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Group Influences on Consumer Behavior, Consumer buying Process and Different Kinds Of Buying behaviors

By : -Neeraj Gupta

Sources of influence on consumer behaviour can be described as marketer dominated or non-marketer dominated and as delivered by mass media or personally

Marketer dominated

Non-marketer dominated

(1 ) Mass delivered
Adve rtis ing Sa les promot ions Publicity

(2 )
Ne w s Crit ique s/re vi ew s Progra mm e cont ent Ex te rnal endors eme nts Cultural he roes/ heroines Clubs/ organis ations (4 ) Family Friends Neighbours Clas sm ate s Co -w or k er s

Reach High

Reach Low

De livered Personality

(3 ) S ale sp ers ons

Low Special: Opinion leaders Sources: Market mavens Low High

High

Two - wa y Communication

Credibility

Market Maven

Individuals whose influence stems from a general knowledge or market expertise that leads to an early awareness of new products and services.

The buying behaviour of a consumer is more likely to be influenced by the group if the individual: Views the reference group as a credible source of information about the product or service.When do Groups Exert Influence? The group influence on an individual's buying behaviour depends on three factors:  Attitude Towards the Group: According to William O. . Values the views and reactions of group members with regard to buying decisions. 2. individual's susceptibility to group influence varies widely. Bearden and Richard Rose. Accepts the rewards and sanctions allotted out by the group for proper or improper behaviour. 1. 3.

that is. the membership in the group is highly regarded. Groups are more likely to be influential for products. . Cohesive. ii. Frequently interacting and thus creating more opportunities to influence members. which are: (a) visible such as clothing and (b) exclusive that might speak of status such as a Mercedes. iii. As is case with the Harley-Davidson group example. that is having similar values and norms. Gabel note that reference groups are more likely to influence a group member's behaviour if they are: i. the group is closely knit and for many members biking has become a full-time hobby. Leigh and Terrance G.“ Nature of the Product: The nature of the product also determines the degree of influence a group has on an individual. Distinctive and exclusive. Membership is exclusive and distinctive as they refer to each other as "brothers" and outsiders as "citizens.Nature of the Group: James H.

An individual may also regard the membership in a specific group as something undesirable and to be avoided. 4. A disclaimant group is one to which an individual may belong to or join and then reject the group's values. Primary Informal Groups Primary Formal Groups Secondary Informal Groups Secondary Formal Groups Cont…. 2. .Types of Reference Groups Reference groups furnish points of comparison by which one can evaluate attitudes and behaviour. Such a group is a dissociative group. This same individual may aspire to belong to a cricket club and would be said to be apart of an aspiration group. An individual can be a member of a reference group such as the family and would be said to be part of a membership group. Membership Groups 1. 3.

Types of Reference Groups Membership Positive attitude Negative attitude Positive membership group Disclaimant-group Non membership Aspiration group Dissociative group Types of membership groups Informal Primary Secondary Family/Peer Group Sports/Kitty Party -group Formal School/Business groups Teachers/IAS Association Types of aspiration groups Contact No Contact Anticipatory Symbolic .

For instance. the individual may wish to join a group higher in the organisational hierarchy. has some direct contact with such group(s). The individual. generally.Appealing to Increase Position Aspiration Groups Anticipatory Aspiration Groups: These are groups that an individual anticipates to join at some future time. The ad appeal focuses on anticipation of ultimately reaching at the top in the business organisation. .

.Famous soccer player (David Bekham) endorses Police Sunglasses Symbolic Aspiration Groups: The individual admires these groups but is unlikely to join them despite acceptance of the group's beliefs and attitudes.

1 Positive Influences on Conformity Group Characteristics  Attractiveness  Expertise  Credibility  Past Success  Clarity of Group Goals Personal Characteristics  Tendency to Conform  Need for Affiliation  Need to be Liked  Desire for Control  Fear of Negative Evaluation .Table 10.

