b
I
x M ×
= o
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
=
4 6 2
1 1 2
d d D P
M
12
3
tb
I
yy
=
2
b
x =
2
6
tb
M
b
×
= o
( )
2
1 2
4
2
tb
d D P
b
+
= o

FETR, Bardoli

FETR, Bardoli

FETR, Bardoli