Metal Casting Processes

AE 587: Automotive Manufacturing Processes By Dr. E. Orady

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Lecture Topics
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Introduction Sand casting Design of mold elements Solidification of casting Fluidity Casting processes; expendable and permanent casting processes Melting practice and Furnaces Factors affecting casting cost Casting quality Design Considerations for Casting
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Casting Processes
• DEFINITION:
– The casting process is defined as the process of melting (heating to a proper temperature above the freezing point) of a material (mostly metals) and treating it to have a proper composition, then pouring the molten material into a cavity or mold which holds it in the proper shape during solidification. – The product of this process a casting.
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Some casting processes are net shape.Selection of casting processes over other manufacturing processes Casting Processes are selected for the following reasons: » » » » » » to produce complex shapes with internal cavities or hollow sections. to produce very large parts weighing up to 30 tons. others are near net shape economical to use Some casting methods are suited to mass production 4 AE 587 8/12/2009 . to utilize work piece materials that are difficult to process by some other means.

Disadvantages of Casting q Different disadvantages for different casting processes: » Limitations on mechanical properties » Poor dimensional accuracy and surface finish for some processes. e.. sand casting » Safety hazards to workers due to hot molten metals » Environmental problems 5 AE 587 8/12/2009 .g.

etc.TYPICAL EXAMPLES OF CASTING PRODUCTS • Frames and housings of machines • Structural parts • Machine components • Engine blocks • Crank shafts • Pistons • Pipes • Valves • Rail road equipment. Some Cast Components in a Typical Automobile Source Kalpakjian 8/12/2009 6 AE 587 .

Categories of Casting Processes
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Expendable Mold Casting processes » Mold is used one time » Molds made of sand or Plaster or similar materials » typical: – Sand mold – Shell mold – Expended Polystyrene – Plaster – Investment – etc.
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Permanent Mold casting processes » Mold is used over and over to produce many castings » Mold made of metal » Typical: – Slush – Low pressure – Die casting – Centrifugal

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Automotive Casting Processes
Following are the commonly used casting processes in automotive applications: q Sand Casting q Die casting q Lost Wax casting q Lost Foam casting q Cosworth Casting q Squeeze casting

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BASIC OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN CASTING
1. MOLDING

a) single-use molds: for small production such as sand casting, and b) permanent molds: for large production such as die casting. 2. MELTING PROCESSES 3. POURING TECHNIQUES 4. SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS 5. SHAKEOUT AND REMOVAL OF THE PRODUCT 6. CLEANING, FINISHING AND INSPECTION
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5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 10 AE 587 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.Mold Features Mold Terminology: q q q Cavity Well Gating System » Sprue or Downsprue » » q q q Runner Gates Riser Parting Line Flask/Cope/Drag FIGURE 5.10 Schematic illustration of a typical sand mold showing various features.

Sand Casting q q q q Most widely used casting process. including metals with high melting temperatures. such as steel. nickel. and titanium Castings range in size from small to very large Production quantities from one to millions 8/12/2009 11 AE 587 . accounting for a significant majority of total tonnage cast Nearly all alloys can be sand casted.

8/12/2009 12 Source: M. 2nd Ed. AE 587 .1 A large sand casting weighing over 680 kg (1500 lb) for an air compressor frame (photo courtesy of Elkhart Foundry).Example of a Sand Cast Figure 11. Groover.

Sand Casting Molds q q Sand casting mold » Sand +bonding material+ Water » Sand +bonding material Types » Green sand mold » Dry sand mold » Core sand molds » Loam molds » Shell molds » Cement bond molds Pattern A Typical Sand Mold Source: DeGarmo/Black/Kohser + Core = Product 8/12/2009 13 AE 587 .

Characteristics of a Sand Mold q q q q q q Strong enough to hold the metal Resist erosive action of rapidly flowing metal during pouring Generates a minimum amount of gas when filled with molten metal Allows gases generated to pass through Refractory enough to withstand high temperature and strip away cleanly from the casting after cooling Core must collapse enough to permit the casting to contract after solidification 14 AE 587 8/12/2009 .

kaolinite.Properties of Molding Sand q Refractoriness » The ability of sand to withstand high temperature » It is provided by the basic nature of sand » Common sand: Silica (SiO2). cellulose or other organic materials that burn out when they contact hot metal. Zircon. clay and moisture contents Collapsibility » The ability to permit the metal to shrink after it solidifies and to free the casting from surrounding mold » Obtained by adding cereals. or illite Permeability » The ability to permit gases to escape through it » Function of size and shape of sand particles. 15 AE 587 q q q 8/12/2009 . or Olivine Cohesiveness » The ability to retain a given shape when packed into a mold » Adding bonding materials such as: Bentonite.

Types of Molding Sand q Natural sand » Sand + natural bond clay » Used as received Loam sand » Sand + 50% clay (natural) » Used for large castings q q Synthetic sand » Washed sand + Binder (Bentonite) + Water » Advantages over natural sand – Uniform grain size – Higher refractoriness – Moldability with less moisture – Require less binder – Easier to control properties – Less storage space 8/12/2009 16 AE 587 .

needed when the final product has surfaces to be machined after the casting process. metal being cast. » machining allowance. » Other allowances such as distortion allowance 8/12/2009 17 AE 587 . » draft allowance. a slope on the walls of the pattern to allow easy withdrew of the pattern from the mold. and molding technique. q The pattern dimensions are the same as the final product plus a set of allowances which include : » shrinkage allowance. for the contraction of the metal after it solidifies and cools. modified to meet the requirements of the casting process.PATTERNS q The pattern is a duplicate of the part to be cast.

used with organically bonded sand to avoid sand stick to pattern skin » Wax.PATTERNS q Pattern materials » Wood. for investment casting » Polystyrene. for small quantity » Metal. used with full mold-process q Selection of pattern material is function of: » » » » number of castings size and shape of the casting desired dimensional precision molding process 8/12/2009 18 AE 587 . for larger quantity » Hard Plastics.