'Norms' are generally defined rules and standards of behaviours that the group establishes. . socialisation and power. Cultures and sub-cultures largely define the values. 'Roles' refer to functions that an individual assumes or that the group assigns to her/him to accomplish group objectives. status. Norms: .Nature of Reference Groups   Reference groups establish certain norms. These characteristics exert their influence on consumers.   'Values' are shared beliefs among group members regarding what behaviours are appropriate or inappropriate. roles.

greater power and influence goes with higher status. 'Socialisation' refers to the process by which new members learn the group's system of values. norms and expected behaviour patterns. ‘Power’ A group’s influence on its members behaviour is closely related to its power.Nature of Reference Groups    'Status' is the achieved or ascribed position that the individual occupies within the group's hierarchy.     Reward Coercive Expert Referent . As one may expect.

social. or performance risk in buying a product.Groups Influences and Consumer Behavior Types of Reference Group Influences Nature of influence Informational Comparative Knowledge Acceptance Self-maintenance Identification and enrichment Objectives Behaviour Perceived source characteristics Credibility Similarity Type of power Expert Referent Normative Informational to be more important when consumers perceive coercion financial. Reward Conformity influence is likely Power Reward or .

Groups Influences and Consumer Behavior .

Researchers have hypothesised that reference groups can influence two types of decisions: (1) whether we buy a product within a given product category and (2) what brand we buy. or watch.   For example. Comparative and Normative Influence  Product Characteristics: . the group will probably not influence whether a member buys Colgate toothpaste or Aquafresh. But the group might influence the purchase of products such as a brand of latest mobile phone. air conditioners and washing machine etc.Consumers tend to be susceptible to informational influence when products are technologically complex such as computers and peripherals. The influence would also depend on whether the product is typically consumed in private or public and whether it is a necessity or luxury. autos.Relative Importance of Informational. .

.Reference Group Influences on Publicly and Privately Consumed Luxuries and Necessities Where Consumed In Private In Public Influence weak Razor Toilet soap Water heater Mattress Influence strong Body massage DVD player Hot bath tub Private swimming-pool Influence weak Clothing Watches Shoes Conveyance Necessity Type of Product Luxury Influence strong Camcorder Jewelry Health club Custom-made Car Cont….

Those susceptible to interpersonal influence seek to enhance their self-image by possessing products that they believe others will approve of. Comparative and Normative Influence  Consumer Characteristics: . A personality characteristic referred to as "attention to social comparison information" (ATSCI) is also related to normative influence.Relative Importance of Informational.Some consumer personalities are such that make them readily susceptible to influence by others. Those individuals who are high on this personality trait are likely to pay a great deal of attention to what others do and use this information as a guide to their own behaviour.   .

Binani Cement is the best as people believe him to be a credible authority. The typical consumer (Lalitaji of Surf ad) persuades consumers that people like themselves have used the advertised product. The ad for Fiat Palio uses Sachin Tendulkar as a symbolic referent.Marketing Strategies Based on Reference Group Influence   Marketers employ informational. Advertising often makes use of informational influence through expert spokespersons who communicate information about product features and performance. comparative and normative group influences to develop marketing communication strategies.    . Advertising applies comparative influence by using either an actual referent in the form of a ìtypical consumerî or use a celebrity as a symbolic referent with whom consumers identify because she/he is likeable or attractive. Using Persons like Amitabh Bachan to prove to audience that Navrattan Oil is the best.

(a) Actual referent is a “typical” consumer (b) Symbolic referent The famous cricketer .

Pepsi. Taj Mahal tea. . Commercials of Orient PSPO. Celebrities are best used as experts when consumers view them as knowledgeable about the product category and conveying legitimacy in their message. are examples of advertising ís simulation of social approval. clothing and personal care products etc. brands of paints.Marketing Strategies Based on Reference Group Influence   Marketers frequently use normative influence approach by showing group approval in ads for a particular brand. Coca Cola.

