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WEIGHT & BALANCE

AERODYNAMICS

ARTURO E RIVERA R.

LIC IET 164

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ARTURO E RIVERA R.

LIC IET 164

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WEIGHTS

STANDARD WEIGHT EMPTY:
• The weight of the airframe and engine with all standard equipment installed. It also includes the unusable fuel and oil.
Empty weight 787-3 : 223,000 lb (101,200 kg) Empty weight 787-8 : 242,000 lb (110,000 kg) Empty weight 787-5 : 230,000 lb (105,000 kg)
ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 3

OPTIONAL OR EXTRA EQUIPMENT

• Any and all additional instruments, radio equipment, etc., installed but not included as standard equipment, the weight of which is added to the standard weight empty to get the basic empty weight. It also includes fixed ballast, full engine coolant, hydraulic and de-icing fluid.
ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 4

BASIC WEIGHT EMPTY
• The weight of the airplane with all optional equipment included. In most modern airplanes, the manufacturer includes full oil in the basic empty weight.

ARTURO E RIVERA R.

LIC IET 164

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all the load which is removable. etc. crew. baggage. in other words. freight. passengers. the pilot.USEFUL LOAD (OR DISPOSABLE LOAD) • The difference between gross take-off weight and basic weight empty. It includes the usable fuel. It is. LIC IET 164 6 . ARTURO E RIVERA R. which is not permanently part of the airplane.

freight. x 1000 ARTURO E RIVERA R.. baggage.6 tonnes 36. crew. LIC IET 164 7 . A 320 Typical volumetric payload 16. after the weight of pilot.PAYLOAD • The load available as passengers. usable fuel have been deducted from the useful load.59 lbs. etc.

It excludes payload and usable fuel. A 320 Typical operating weight empty 42.4 tonnes 93. x 1000 ARTURO E RIVERA R.OPERATIONAL WEIGHT EMPTY • The basic empty weight of the airplane plus the weight of the pilot.5 lbs. LIC IET 164 8 .

USABLE FUEL: • Fuel available for flight planning. LIC IET 164 9 . ARTURO E RIVERA R.

LIC IET 164 10 .UNUSABLE FUEL: • Fuel remaining in the tanks after a runout test has been completed in accordance with government regulations. ARTURO E RIVERA R.

It includes the basic weight empty plus the useful load. ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 11 .OPERATIONAL GROSS WEIGHT: • The weight of the airplane loaded for takeoff.

LIC IET 164 12 . ARTURO E RIVERA R.MAXIMUM GROSS WEIGHT: • The maximum permissible weight of the airplane.

5 (77) tonnes 162 (169. x 1000 ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 13 .8) lbs. A 320 Maximum takeoff weight 73.MAXIMUM TAKE-OFF WEIGHT: • The maximum weight approved for the start of the take-off run.

MAXIMUM RAMP WEIGHT: • The maximum weight approved for ground manoeuvring.4) tonnes 162. LIC IET 164 14 . taxi and run up.6) lbs. x 1000 ARTURO E RIVERA R. A 320 Maximum ramp weight 73.9 (170. It includes the weight of fuel used for start.9 (77.

ARTURO E RIVERA R.ZERO FUEL WEIGHT: • The weight of the airplane exclusive of usable fuel. LIC IET 164 15 .

x 1000 16 .59 lbs.A 320 Maximum takeoff weight Maximum landing weight Maximum zero fuel weight Maximum fuel capacity METRIC 73. Typical operating weight empty Typical volumetric payload 93.4 tonnes 6.5 (77) tonnes IMPERIAL 162 (169.8) lbs.5) tonnes 134.2 (145.5) lbs.860 (29. LIC IET 164 36.5 (137.5 lbs. x 1000 23. x 1000 16.885) US gal.300 (7. x 1000 64. x 1000 61 (62.5 (66) tonnes 142.8) lbs.6 tonnes ARTURO E RIVERA R.840) Litres 42.