3 Types of patterns used in sand casting: (a) solid pattern (b) split pattern (c) match‑ plate pattern (d) cope and drag pattern 8/12/2009 19 AE 587 .Types of Patterns Figure 11.

The core(in sand casting) is made from a special sand mix which is collapsible under the shrinkage stress of the casting to avoid causing cracks on the casing. called a core print.CORE q A core is made when the final product has an internal cavity or hollow. to hold the core in the mold. The core usually has the shape of the cavity plus allowances and a support. Core made by gluing the two halves Core Box Two Core Halves 8/12/2009 20 Source:DeGarmo/Black/Kohser AE 587 .

(b) possible chaplet design.4 (a) Core held in place in the mold cavity by chaplets.Core in Mold Figure 11. Source: M. Groover. 2nd Ed. 8/12/2009 21 AE 587 . L. (c) casting with internal cavity.

Core Materials q q q q q Green sand Dry sand [ sand plus binder packed in wood or metal core box] Packed sand [ made by mixing sand with a vegetable oil or synthetic oil as binder.] CO2 sand [sand + sodium silicate (water glass)] Shell sand [sand plus liquid thermosetting and catalyst is blown into a core box heated to around 450oF. and water with cereal or clay to develop green strength. The mix is cured using hot force air at 400 to 500oF. This process is called core-oil process.] Dry-sand cores for V-8 engine block Engine Block Casting 8/12/2009 22 Source: DeGarmo/ Black/ Kohser AE 587 .

thereby prevent cracking and allow easy shakeout.CORE q Characteristics » sufficient hardness and strength (after baking or hardening) to withstand handling and forces of the molten metal » sufficient strength before hardening to permit handling » adequate permeability » collapsibility to permit shrinkage of the casting as it cools. » adequate refractoriness » smooth surface » minimum generation of gases when heated during pour 8/12/2009 23 AE 587 .

Mold Preparation q q q q q Manual Use of jolting machines Squeezing machines Combined jolting and squeezing Automatic mold-making machines » Match-plate machines » Vertically parted flaskless molding machine 8/12/2009 24 AE 587 .

Manual Preparation of Sand Mold 8/12/2009 Source: Kalpakjian 25 AE 587 .

GATES Pouring System Source: Ghosh/Mallik 8/12/2009 26 AE 587 . POURING BASIN 2. RUNNERS 5. It consists of the ht following: 1.POURING (GATING) SYSTEM q Pouring system should be designed to ensure smooth flow "laminar flow" and fill the mold at the shortest possible time before metal solidify. A typical pouring system is shown in the Figure. SPRUE :It should be designed to ensure smooth flow and avoid aspiration 3. WELL 4.

2 (cm2) and v= flow velocity in.3/sec (cm3/s). A = cross sectional area. g.POURING (GATING) SYSTEM q q POURING TIME: The pouring time is defined as the time needed to fill or inject the molten metal into the mold./sec2 (981 cm/s2). g=386 in. in. namely. and h3 = the height of the sprue./sec (cm/s). and runners) is controlled by the continuity equation: Q = A1 v1 = A2 v2 . (cm) 27 AE 587 . the equation of continuity and Bernoulli's Equation The flow velocity at any point in the pouring system (sprue . The flow velocity at the bottom of the sprue (see figure) is determined by applying Bernoulli's Equation. The pouring time can be estimated by applying the fluid flow laws. etc. ht) 8/12/2009 where: g = gravitational acceleration. The velocity is v3 = sqrt( 2.in.. gates. q where Q = volumetric flow rate. in..

POURING (GATING) SYSTEM Pouring time q VERTICAL (TOP) POURING SYSTEM. See Figure tf = V/ A3 v3 where V= volume of the casting including riser. in.3 (cm3) A3 = gating area in2 (cm2). ( You have to do some integration to calculate the time in bottom gating) 8/12/2009 28 . BOTTOM GATING See Figure q 2 Am tf = A3 2 g where [ ht − (ht − hm ] AE 587 Am = the mold projection area. and tf= pouring time in sec.

000 represent severe turbulent flow.Flow Characteristics q Two type of flow: » Laminar flow » Turbulent q Governing factor is Reynolds number. and ρ and η are the density and viscosity. q Proper flow and design of gating system is needed to prevent mold erosion and introduction of dross and slag inside the mold cavity 8/12/2009 29 AE 587 . respectively of the fluid. D is the diameter of the channel.000 is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow Re>20. Re < 2000 laminar flow 2000<Re < 20. Re vDρ Re = η Where: v is the velocity of the liquid.

A2/A3 = sqrt(h3/h2) h2 h3 q Runner and Gates Design » The ratio between: A3:Ar:Ag = 1: 4 :4 i. the runner area (Ar) Ar = 4xA3 And the total gating area(Ag) Ag = Ar = 4xA3 8/12/2009 30 AE 587 .POURING (GATING) SYSTEM q Sprue Design » Tapered sprue is used to maintain constant liquid flow through it and avoid aspiration.e. the following relation should be satisfied Q = A2 v2 = A3 v3 Hence. » Therefore.

The sprue leads into a horizontal runner that feeds the mold cavity. Determine (a) the velocity of the molten metal flowing through the base of the downsprue. The cross-sectional area at the bottom of the sprue is 400 mm2.Example 1 q A mold has a top gating system with a downspure of length = 175 mm. and (c) the time required to fill up the cavity. (b) the volume rate of flow.001 m3. whose volume = 0. 8/12/2009 31 AE 587 .

0 in.3/sec. Determine what the area should be at the bottom of the sprue in order to avoid aspiration of the liquid metal. 8/12/2009 32 AE 587 .2. and the cross-sectional area at the top where the pouring cup leads into the downsprue is 1.00 in.Example 2 q The volume rate of flow of molten metal into the downsprue from the pouring cup is 50 in. The length of the sprue is 8.

8/12/2009 33 AE 587 .Solidification of Metals q q Solidification is the transformation of molten metal back into solid state Solidification of pure metals is different from that of alloys. Proper solidification is the second step of producing a high quality casting.