2. All of these people exert an influence on the consumers' purchase behaviour through such communications. .. The saying "a satisfied customer is your best salesperson" shows the importance of favourable word-of-mouth to the marketer. By observing or participating with them as they consume a product or service.Word-of-mouth Communications Word-of-mouth is interpersonal communication that takes place between two or individuals such as members of a family or reference group. friends and other reference groups in two ways: 1. from family members. Cont…. because satisfied customers influence relatives and friends to buy the product. Consumers learn about new products or service and retail outlets etc. By asking for information or advice about a product or service from them.

they found that word-ofmouth is not important in the evaluation of an automobile if (1) consumers already have strong impression of the product and/or (2) negative information about the product is available. from friends and relatives. The product is distinctive and reflects a particular style.Conditions for Word-of-mouth Communication Research study by Herr. For example. 1. taste and other personal norms. thus. due to this reason. Consumers perceive the purchase of the product as risky and. are more likely to discuss about it and seek information and advice Cont…. . 4. 5. The product is visible and. The product conforms to important group norms and belief systems such as reactions to a new soft drink. 2. The product is new and consumers have not established impressions and attitudes about it. Kardes and Kim has shown that word-of-mouth is not the dominant influence in each situation. purchase behaviour becomes obvious. or teenagers' reactions to pop and rock music. 3.

They believed that opinion leaders' exposure to mass media is greater than that of followers. . According to them. Lazarsfeld were among the first to identify and describe word-of-mouth communication. it is two-step flow of information : (1) from the mass media to opinion leaders and (2) from opinion leaders to their followers. Mass media Opinion leaders Followers b. Multi-step word-of-mouth communication flow Gatekeepers Mass media Opinion leaders Followers Cont….Word-of-mouth Communication Process Two-step Communication Flow Elihu Katz and Paul F.

Multi-step Communication Flow

1.

Followers may not be active seekers of information; yet they are not totally passive and may deliberately initiate requests for information. They may also pay attention to unsolicited opinion of others.
Opinion leaders are also likely to receive information from followers and

2.

may be influenced by their word-of-mouth. So, word-of-mouth frequently turns out to be a two-directional flow of communication between leaders and followers.
3. Mass media is not restricted only to opinion leaders. They are not the only

ones who receive all the communications. Followers too are exposed to mass media advertising and are influenced by it. Realisation of this fact led Katz and Lazarsfeld to think that there may be others who function as "information gatherers" or "gatekeepers," serving this function.

Opinion Leadership

The process by which one person (the opinion leader) informally influences the consumption actions or attitudes of others who may be opinion seekers or opinion recipients.

What Is Opinion Leadership?

Opinion Leader

Opinion Receiver

Opinion Seeker

Word of Mouth in Action Figure 15-1 .

Dynamics of the Opinion Leadership Process      Credibility Positive and Negative Product Information Information and Advice Opinion Leadership Is Category-Specific Opinion Leadership Is a Two-way Street .

.Many not-forprofit organizations that hope to change behavior. count on opinion leaders.

Motivations Behind Opinion Leadership Issues     The Needs of Opinion Leaders The Needs of Opinion Receivers Purchase Pals Surrogate Buyers versus Opinion Leaders     Self-involvement Social involvement Product involvement Message involvement .

Motivations Behind Opinion Leadership Issues     The Needs of Opinion Leaders The Needs of Opinion Receivers Purchase Pals Surrogate Buyers versus Opinion Leaders     New product or new usage information Reduction of perceived risk Reduction of search time Receiving the approval of the opinion leader .

Motivations Behind Opinion Leadership Issues     The Needs of Opinion Leaders The Needs of Opinion Receivers Purchase Pals Surrogate Buyers versus Opinion Leaders   Actually accompany consumers on shopping trips Used 25 percent of the time for purchases of electronic equipment .

Motivations Behind Opinion Leadership Issues     The Needs of Opinion Leaders The Needs of Opinion Receivers Purchase Pals Surrogate Buyers versus Opinion Leaders   Surrogate buyers may replace opinion leaders An example is a wardrobe consultant who helps in the purchase of business clothes .