Allowance must be made for heavy winter clothing when such is worn. On larger airplanes with quite a number of passenger seats and for which actual passenger weights would not be available. Winter clothing may add as much as 14 lbs to a person's basic weight. the following average passenger weights may be used. ARTURO E RIVERA R. The specified weights for males and females include an allowance for 8 lbs of carry-on baggage.PASSENGER WEIGHTS: • Actual passenger weights must be used in computing the weight of an airplane with limited seating capacity. summer clothing would add about 8 lbs. LIC IET 164 17 .

Males (12yrs&up) 182 lbs 188 lbs Summer Females (12yrs&up) Children (2-11 yrs) Infants (0-up to 2 yrs) 135 Winter lbs 141 lbs 75 lbs 75 lbs 30 lbs 30 lbs ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 18 .

To convert litres to Imperial gallons. multiply by . LIC IET 164 19 . gallons. ARTURO E RIVERA R. or Imperial gallons as required for your particular airplane.S. Canadian manufactured airplanes of older vintage may have manuals that give fuel and oil quantities in Imperial gallons.S.219975.S. multiply by.264178. Some recently printed manuals may give fuel and oil quantities in litres. It is therefore necessary to convert from litres to U. To convert litres to U. gallons.FUEL AND 0IL: • The Airplane Flight Manuals for airplanes of U. At most airports in Canada. fuel is now dispensed in litres.S. manufacture give fuel and oil quantities in U.

8. ARTURO E RIVERA R. 1. 7.95 lb.01 lb.20 lb.58 lb. GALLON 7.39 lb. 8. GALLON 6.S.6 lb. IMP.5 lb.76 lb. AVIATION GAS JP-4 KEROSENE OIL 1. 6. 7. 8. 1.LITRE U.5 lb. LIC IET 164 20 .85 lb. 1.0 lb.0 lb.

ARTURO E RIVERA R.MAXIMUM LANDING WEIGHT: • The maximum weight approved for landing touchdown. LIC IET 164 21 .

LIC IET 164 22 .MAXIMUM LANDING WEIGHT: • Most multi-engine airplanes which operate over long stage lengths consume considerable weights of fuel. ARTURO E RIVERA R. fuel or payload may have to be jettisoned reduce the gross weight maximum or maximum landing weight. If the flight has been of short duration. their weight is appreciably less on landing than at takeoff. thus saving structural weight. Designers take advantage of this condition to stress the airplane for the lighter landing loads. As a result.

zero fuel limits the load which may be carried in the fuselage. The maximum weight . the bending moments imposed on the wings by the lift. ARTURO E RIVERA R. Any increase in weight in the form of load carried fuselage must be counterbalanced by adding weight in the form of fuel in the wings.ZERO FUEL: • Some transport planes carry fuel in their wings.MAXIMUM WEIGHT . the weight of which relieves. LIC IET 164 23 .

ZERO FUEL: ARTURO E RIVERA R.MAXIMUM WEIGHT . LIC IET 164 24 .

LIC IET 164 25 .DATUM (DATUM O REFERENCE DATUM). ARTURO E RIVERA R. La localización de esta referencia la establece el fabricante. • Es el plano vertical imaginario a partir del cual se miden todas las distancias a efectos de balance y determinación del centro de gravedad.

ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 26 .

LIC IET 164 27 . ARTURO E RIVERA R.THE BALANCE DATUM LINE • is a suitable line selected arbitrarily by the manufacturer from which horizontal distances are measured for balance purposes. the firewall or any other convenient point . It may be the nose of the airplane.

LIC IET 164 28 .ARTURO E RIVERA R.

. equipaje. • Es la distancia horizontal existente desde el datum hasta un elemento (tripulante.). etc.BRAZO (ARM). pasaje. LIC IET 164 29 . ARTURO E RIVERA R.

LIC IET 164 30 .ARTURO E RIVERA R.

ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 31 .

The distance between the forward and aft C. limits is called the centre of gravity range.G.) • Is the point through which the weights of all the various parts of an airplane pass.G. can move within certain limits without upsetting the balance of the airplane. the imaginary point from which the airplane could be suspended and remain balanced.G. The C.THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY (C. It is. LIC IET 164 32 . in effect. ARTURO E RIVERA R.

The distance between the forward and aft C. It is. LIC IET 164 33 . limits is called the centre of gravity range. in effect.THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY (C.G. the imaginary point from which the airplane could be suspended and remain balanced. The C.) • Is the point through which the weights of all the various parts of an airplane pass.G. can move within certain limits without upsetting the balance of the airplane.G. ARTURO E RIVERA R.