Pearson Education ISBN No. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature.Pure Metal Solidification FIGURE 5. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 34 AE 587 . (b) Density as a function of time. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 8/12/2009 Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals.

Pure Metal Solidification q Solidification is the growth of favorably oriented nuclei in the direction of heat extraction » Randomly oriented small grains form near the mold walls » Columnar grains form towards the center of the mold » shrink cavities (pipe) forms due to low supply of fresh liquid 8/12/2009 35 AE 587 .

Solidification of Eutectic Alloys q q q Solidification occurs at a constant temperature (like pure metal). Eutectic cells form inside the grains The properties of the cast part are affected by: » Cooling rate » Nucleation agents » Alloy modifications 8/12/2009 36 AE 587 .

8/12/2009 37 AE 587 . Grains grow in the direction of heat extraction. Initially solidified material has lower alloying element concentration.Solid Solution Solidification q q q q q q q Solidification takes place over a freezing range. At high cooling rate. Dendrites result in microporosity. the formed grains are smaller and the strength is improved. Dendritics arms can break off and re-melt. Solidification proceeds by dendritic form.

Groover 8/12/2009 38 AE 587 .Alloy Solidification Figure Source: M.P.

Alloy Solidification
Pouring Temperature Superheat Start of Solidification End of Solidification Solid Cooling

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

FIGURE 5.6 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. Note the formation of dendrites in the semi-solid (mushy) zone.

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Cast Structures

Columnar grains oriented towards the center of the mold Small, randomly oriented grains

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

FIGURE 5.5 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals, with preferred texture at the cool mold wall. Note in the middle of the figure that only favorable oriented grains grow away from the mold surface; (b) solid-solution alloys; and (c) structure obtained by heterogeneous 8/12/2009nucleation of grains. 40 AE 587

Dendritic Solidification

Ref: Porter, et al., Phase Transformations In Metals & Alloys, Van Nostrand Reinhold, UK, 1981

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Source: After H. It takes about two hours for this casting to solidify completely. (b) Solidification of carbon steels in sand and chill (metal) molds.S. but the casting is still mushy throughout. 5th ed.7 (a) Solidification pattern for gray cast iron in a 180-mm (7-in) square casting.Solidification Patterns for Gray Cast Iron Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note the difference in solidification pattern as the carbon contents increase. dendrites reach each other. Pearson Education ISBN No. Bishop and W. 8/12/2009 42 AE 587 . Pellini. Note that after 11 min of cooling. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 5. F. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

two phase. Apelian. Apelian. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. 8/12/2009 43 AE 587 . Source: After D. FIGURE 5.Cast Structures FIGURE 5.8 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. and (b) plane front. single phase.9 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. (b) equiaxed dendritic. Source: After D.

& ductility) q Faster solidification will not affect the morphology of inclusions 44 AE 587 8/12/2009 . fatigue.Effects of Solidification Rate q Faster solidification results in: » Smaller microstructural features » Smaller & more uniformly dispersed porosity and intermetallics » Reduced grain size » Improved mechanical properties (strength.

0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 45 AE 587 .11 Temperature distribution at the mold wall and liquid-metal interface during solidification of metals in casting. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Temperature Distribution FIGURE 5. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.

5th ed.C. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Solidification Example FIGURE 5. Wulff. Flemings. the remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: After H. J.F. Taylor. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 46 AE 587 . and M.12 Solidified skin on a steel casting. which is based on this principle. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting.

Solidification Stages Source: Groover 8/12/2009 47 AE 587 .Shrinkage q Stages » Liquid contraction during cooling prior to solidification » Solidification shrinkage: Contraction during the phase change from liquid to solid » Thermal contraction of the solidified casting during cooling to room temperature.

8 0 3. % 5.0 AE 587 .Shrinkage and Contraction Data VolumetricContraction Solidification Shrinkage.0 1.5 5. % 7.0 7.2 7.5 6.0 4.6 5.0 7.0 3.5 48 Metal Aluminum Al Alloys Gray cast iron Gray cast iron.0 3. high C Low C cast steel Copper Bronze 8/12/2009 Solid Thermal Contraction.

and heat fusion) • the properties of the mold material( density.HEAT EXTRACTION AND SOLIDIFICATION TIME The solidification time (TST) of a mold can be estimated using Chvorinov's law: TST = Cm(V/A)n where TST = Total solidification time in minutes n = is an exponent has a value between 1.3 (cm3) A= surface area of the casting in. and specific heat) • amount of superheat » Cm can be determined experimentally for each mold and metal combination. Cm= the mold constant which depends on: • metal characteristics ( density.5 to 2.2 (cm2). specific heat. 8/12/2009 49 AE 587 .0 V= casting volume in in. thermal conductivity.

Vr > Shrinkage volume of the casting 8/12/2009 50 AE 587 .25 (V/A)2c q q Calculation of the riser geometry requires that V/A be maximum. and The size of the riser should be greater than the shrinkage volume of the casting.25 TSTc Taking n =2 (V/A)2 r = 1.Riser design q The minimum size of a riser can be determined from Chvorinov's rule. the time of solidification of the riser (TSTr) should be at least 25% longer than that for the casting (TSTc): TSTr = 1.

2. – longer feeding distance – occupies some of the flask space. Top Riser: » Characteristics: – sits on top of the casting – short feed distance required – occupies less space in the flask.TYPES OF RISERS 1. Side Riser: » Characteristics: – located adjacent to the mold cavity in the horizontal direction. Basic types of risers Source: DeGarmo/Black/ Kohser 8/12/2009 51 AE 587 .

distance between risers Placement of risers and chill blocks Source: Ghosh and Mallik 8/12/2009 52 AE 587 .Riser location and feeding Distance q q q q Risers must solidify after casting The riser should be placed so that it is continuously feed the casting and directional solidification is maintained Riser should be placed on the thermal center of the casting The feeding distance should be less than or equal the following recommendations. Max.

Riser Aids
q

q

Purpose » Promoting directional solidification » Reducing number and size of risers Methods » External chills » Internal chills » Reducing the cooling rate of risers – Use open risers – Use insulating sleeves around the rise – Surround the sides and top of riser with exothermic materials that supply added heat to the riser.