This enhanced knowledge and experience makes opinion leadership possible.Characteristics of Opinion Leaders Much research has been conducted to identify traits of opinion leaders but so far the research is inconclusive. It is important to note the significant role family members play in opinion leadership. it leads to enhanced knowledge about the product and experience with the product category or activity. . some general traits have been identified. Cont…. The most salient characteristic of opinion leaders is their greater long-term involvement with the product category compared to non-opinion leaders in the group. Opinion leadership functions primarily through interpersonal communications and observations. L. Shoham. Rose. R. These activities occur most frequently among individuals with roughly the same social-class position as nonleaders but opinion leaders are likely to be viewed as having higher status in their social-class. Kahle and A. This trait is referred as enduring involvement and according to G. M. 2. 1. Despite difficulties in identifying opinion leaders.

Exposure to interest relevant mass media helps enhance their potential as opinion leaders. For example. Situations in which People Seek an Opinion Leader Knowledge about product/service High High Product/purchase involvement Low Moderate Low Low High Moderate . is greater. Opinion leaders tend to be more gregarious and are willing to act differently even if it attracts the attention of peers. Their exposure to mass media.3. relevant to their interest. opinion leaders to ladies fashions could be expected to have greater exposure to magazines such as Femina. Vogue and Women's Era etc.

Stimulating opinion leadership involves having an acknowledged opinion leader. For example. Therefore. "Approved by independent dental associations in 30 countries. The firm must make arrangements to respond to customer complaints quickly and fairly. services and retail stores. it is extremely important that marketers pay serious attention to product quality and service and meet or exceed consumer expectations with regard to their products or services." .Marketing Implications An obvious fact is that consumers talk to other consumers about their personal experiences with products. the print ad of Colgate Total toothpaste says.

Consumers’ Buying Decision Process .

Problem Recognition .

The Problem Recognition Process Desired consumer lifestyle The way consumer would like to live and feel Desired state The condition the consumer would like to be in at this point of time Current situation Temporary factors affecting the consumer Actual state The condition the consumer perceives to be in at this point of time Nature of discrepancy Differences between the consumer's desired and perceived conditions No difference Desired state exceeds actual state Actual state exceeds desired state Satisfaction Problem recognised .

gets injured and the vehicle is badly damaged. she/he may plan to get the vehicle repaired or buy a new one. . In such an emergency. For example. she/he needs a quick solution to reach hospital's emergency room. Subsequently.Types of Problem Recognition Example of an Active Problem Immediacy of solution Expectancy Of problem Immediate solution required Routine Immediate solution not required Planning Occurrence of Problem expected Occurrence of problem unexpected Emergency Evolving Emergency problems are possible but are unexpected and necessarily need immediate solutions. say a consumer meets an accident while on his/her way to office.

Non-marketing Factors Influencing Problem Recognition .Less than? .Situations that can Cause Problem Recognition Influencers Culture/sub-culture Social status Reference group Family characteristics Financial situation Earlier decisions Individual growth Emotions Motives Situation Evaluation Desired state .More than? Actual State Influencers Past decisions Normal depletion Brand/product performance Individual growth Emotions Govt./consumer group Product availability Situation Cont….Equal to? .

Depletion of stocks Dissatisfaction with goods in stock Environmental changes Change in financial situation Marketer initiated activities. 3. . 5. 4.Role of emotion in problem recognition The five of the most common situations are: 1. Cont…. 2.

Generally. 1. a marketer will use this approach when the problem is either latent or of low importance and one of the following conditions exists. iii. i. The marketer has very high market share. Generic problem recognition focuses on helping consumers feel a discrepancy that a number of brands within a product category can reduce. After problem recognition. It is a situation of industry-wide cooperative effort. ii. iv. consumers' external search tends to be limited.Approaches Recognition to Activating Problem Generic problem recognition. . Product is in the early stage of its life cycle. Cont…. Ordinary tap water is not safe.

recognition in an attempt to increase or maintain market share Cont…. Getting a job is high priority for most students in India. Marketers use this approach to causing problem Selective problem recognition. . Selective problem recognition focuses on a discrepancy that only a particular brand can solve.2.