LIC IET 164 34 . • Distancia horizontal desde el datum hasta el centro de gravedad.G.BRAZO DEL C. ARTURO E RIVERA R.G. (C.ARM).

MOMENTO (MOMENT). • La fuerza de palanca que ejerce una fuerza o peso. es el producto del peso de un elemento por su brazo. En este caso. ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 35 .

• Establecen los límites a la posición del C. LIMITS).LIMITES DEL C.G.G. LIC IET 164 36 . dentro de los cuales un avión con un peso determinado puede volar con seguridad. Se suelen expresar en pulgadas contando a partir del datum. (C. ARTURO E RIVERA R.G.

is the arm of that item.G. The distance from the balance datum line to any item. fuel tank. cargo. ARTURO E RIVERA R.THE MOMENT ARM • is the horizontal distance in inches from the balance datum line to the C. LIC IET 164 37 . such as a passenger. etc.

LIC IET 164 38 . • It is.THE BALANCE MOMENT OF THE AIRPLANE • is determined by multiplying the weight of the airplane by the moment arm of the airplane. It is expressed in inch pounds. ARTURO E RIVERA R. • The balance moment of any item is the weight of that item multiplied by its distance from the balance datum line. obvious that a heavy object loaded in a rearward position will have a much greater balance moment than the same object loaded in a position nearer to the balance datum line. therefore.

ARTURO E RIVERA R.000. 1000. or 10. LIC IET 164 39 . It is used to simplify computations of weight and balance especially on large airplanes where heavy items and long arms result in large unmanageable numbers.THE MOMENT INDEX • is the balance moment of any item or of the total airplane divided by a constant such as 100.

The total balance moment is the algebraic sum of the balance moments of the airplane and each item composing the disposable load. ARTURO E RIVERA R.• If loads are forward of the balance datum line their moment arms are usually considered negative (-). LIC IET 164 40 . Loads behind the balance datum line are considered positive (+)*.

LIC IET 164 41 .G.• In many cases the positive (+) sign is omitted. +39. is found by dividing the total balance moment (in inch-pounds) by the total weight (in lb.e. but the negative (-) sign is always shown.8"). ARTURO E RIVERA R. both are included in our example • The C.5" to +45. it may be expressed as a percentage of the mean aerodynamic chord (25% to 35%). In some airplanes. The MAC is the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing. • The centre of gravity range is usually expressed in inches from the balance datum line (i. To simplify matters.) and is expressed in inches forward (-) or aft (+) of the balance datum line.

LIC IET 164 42 .ARTURO E RIVERA R.

• The C.TO CALCULATE THE POSITION OF THE C.G. LIC IET 164 43 . will. IN PERCENT OF MAC.G. • Let us assume that the weight and balance calculations have found the C. If the MAC is 40 inches in length.G. ARTURO E RIVERA R. position is within the recommended range (for example. therefore. lie 11 inches aft of the leading edge of the MAC.G. 25% to 35%). to be 66 inches aft of the balance datum line and the leading edge of the MAC to be 55 inches aft of the same reference . the airplane is properly loaded. will be at a position (11 ~ 40) 27% of the MAC. • If the calculated C.G. the position of the C.

is the firewall. LIC IET 164 44 .5" to 44.8".G. The balance datum line for the airplane. and an authorized gross weight of 2600 lb.FINDING BALANCE BY COMPUTATION METHOD • For this example. selected by the manufacturer. limits are 35. an airplane with a basic weight of 1575 lb. ARTURO E RIVERA R. has been selected. The recommended C.

pilot.G. their respective weights and arms.e. • (Note: In this example. Divide the total balance moment by the total weight to find the moment arm (i. LIC IET 164 45 . Total the weights. fuel. etc.. passengers. oil. the oil is listed as a separate item and the balance datum line is the firewall in order to give an example of a negative moment arm.FINDING BALANCE BY COMPUTATION METHOD • List in table form the airplane (basic weight). the position of the C. Calculate the balance moment of each.). Total the balance moments. cargo.) ARTURO E RIVERA R. baggage.