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Chills
q q

Heat sinks that promote directional solidification Internal or External

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Figure 10.9

AE 587

Chills

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

FIGURE 5.35 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners), used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metal, as shown in (c).

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8/12/2009 56 AE 587 .. If the metal is cast iron and Cm = 16. and thickness = 1.0 min.25 times its diameter. The length of the cylinder is to be 1.25 in.Example 3 q A cylindrical riser is to be designed for a sand mold. determine the dimensions of the riser so that it will take 30% longer for the riser to solidify./in2 in Chvorinov’s rule. The casting is a square plate. each side = 10 in.

Fluidity measurement: » Length of a spiral shape cast (Figure a) » Plate mold length (Figure b) » Length of a fill under vacuum 8/12/2009 57 Methods of measuring fluidity Source: El-Wakil AE 587 .Fluidity q q Fluidity is defined as the ability of a molten metal to flow and fill the mold.

q Amount of Superheat » Fluidity increases with the increase of superheat. runners. sprue. riser affect fluidity to varying degree q Mold Materials and its characteristics » The higher the thermal conductivity and the rougher the surface the lower the fluidity.Factors Affecting Fluidity q Mold Design » Component dimensions. Increase of superheat lowers viscosity and delays solidification. q q Mold temperature » Fluidity increase with increasing mold temperature Type of solidification » Columnar is helpful » Dendritic slows down flow q Rate of pouring » Fluidity decreases with the decrease of the pouring rate. 58 AE 587 8/12/2009 .

Source: DeGarmo/Black/Kohser 8/12/2009 AE 587 . The mold and shell are then placed in a furnace for 59 several minutes to complete curing.Shell Molding: Casting process in which the mold is a thin shell of sand held together by thermosetting resin binder » teps A heated match plate is placed Invert the box so that the sand on the box containing sand with resin fall on the hot plate and form resin binder a shell Assemble two halves and place support with sand or metal shot in a box. The mold now is ready for pouring. Strip shell molds from the pattern Reposition the box to clear away uncured sand.

» Good collapsibility of the mold help in avoiding tearing and cracking of the casting. » Not suitable for large size products above 25 lb. » The process can be completely mechanized Disadvantages » More expensive metal pattern. Tolerance of 0.5 µm) » Better dimensional accuracy. no further machining. thus it can not be justified for low volume production.Shell Molding q q Advantages » Provides better surface finish than ordinary sand casting (100 µin or 2.005 (0.13 mm) are quite common. Shell Mold Final Product Two halves of a shell mold pattern 8/12/2009 60 AE 587 . less labor. » Economical. etc.003 to 0.08 to 0.

gating system. evaporative‑foam process.Expanded Polystyrene Process q q q q Uses a mold of sand packed around a polystyrene foam pattern which vaporizes when molten metal is poured into mold Other names: lost‑ foam process. and internal cores (if needed) Mold does not have to be opened into cope and drag sections 8/12/2009 61 AE 587 . lost pattern process. risers. and full‑mold process Polystyrene foam pattern includes sprue.

62 (6) Casting is removed and sand reclaimed AE 587 .Expanded Polystyrene Process (Lost Foam Casting) (1) Polystyrene pattern is made and assembled (2) The pattern is dipped in refractory slurry or sprayed by refractory compound (3) The pattern is placed in a metal box and supported by sand 8/12/2009 (4) The sand is compacted by vibration (5) The molten metal is then poured in the polystyrene pattern.

Expanded Polystyrene Process (Lost Foam Casting) 8/12/2009 63 AE 587 .

Expanded Polystyrene Process (Lost Foam Casting) q q Advantages » Patterns need not to be removed from the mold. – cores and risers build in the pattern » Precision and surface finish are sufficiently good. » Most metal can be cast Limitations » Pattern cost can be high for small quantities » Patterns are easily damaged or distorted because of their low strength 64 AE 587 8/12/2009 . – speed up the process of mold making. – no draft or parting lines are needed. then many machining and finishing operations could be eliminated. » High metal utilization » Sand can be recycled » There is no limitations on the shape and size of product.

Expanded Polystyrene Process q Applications: » Mass production of castings for automobile engines » Automated and integrated manufacturing systems are used to 1. Feed them to the downstream casting operation 8/12/2009 65 AE 587 . Mold the polystyrene foam patterns and then 2.

Investment Casting (Lost Wax Process) A pattern made of wax is coated with a refractory material to make mold.capable of producing castings of high accuracy and intricate detail 8/12/2009 66 AE 587 ." which refers to coating of refractory material around wax pattern q It is a precision casting process ."to cover completely. after which wax is melted away prior to pouring molten metal q "Investment" comes from a less familiar definition of "invest" .

8/12/2009 Source: Kalpakjian 67 AE 587 . (4) The full mold (f) is formed by covering it with sufficient material to make it rigid (e).Investment Casting (Lost Wax) Steps: (1) Wax patterns are produced in a mold (a. and b) (2) patterns are attached to a sprue to form a tree (c) (3) The tree is then coated with a thin layer of refractory material (d). (5) the mold is then placed in an oven to melt away the wax (g) (6) The hot pattern is then placed on a container and molten metal is poured. (7) The mold is the broken away to separate casting.

» Close dimensional control.) 68 AE 587 8/12/2009 .Investment Casting (Lost-Wax) q q Advantages » Can be used to produce casting of high accuracy and intricate detail. machining is not required Limitations » Costly patterns and molds » Labor costs can be high » Limited size (less than 10 lb.0.003 in. are possible » Good surface finish » Wax can be recovered and used » A net shape process. tolerances of +/.

Permanent Mold Casting Processes q Method » Molds are made of steel or fine-grain cast iron » Mold halves or sections are hinged so that they can open or close accurately. » Molds are preheated at the beginning of the run to maintain uniform temperature. » Cavity surfaces are to be coated with thin layer of refractory materials » Cores can be used with permanent molds to form interior surfaces 69 AE 587 8/12/2009 .