Marketing Strategy and Problem Recognition 1. Problem Analysis 4. Activity Analysis. service or brand 3. or travel etc. They desire to have fresh and smooth skin and the advertisement of Dove soap is designed to generate concern about the existing state of their skin .Examining the purchase and or use of particular product. Emotion Research Influencing the desired state Marketers also attempt to influence consumers' perceptions about their existing state. Human Factors Research-Helpful in identifying consumer functional Problems they are not aware about.Such as cleaning house. Product Analysis. Women do not want to use a soap that dries their skin. 2. 5. preparing meal.

The opinions. attitudes. External information can refer to any of the following: 1.Nature of Information Search Extended decision-making represents a significantly more involving purchase situation. beliefs. and by sales personnel. Consumer decision-making requires three types of information: 1. behaviours and feelings of relatives. the Internet and provided by personal professional contacts. Direct experiences with product through trial. friends. or inspection. 3. The Evaluative Criteria : An important objective of internal and external search for information is the determination of appropriate evaluative criteria. Professional information contained in handouts. 4. Marketer-initiated info included in advertisements. neighbours and strangers contacted on the Internet. articles. Evaluative criteria? Yes Information search terminates Performance level of each solution on each criterion? Is the information enough to make a balanced decision? Information search continues Existing solutions? No . 2. magazines. pamphlets.

2. Zenith. All alternatives Known and unknown Awareness set Brands known to consumer Unawareness set Brands not known to consumer Evoked set Brands Considered Inept set Brands avoided Inert set Backup brands Brand purchased Brands considered but not purchased Cont…. Decision-alternative Categories . she/he probably starts searching for the appropriate alternative which could be brands or perhaps stores. As a result of internal search or inquiry. Vintron and Apple. the consumer may recall or learn that the available brands of computers include IBM. Appropriate Alternatives Once the consumer has established the evaluative criteria. Wipro. Dell. Compaq.

. graphic card. monitor. Attributes of Alternative Consumers compare brands in the evoked set to make their choice. . This process of evaluation requires consumers to collect information about each brand on each relevant evaluative criterion. the consumer might collect information about the price.3. In case of computer purchase. for each brand. accompanying software and warranty etc. memory. processor.

.Sources of Information for Purchase Decision-making Sources of Information Internal information External information Acquired actively Acquired passively Acquired actively Others’ experiences Past searches Personal experience Low-involvement learning Personal sources Independent sources Marketer controlled Cont….

Market conditions Product characteristics Consumer characteristics Situational factors. Cont….Cost/Benefit View of External Search Four basic factors influence the perceived benefits and costs of search: 1. 2. 3. . 4.

Position Brand in evoked set Brand not in evoked set Nominal decision making (No search) Maintenance strategy Disrupt strategy . Disrupt strategy Capture strategy Intercept strategy Preference strategy 6. 4. Type of Target Market Decision-Making Limited decision making (Limited search) Capture strategy Intercept strategy Extended decision making (Extended search) Preference strategy Acceptance strategy Cont…. Maintenance strategy 2. 5. 3. Acceptance strategy.Marketing Strategy Implications 1.

. Disrupt Strategy Product improvement as part of maintenance strategy This ad attempts to disrupt habitual purchase Cont….1. Maintenance Strategy 2.

Acceptance Strategy This ad is part of capture or Intercept Strategy as it offers consumers an immediate incentive The basic objective of the marketer is to move the brand in the evoked set of consumers. Preference Strategy Preference strategy is appropriate when the brand is part of the evoked set of consumers in the target market and the approach to decision-making involves extensive information search. . the appropriate strategy is to intercept consumers during their information search on the brands in evoked set.Capture Strategy The marketer's objective should be to capture a large share of consumers' purchases. Cont…. rather than try to "sell" the brand. Intercept Strategy Intercept strategy is also related to consumers' limited decision-making approach. If the marketer's brand is not part of the evoked set of target market.

Attributes Affective Choice (feeling-based choice) .Evaluation of alternatives Choice Based on Attitude vs.

