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By, Preeti Jog





Flexibility; timeliness; good local market coverage; broad acceptance; high believability
Combines sight, sound, and motion; appealing to the senses; High attention; high reach Audience selectivity; flexibility; no ad competition within the same medium; personalization

Short life; poor reproduction quality; small pass-along audience

High absolute cost; high clutter; fleeting exposure; less audience Selectivity Relatively high cost;junk mail image


Direct Mail


Advantage Mass use; high geographic and demographic selectivity; low cost

Limitations Audio presentation only; lower attention than television; Non standardized rate structures; fleeting exposure Long ad purchase lead time; some waste circulation; no guarantee of position Limited audience selectivity; creative limitations


Magazines/ Newspapers

High geographic and demographic selectivity; credibility and prestige; high-quality reproduction; long life; good pass-along readership Flexibility; high repeat exposure; low cost; low competition



believability; wide reach; low cost

Limitations High competition; long ad purchase lead time; creative limitations

Costs could run away

Yellow Pages Excellent local coverage; high

News Letter Brochures' Telephone/ Mobile

Very high selectivity; full control; interactive opportunities; relative low costs Flexibility; full control; can dramatize messages Many users; opportunity to give a personal touch

Overproduction could lead to runaway costs Relative high cost unless volunteers are used


High selectivity; interactive possibilities; relatively low cost

Relatively new media with a low number of users in some countries

For an advertisement to be effective it must be noticed, read, comprehended, believed and acted upon.

Communication and coordination device with customer and within the agency. Provide criteria for decision making. To Evaluate results. Should be operational and should provide standards to compare the results The advertising objective should emerge from a thorough analysis of the current marketingsituation.

Direct objectives are focused on achieving some kind of action-oriented results. For example, direct objectives might focus on increased sales, development of new distribution channels or increased profitability. Direct objectives are sometimes also called marketing objectives. This is because many elements of the marketing mix (e.g. price, product, and place) can be measured directly. Many aspects of the promotion mix need to be measured indirectly.

A convenient and enticing objective is immediate sale and market share. Immediate evaluation is available. Objective is not operational in many cases:

Advertising is only one factor influencing the sale. The contributory role occurs primarily in long run.

Advertising Price Distribution


Packaging Product features Competition

Consumer taste

Future Sales New Customer
Change attitude/ Improve image

Immediate Sales

Indirect objectives focus on pre-action steps on the hierarchy of effects. For example, indirect objectives may focus on changing attitudes, increasing awareness. Indirect objectives are also called communication objectives. Communication alone is rarely enough to stimulate action. All the communication in the world will not lead people to purchase a product that is unavailable through distribution channels.

Traditionally, advertisers have focused primarily on indirect objectives. This is because advertising agencies typically have little control over other elements of the marketing mix. The role of advertising has been seen primarily as moving consumers up the hierarchy of effects so that they become more likely to take specific direct actions in retail environments.

Informative advertising figures heavily in the pioneering stage of a product category, where the objective is to build primary demand. DVD makers initially had to inform consumers of the benefits of this technology.

Persuasive advertising becomes important in the competitive stage The objective is to build selective demand for a particular brand. Some persuasive advertising is comparative advertising, which explicitly compares two or more brands.

Reminder advertising is important with mature products. Coca-Cola ads are primarily intended to remind people to purchase Coca-Cola. A related form of advertising is reinforcement advertising, which seeks to assure current purchasers that they have made the right choice. Automobile ads often depict satisfied customers enjoying special features of their new car.

Segment 1: Those not Buying Product Class

Segment 3: Existing Customers.

Segment 2: Those buying other brands exclusively.

AIDA model was presented by Elmo Lewis to explain how personal selling works. It shows a set of stair-step stages which describe the process leading a potential customer to purchase.

The stages, Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action, form a linear hierarchy.

It demonstrates that consumers must be aware of a product's existence, Be interested enough to pay attention to the product's features/benefits, and Have a desire to benefit from the product's offerings. Action, would come as a natural result of movement through the first three stages.

Reliance India Mobile campaign Awareness- the elaborate advertisement where Mukesh Ambani spoke about the new project being introduced on his fathers 70th birthday. Interest- was generated as the company spokesperson featured in the ad, as a representative of the company image and introducing a new technology CDMA. Desire- was created with various offers like free SMS, 40paise STD calls, easy payment schemes, and discount coupons worth Rs. 1 lakh. Action- Dhirubhai Ambani Pioneer offers induced people to go for the product.

To marketing movies: Awareness created with attention by airing the promos on television. Attention is created with the help of key features like starcaste, music, locations, etc.

Interest is then created with the release of the music and by introducing the theme and sales of audiocassettes and CDs indicate the same.
Desire is created with hoardings of the movie and also with the help of several contests and free prizes and attractions like stars visiting the music shops. Action in the form of buying tickets as a result of the ratings given to the movies in the dailies.

Define Advertising Goals to Measure Advertising Results-Russel H. Colley (1961) Advertising Goal is Specific communication task to be accomplished among a defined audience in a given period of time.

52 Advt. Goals w.r.t. single ad. Copy or campaign or entire advt. philosophy of company. Classified under 9 categories.


3. 4. 5. 6. 7.


Closing an immediate sale. Move the prospect step by step closer to sale. Build a brand image Contribute to increased sale. Aim at some specific step leading to sale. Importance of supplement benefit of end use. To inform the consumer to consummate sales and build customer satisfaction To help the sales force and to help the trade channels. To project a corporate image.

Objectives are rated on six point Likert Scale for importance.

Relevant task are prioritized.



4. 5.


Product- Market Variations. Upgrading a Product. New applications usage and benefit of product. Special Offers. Change in Brand Name. Competition. Distribution and service.

8. 9. 10.

11. 12.



Seasonal Products. Raising Capital. Technology and Other Inputs. Recruitments. Memberships and Program. Institutional Advertising. Contests.

Make an Analyses on priorities of following Advertisement on the basis of DADMAR approach and comment on all the 9 categories of goals.