Permanent Mold Casting Processes Mold preheated and coated Cores are inserted and mold closed Pour molten metal into the mold Open mold and eject product Finished Product Source: Groover 8/12/2009 70 AE 587 .

01 in.) » Solidification can be controlled using proper chill design » Faster cooling rate produces stronger material than with sand casting. » Multiple cavities can often be included in a single mold 71 AE 587 8/12/2009 .Permanent Mold Casting Processes q Advantages » Good surface finish » Accurate dimensions (within 0.

» High initial cost » Shape. less than 60% » Mold life is very limited. the actual mold life varies with: – – – – – Alloy being cast Mold material Pouring temperature Mold temperature Mold configurations 72 AE 587 8/12/2009 . and zinc.Permanent Mold Casting Processes q Disadvantages » Limited to low melting point metals – Common metals include alloys of aluminum. copper. tin. irons and steel can also be cast in graphite molds. lead. size and part complexity are limitations » Low yield rate. magnesium.

magnesium. copper‑base alloys. and certain castings for aircraft and missiles Metals commonly cast: aluminum. pump bodies.Applications of Permanent Mold Casting q q q Due to high mold cost. process is best suited to high volume production and can be automated accordingly Typical parts: automotive pistons. and cast iron 8/12/2009 73 AE 587 .

Dies tend to be expensive.000 Die life is limited by wear.Permanent Mold Casting :Die Casting q q q q q q q q q q Metal is injected in the mold at high pressure (1000 to 50. Die casting process is limited to mass production 74 AE 587 8/12/2009 . multiple product.000 psi) Pressure is maintained during solidification Combination of metal mold and pressure. cores. fine sections and excellent details can be achieved. Dies often cost in excess of $5000 to $10. ejectors. Dies can be designed for simple products. copper and aluminum-based alloys can be produced with excellent properties Dies are made from hardened hot-worked steel. or complex products. Dies usually have water cooling passages. and thermal fatigue. Special zinc-.

Hot-Chamber Die Casting Metal is melted in a container. and a piston injects liquid metal under high pressure into the die q High production rates .500 parts per hour not uncommon q Applications limited to low melting‑point metals that do not chemically attack plunger and other mechanical components q Casting metals: zinc. lead. and magnesium 8/12/2009 75 AE 587 . tin.

Hot Chamber Die Casting Machine Close chamber and let metal flow in chamber Plunger then forces metal into die. and maintains the pressure during part solidification Finished product Components of a hot-chamber die-casting machine Source:DeGarmo/Black/Kohser After part solidification. and the part is then ejected using ejectors 8/12/2009 Source: Groover 76 AE 587 . plunger withdrawn and die opened.

Cold‑ Chamber Die Casting Machine Molten metal is poured into unheated chamber from external melting container. brass. lead) 8/12/2009 77 AE 587 . tin. and a piston injects metal under high pressure into die cavity q High production but not usually as fast as hot‑chamber machines because of pouring step q Casting metals: aluminum. and magnesium alloys q Advantages of hot‑chamber process favor its use on low melting‑point alloys (zinc.

then pour molten metal in the chamber Activate ram to force metal in the die and maintain pressure until part solidify Configuration of cold chamber die-casting machine Once part solidify. withdraw ram and activate ejection system to eject casting. 8/12/2009 Source: Groover 78 AE 587 .Cold-Chamber Die Casting Machines Close die and withdraw ram.

McGraw Hill. 2000.Die Casting Machine Source: Introduction to Manufacturing Processes By John Schey. 8/12/2009 79 AE 587 .

Cold Chamber Advantages q Short cycle time q Better thermal control of the process q Loading a new charge of molten metal is done automatically q The molten metal exposure to the atmosphere is reduced Disadvantages q Alloy limitations q Lower injection pressures and speed than cold chamber q Higher maintenance costs 8/12/2009 80 AE 587 .Hot Chamber vs.

Hot Chamber Advantages q q q Allows for casting of wider range of alloys Higher injection pressure and speed Lower tooling maintenance cost Disadvantages q Slower cycle times than hot chamber process q Less control of metal temperature q The charge cools prior to injection. q Molten metal exposed to atmosphere 8/12/2009 81 AE 587 .Cold Chamber vs.

runners and flash 8/12/2009 82 AE 587 .002 in. » Rapid cooling provides fine grain size and high strength.Die Casting q q Advantages » High production rate » Economical for mass production » Extremely smooth surface (40 to 100 µin. for each additional inch) » Can produce thin sections up to 0. Limitations » High initial cost » Limited to high-fluidity nonferrous metals » Part size is limited (1 oz up to 15 lb.) » Excellent dimensional accuracy (Typically tolerances are 0. for the first inch and 0.) » Porosity may be a problem » Some scrap in sprue.03 in.005 in.

Multi-slide Dies q q Is a variation of hot-chamber die casting Use 4 perpendicular slides in the tool » enables complex castings to be produced. up to 6 slides can be added q q q This process is used primarily for casting small zinc components and is being used for casting magnesium parts PC controllers are used to control the position of the slides Up to 75 cycles per minute can be achieved 83 AE 587 8/12/2009 . » In some cases.

Permanent Mold Casting Low Pressure Die casting 8/12/2009 84 AE 587 .

Aluminum castings from 2 . Mg alloys. and other low melting point alloys Sand cores can be used in the manufacture of parts with complex shapes. 8/12/2009 85 AE 587 .150kg can be cast.Permanent Mold Casting Low Pressure Die casting q q q q q The process is capable of producing high quality castings Commonly cast materials Al alloys. but the most common casting weight is around 10kg High volume production is needed to justify the cost of the dies.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Squeeze-Casting FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No.28 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 86 AE 587 . This process combines the advantages of casting and forging.