Outlet image • • • • • • Outlet Image Retailer Brands Retail (local) Advertising Location of Outlet and Size Consumer Attributes and Outlet Selection Risk Perception in Store Choice • Sales Personnel .Outlet attributes .Shopping needs Feed back Post-purchase Evaluation Retail outlet choice Information processing Brand evaluation .Purchase needs .Purchase Decision • Outlet Selection Need arousal .

is a function of the following factors: The degree of irrevocability of the decision The importance of decision to the consumer The difficulty of choosing among the alternatives The individual's tendency to experience anxiety      .Post-Purchase Evaluation  Cognitive dissonance occurs as a result of some discrepancy between a consumer's prior evaluation and the purchase decision. The probability that a consumer will experience dissonance and the magnitude of such dissonance. The dissonance theory was derived from two basic principles: (1) dissonance is unpleasant and will motivate the person to reduce it and (2) individuals experiencing dissonance will avoid situations that produce more dissonance.

Increase the desirability of the brand purchased 2. After purchase. Decrease the importance of the purchase decision 4. Return the product before using it. Decrease the desirability of alternatives not selected 3.The consumers may use one or more of the following approaches to minimising the dissonance: 1. customers are more receptive to reinforcing advertisements .

soap. There are some products which are used on a daily basis like food items. For these products purchase is routinised. shampoo etc. Command Low Involvement  Limited Problem Solving    Routinized Response Behavior  .Levels of Consumer Decision Making  Extensive Problem Solving   A lot of information needed Must establish a set of criteria for evaluation Criteria for evaluation established Fine tuning with additional information Usually review what they already know.

Product involvement refers to a consumer’s level of interest in a certain product. the purchase process stimulated by the need to consider a certain purchase. Purchase situation involvement may occur while buying the same item in different contexts. Television is said to be a low involvement medium and consumers process information in a passive manner.Levels of Consumer Decision Making     Purchase Involvement is the level of concern for. Marketers communicate many sales promotions to increase consumer involvement in a product. print is a high-involvement medium as the readers actively process information. Advertising involvement refers to the consumer’s interest in processing the ad messages. In contrast. . or interest in.

.

Limited and Extensive Problem Solving Behaviour .

or routine problem solving. . or the consumer does not attach much importance to the product category or purchase.Nominal Decision-making  At one end of choice continuum is nominal decision-making. Nominal decision-making is generally the outcome of continued satisfaction with a brand which was initially chosen after an extended decision-making process. also referred to as nominal problem solving. habitual decision making.

but actually use cognitive shortcuts. when the level of consumer involvement is lowest. it covers the middle ground between nominal and extended decision-making. simple decision rules on a few attributes and little post-purchase evaluation. consideration of just a few alternatives. or evaluate each attribute enthusiastically. while in a store. limited decision-making may not be much different than nominal decision-making. Sometimes. If the consumer's decision rule is to buy the cheapest brand of instant coffee available. emotional factors may influence limited decision-making. For example. Hoyer. she/he looks at different brands of coffee for prices and buys the least priced brand. . According to Wayne D.Limited Decision-Making Limited decision-making is usually more straightforward and simple. As pointed out earlier. Cont…. It involves internal (long-term memory) and limited external search. Buyers are not as motivated to search for information. the consumer notices a point-of-purchase display of Nescafe and picks up one pack based on her/his memory that its aroma and taste is good.

Such complex decisions are relatively few and may relate to buying a computer. stereo system. laser printer. . washing machine. or a new house etc.Extended Decision-Making Consumer purchases involving extended decision-making correspond most closely to the traditional decision-making perspective. Post purchase evaluation is more likely to be complex and dissonance causing. Such decisions involve extensive internal (long-term memory) and external (outside sources) information search followed by a rigorous evaluation of several alternatives because consumers do not possess any meaningful information about the product or service and need much of it. The evaluation often involves careful consideration of attributes of one brand at a time and taking stock of how the attributes of each brand measure up to a set of desired characteristics. All this happens in response to a high level of consumer's involvement in making a purchase decision.

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