The airplane is.5" to 44. ARTURO E RIVERA R.8"). LIC IET 164 46 . The total weight (2593 lb.• The moment arm for this loading of the airplane is 42.52" (110.) of the loaded airplane is less than the authorized gross weight (2600 lb.270-.G.2593). The moment arm falls within the C. properly loaded. therefore.). range (35.

+98 +45 -15 42.291 +11.53 LIC IET 164 +8.ITEM Basic Airplane Pilot Passenger (front seat) Passenger (rear seat) Child (rear seat) WEIGHT LBS 1575 165 143 165 77 ITEM MOMENT ARM INCHES +36 +37 +37 +72 +72 BALANCE MOMENT INCH-LBS +56.820 +16.700 +6.105 +5.270 47 .880 +5.544 Baggage Fuel Oil TOTAL 90 360 18 2593 ARTURO E RIVERA R.200 -270 110.

ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 48 .

ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 49 .

LIC IET 164 50 .ARTURO E RIVERA R.

CALCULO DEL CG PESO BRAZO MOMENTO PESO BASICO VACIO COMBUSTIBLE EQUIPAJE TOTAL 1169 61 100 1670 732.3 85570 29070 4599 11500 130739 PILOTOS Y PASAJEROS 340 ARTURO E RIVERA R. 85.0 78.4 115. LIC IET 164 51 .5 75.

resulta el brazo (arm) del centro de gravedad 6. LIC IET 164 52 . 7. Verificar que el peso total (columna 1) y la posición del c. ARTURO E RIVERA R. Anotar en la primera columna los pesos de cada uno de los elementos 2.1) por el brazo (col.2). multiplicando el peso (col.PROCEDIMIENTO TABULAR 1. en la columna 2.g. se obtiene la posición del c. 4. 8. desde el datum. En la segunda columna la distancia de los elementos (arm) al datum. 3. Con este peso y esta distribución. (columna 2) están dentro de los límites aprobados.g. 5. En la tercera el momento de cada fila. Anotar enla fila de totales. Dividiendo el momento total de la columna tercera por el peso total de la columna primera. Sumar la primera columna (peso total) y la tercera (momento total).

ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 53 .

ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 54 .

LIC IET 164 55 . • En el gráfico de carga determinar el momento de todos y cada uno de los elementos transportados en el aeroplano (la intersección del peso en el eje Y con la línea transversal correspondiente al elemento se proyecta sobre el eje X • Sumar todos los momentos obtenidos al momento del peso en vacío especificado por el fabricante. actual dentro de límites.g. Esto nos da el peso total que debemos comprobar si está en límites. • Dividir el momento total por el peso total • El resultado es la situación del c. ARTURO E RIVERA R. • Localizar en el gráfico de la derecha el punto de intersección del peso total (eje Y) con el resultado obtenido en el eje X. • Si está dentro del contorno marcado en rojo. desde el datum. el avión tiene el c.g.PROCEDIMIENTO CON GRÁFICAS • Sumar los pesos de todos los elementos.

LIC IET 164 56 .FLOAT BUOYANCY: ARTURO E RIVERA R.

FLOAT BUOYANCY: • The maximum permissible gross weight of a seaplane is governed by the buoyancy of the floats. ARTURO E RIVERA R. This is equal to the weight the float will support without sinking beyond a predetermined level (draught line). The buoyancy of a seaplane float is equal to the weight of water displaced by the immersed part of the float. LIC IET 164 57 .

FLOAT BUOYANCY: ARTURO E RIVERA R. LIC IET 164 58 .

ARTURO E RIVERA R. have a buoyancy equal to 180% of the weight of the airplane.8 (7170 x 2)/1. • Regulations require an 80% reserve float buoyancy. A seaplane fitted with a pair of 4580 floats has a buoyancy of 9160 lbs. A 4580 float has a buoyancy of 4580 lb. therefore.8 = 7966 lb. • To find the maximum gross weight of a seaplane fitted with.FLOAT BUOYANCY: • The buoyancy of a seaplane float is designated by its model number. say 7170 model floats. multiply the float buoyancy by 2 and divide by 1. LIC IET 164 59 . The floats must.

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