Used in making pistons for diesel engines. 8/12/2009 87 AE 587 . Results in highly refined grain structure. » Allowing the metal to cool below liquidus. Is performed by: » Pouring a pre-measured amount of molten metal into the die.Permanent Mold Casting Squeeze Casting (Melt Forging) q q q q A variation of cold chamber pressure die casting. » Closing the die.

htm 8/12/2009 88 AE 587 .Sample of Squeeze Cast Parts Source: http://www.com/Product.entirecoupling.

89 AE 587 8/12/2009 . As a consequence. 0.) complex shaped with uniform properties Can be automated. and green-sand casting Suitable for thin-walled (0.Permanent Mold Casting : Vacuum Casting q q q q The principle is the same as low-pressure die casting. this new technique is specially aimed to components which can subsequently be heat-treated. shell mold casting. This transfer is less turbulent than by other casting techniques so that gas inclusions can be very limited.03 in. This is an alternative to investment casting. The pressure inside the die is decreased by a vacuum pump and the difference of pressure forces the liquid metal to enter the die.75 mm.

5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Blackburn.Vacuum-Casting Process FIGURE 5. (a) before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note that the mold has a bottom gate. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: After R. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 90 AE 587 .19 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. and their Advantages and Limitations. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 91 AE 587 .Casting Processes Comparison TABLE 5.8 Casting Processes.

0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 92 AE 587 . 5th ed.Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

if required Heat treatment 8/12/2009 93 AE 587 .Additional Steps After Solidification q q q q q q Trimming Removing the core Surface cleaning Inspection Repair.

fins. hack‑sawing. appendages can be broken off q Otherwise. runners.Trimming Removal of sprues. and any other excess metal from the cast part q For brittle casting alloys and when cross sections are relatively small. parting‑line flash. abrasive wheel cutting. shearing. band‑sawing. risers. hammering. chaplets. or various torch cutting methods are used 8/12/2009 94 AE 587 .

either manually or mechanically q In rare cases. and they often fall out of casting as the binder deteriorates q In some cases. cores are removed by chemically dissolving bonding agent q Solid cores must be hammered or pressed out 8/12/2009 95 AE 587 . they are removed by shaking casting. they must be removed q Most cores are bonded.Removing the Core If cores have been used.

air‑blasting with coarse sand grit or metal shot. buffing. wire brushing. and inspection is needed to detect their presence 8/12/2009 96 AE 587 . this step can be avoided q Defects are possible in casting. and chemical pickling q Surface cleaning is most important for sand casting » In many permanent mold processes.Surface Cleaning Removal of sand from casting surface and otherwise enhancing appearance of surface q Cleaning methods: tumbling.

Heat Treatment q q Castings are often heat treated to enhance properties Reasons for heat treating a casting: » For subsequent processing operations such as machining » To bring out the desired properties for the application of the part in service 8/12/2009 97 AE 587 .

Note that because of the high cost of equipment. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.39 Economic comparison of making a part by two different casting processes. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. Source: The North American Die Casting Association. die casting is economical mainly for large production runs. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 98 AE 587 .Economics of Casting FIGURE 5.

control.Casting Cost Considerations q Reduced direct assembly costs Reduced inventory Reduced floor space Reduced production flow. and inspection operations q q q 8/12/2009 99 AE 587 .

e. weight.Factors Influencing Casting Costs q q Casting Design » Size. Ag) » Some alloys are more difficult to melt and pour » Higher temperatures may be needed to produce desired fluidity » Protective environments may be needed 8/12/2009 100 AE 587 . and complexity of the casting are most important parameters Alloy Selection » Alloying elements can be expensive (i.

Factors Influencing Casting Costs q Quality » How well casting meets customer’s requirements » How “repeatable” is the process. » Quality is measured by: – Chemical and mechanical properties – “defect-free” casting – Accuracy & consistency of dimensions » Premium quality requirements will lead to cost increase » Producing substandard part quality leads to cost increase 101 AE 587 8/12/2009 .

Factors Influencing Casting Costs q q q q q q Cost of patterns/dies Cost of Tooling Production Quantity Cost of Machining Cost of Heat treatment Other Costs 8/12/2009 102 AE 587 .

Factors Influencing Casting Costs q Example: Cylinder Head » Scrapped after casting: $50 » Scrapped after final machining: $120 » Scrapped after component assembly: $500 » Replacement engine: $4000 8/12/2009 103 AE 587 .

Process Selection Procedure
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Identify process characteristics using product design requirements Identify feasible processes (use constraints). Eliminate unfeasible ones Rank feasible processes using desirable criteria (cost, lead time, No. of units, etc.) Identify any additional characteristics of feasible processes Select process of choice

8/12/2009

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AE 587

Process-Material Relationship

Manufacturing Process Sand casting Die casting Investment casting Low pressure casting Hot chamber die casting Lost Foam casting Cosworth casting

Compatible Material(s) F, NF F, NF F, NF NF NF F, NF NF

F = Ferrous, NF = Non-Ferrous
8/12/2009 105 AE 587

Process-Product Relationship

Manufacturing Process Sand casting Die casting Investment casting Low pressure casting Lost Foam casting

Min Thickness mm ~5 ~1 2-3 3-5 2-3

8/12/2009

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AE 587

8/12/2009 107 AE 587 .Process-Product Relationship Other process-product relationships include q Shape Capability q Surface finish q Dimensional tolerances q Cost q Etc.

3 Typical applications for castings and casting characteristics. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 108 AE 587 . 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Casting Applications TABLE 5.

Metals for Casting q Most commercial castings are made of alloys rather than pure metals » Alloys are generally easier to cast. and properties of product are better q Casting alloys can be classified as: » Ferrous » Nonferrous 8/12/2009 109 AE 587 .

(2) nodular iron. (3) white cast iron. and (5) alloy cast irons Typical pouring temperatures ∼ 1400°C (2500°F).Ferrous Casting Alloys: Cast Iron q q q q Most important of all casting alloys Tonnage of cast iron castings is several times that of all other metals combined Several types: (1) gray cast iron. depending on composition 8/12/2009 110 AE 587 . (4) malleable iron.

Pearson Education ISBN No.4 irons. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 111 AE 587 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Properties and typical applications of cast Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Properties & Applications of Cast Iron TABLE 5.

Cast Irons q q q q Gray cast iron : » 2.7% to 2% Si » Produced by rapid cooling thus has cementite rather than flakes Malleable iron » Heat treated white cast iron to get carbon out of cementite to form graphite 8/12/2009 112 AE 587 .5% to 4% C and 1% to 3% Si » Has graphite flakes Ductile Iron: » Has similar C and Si content as gray cast iron but with graphite spheroids White cast iron » 2% to 3.3% C and 0.

Microstructure for Cast Irons FIGURE 5. and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. with the carbon present as cementite (Fe3C). 5th ed. (a) ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. (ductile iron) with graphite in nodular form. and (c) ferritic malleable iron. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 113 AE 587 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. This cast iron solidified as white cast iron. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.14 Microstructure for cast irons. (b) ferritic nodular iron.

Ferrous Casting Alloys: Steel q q q The mechanical properties of steel make it an attractive engineering material The capability to create complex geometries makes casting an attractive shaping process Difficulties when casting steel: » Pouring temperature of steel is higher than for most other casting metals ∼ 1650°C (3000°F) » At such temperatures. steel readily oxidizes. so molten metal must be isolated from air » Molten steel has relatively poor fluidity 8/12/2009 114 AE 587 .

Nonferrous Casting Alloys: Aluminum q q Generally considered to be very castable Pouring temperatures low due to low melting temperature of aluminum » Tm = 660°C (1220°F) q Properties: » Light weight » Range of strength properties by heat treatment » Easy to machine 8/12/2009 115 AE 587 .

ornamental jewelry 8/12/2009 116 AE 587 .Nonferrous Casting Alloys: Copper Alloys q q Includes bronze. brass. marine propeller blades. and aluminum bronze Properties: » Corrosion resistance » Attractive appearance » Good bearing qualities q q Limitation: high cost of copper Applications: pipe fittings. pump components.

5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 5. Typical properties of nonferrous casting Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5 alloys. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 117 AE 587 . Pearson Education ISBN No.

Aluminum Casting q Aluminum is cast using » » » » » Sand casting. Low pressure die casting. Cold chamber pressure die casting. q Steel dies are used in die casting of Al 8/12/2009 118 AE 587 . Permanent Mold (gravity feed) casting. Cosworth casting.

Advantages of Al Alloys for Casting q q q q q Low melting temperature. Good surface finish of the cast product. Better creep properties than wrought Al alloys. 8/12/2009 119 AE 587 . Negligible solubility of all gases (except hydrogen) in molten Al. Good fluidity.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Hydrogen Solubility in Aluminum GURE 5.36 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 120 AE 587 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify.

8/12/2009 121 AE 587 . Shrinkage in the amount of (3.8.5%. Mechanical properties are inferior to wrought Al products.5%).Problem with Al Castings q q q Variability in mechanical properties.

8/12/2009 122 AE 587 .Advantages of Mg Die Casting q q q q q High fluidity in most alloys Lower volumetric specific heat than Al and Zn Low density Low solubility of Fe in liquid Mg Good machineability.

Post-Casting Operations for Mg q q q q q q Trimming Heat treating Machining Surface treatment Forming Joining 8/12/2009 123 AE 587 .

dezign.Characteristics of Zinc Die Castings q q Fast cooling rate. and larger more porous grains in the core Wall Core 8/12/2009 124 AE 587 http://www.org/zinc . thus fine grains Castings solidify from mold walls to center creating fine grains with low porosity in walls.

Characteristics of Zinc Die Castings q q q Mold made of steel or graphite U-shaped riser is often used with gravity die casting Thicker gates are also used with gravity die casting 8/12/2009 125 http://www.org/zinc AE 587 .dezign.

0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 126 AE 587 .Characteristics of Casting TABLE 5. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.2 General characteristics of casting processes. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

Furnaces for Casting Processes q Furnaces most commonly used in foundries: » » » » » Cupolas Direct fuel‑ fired furnaces Crucible furnaces Electric‑arc furnaces Induction furnaces 8/12/2009 127 AE 587 .

flux." consisting of iron. is loaded through a charging door located less than halfway up height of cupola Cupola furnace used in melting cast iron 8/12/2009 128 Source: Groover AE 587 .Cupolas Vertical cylindrical furnace equipped with tapping spout near base q Used only for cast irons » Although other furnaces are also used. the largest tonnage of cast iron is melted in cupolas q The "charge. and possible alloying elements. coke.

Direct Fuel‑ Fired Furnaces Small open‑ hearth in which charge is heated by natural gas fuel burners located on side of furnace q Furnace roof assists heating action by reflecting flame down against charge q At bottom of hearth is a tap hole to release molten metal q Generally used for nonferrous metals such as copper‑base alloys and aluminum 8/12/2009 129 AE 587 .

brass. and alloys of zinc and aluminum q Three types used in foundries: (a) lift‑out type. (b) stationary.Crucible Furnaces Metal is melted without direct contact with burning fuel mixture q Sometimes called indirect fuel‑ fired furnaces q Container (crucible) is made of refractory material or high‑temperature steel alloy q Used for nonferrous metals such as bronze. (c) tilting 8/12/2009 130 AE 587 .

Source: Groover 8/12/2009 131 AE 587 .Crucible Furnaces Figure 11. (b) stationary pot. from which molten metal must be ladled.19 Three types of crucible furnaces: (a) lift‑ out crucible. and (c) tilting-pot furnace.

but electric‑arc furnaces can be designed for high melting capacity q Used primarily for melting steel Figure 6.Electric‑Arc Furnaces Charge is melted by heat generated from an electric arc q High power consumption.9 Electric arc furnace for steelmaking Source: Groover 8/12/2009 132 AE 587 .

20 Induction furnace Source: Groover AE 587 . and aluminum alloys are common applications in foundry work 8/12/2009 133 Figure 11. environment can be closely controlled to produce molten metals of high quality and purity q Melting steel.Induction Furnaces Uses alternating current passing through a coil to develop magnetic field in metal q Induced current causes rapid heating and melting q Electromagnetic force field also causes mixing action in liquid metal q Since metal does not contact heating elements. cast iron.

transfer is accomplished by ladles 8/12/2009 Figure 11.Ladles q q Moving molten metal from melting furnace to mold is sometimes done using crucibles More often. and (b) two‑man ladle.21 Two common types of ladles: (a) crane ladle. Source: Groover 134 AE 587 .

Casting Quality q q There are numerous opportunities for things to go wrong in a casting operation. resulting in quality defects in the product The defects can be classified as follows: » General defects common to all casting processes » Defects related to sand casting process 8/12/2009 135 AE 587 .

22 Some common defects in castings: (a) misrun 8/12/2009 136 Source: Groover AE 587 .General Defects: Misrun A casting that has solidified before completely filling mold cavity Figure 11.

22 Some common defects in castings: (b) cold shut Source: Groover 8/12/2009 137 AE 587 .General Defects: Cold Shut Two portions of metal flow together but there is a lack of fusion due to premature freezing Figure 11.

22 Some common defects in castings: (d) shrinkage cavity 8/12/2009 138 AE 587 .General Defects: Shrinkage Cavity Depression in surface or internal void caused by solidification shrinkage that restricts amount of molten metal available in last region to freeze Source: Groover Figure 11.

Boileau Inclusions 8/12/2009 139 AE 587 . J.Casting Defect Micro Defects q Gas Porosity q Microshrinkage Porosity or microporosity q Inclusions Courtesy of Dr.

Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations.Elimination of Porosity in Castings FIGURE 5. c. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 140 AE 587 . d) examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross-sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities.37 (a) Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

Sand Casting Defects: Sand Blow Balloon‑shaped gas cavity caused by release of mold gases during pouring Figure 11.23 Common defects in sand castings: (a) sand blow Source: Groover 8/12/2009 141 AE 587 .

23 Common defects in sand castings: (b) pin holes 8/12/2009 Source: Groover 142 AE 587 .Sand Casting Defects: Pin Holes Formation of many small gas cavities at or slightly below surface of casting Figure 11.

it may penetrate into sand mold or core.23 Common defects in sand castings: (e) penetration 8/12/2009 Source: Groover 143 AE 587 .Sand Casting Defects: Penetration When fluidity of liquid metal is high. causing casting surface to consist of a mixture of sand grains and metal Figure 11.

23 Common defects in sand castings: (f) mold shift Source: Groover 8/12/2009 144 AE 587 .Sand Casting Defects: Mold Shift A step in cast product at parting line caused by sidewise relative displacement of cope and drag Figure 11.

Foundry Inspection Methods q q q Visual inspection to detect obvious defects such as misruns. cold shuts. and other tests concerned with quality of cast metal 8/12/2009 145 AE 587 . physical. and severe surface flaws Dimensional measurements to insure that tolerances have been met Metallurgical. chemical.

Design Considerations for Casting 8/12/2009 146 AE 587 .

5th ed.38 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.Design for Casting FIGURE 5. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 8/12/2009 147 AE 587 . Source: Courtesy of The North American Die Casting Association.

Product Design Considerations q Corners on the casting: » Sharp corners and angles should be avoided. since they are sources of stress concentrations and may cause hot tearing and cracks » Generous fillets should be designed on inside corners and sharp edges should be blended 8/12/2009 148 AE 587 .

draft facilitates removal of pattern from mold – Draft = 1° for sand casting » In permanent mold casting. purpose is to aid in removal of the part from the mold – Draft = 2° to 3° for permanent mold processes » Similar tapers should be allowed if solid cores are used 8/12/2009 149 AE 587 .Product Design Considerations q Draft Guidelines: » In expendable mold casting.

8/12/2009 Source: Groover 150 AE 587 .Core Elimination q Minor changes in part design can reduce need for coring Figure 11.25 Design change to eliminate the need for using a core: (a) original design. and (b) redesign.

depending on process: – Poor dimensional accuracies and finish for sand casting – Good dimensional accuracies and finish for die casting and investment casting 8/12/2009 151 AE 587 .Product Design Considerations q Dimensional Tolerances and Surface Finish: » Significant differences in dimensional accuracies and finishes can be achieved in castings.

called the machining allowance.5 and 3 mm (1/16 and 1/4 in) 8/12/2009 152 AE 587 . is left on the casting in those surfaces where machining is necessary » Typical machining allowances for sand castings are around 1.Product Design Considerations q Machining Allowances: » Almost all sand castings must be machined to achieve the required dimensions and part features » Additional material.

All alloys exhibit a large shrinkage volume. 8/12/2009 153 Showcasing various shrinkage defects AE 587 for different alloys. .Shrinkage behavior of Various Alloys q The defects caused by shrinkage vary with the type of alloy. This can be explained with the adjoining figure 1. » (c) An Equiaxed solidifying alloy produces shrinkage in the form of small voids and dispersed shrinkage. » (b) An eutectic type alloy causes shrinkage depression. » (a) Directionally solidifying alloys cause large shrinkage voids.

In this case sections must be frozen at the same rate if possible. 154 AE 587 . In the case of eutectic alloy shown in Fig 2(b) there is shrinkage associated in the form of a depression in the riser. The shrinkage associated with each type of alloy changes with the riser and plate design. While in equiaxed alloy as shown in Fig 2(c). Figure 2b: Eutectic Alloy. q 8/12/2009 The figures above showcase various solidifications and their respective shrinkages. Consider the Fig 2(a) in this the alloy is a directionally solidifying type and by adding a taper to the plate the shrinkage has been forced from plate to the riser.Solidification and Shrinkage Figure 2a: Directionally Solidifying Alloy. Figure 2c: Equiaxed Alloy. no change in the plate taper results in less shrinkage.

Proper design of casting whereby lighter section follows a heavier section resulting in less shrinkage.Design Strategies to Counteract Shrinkage q Provision of a riser near the heavier section in a casting results in reduction of shrinkage. Proper design of casting helps in the reduction of shrinkage defects. q 8/12/2009 Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 155 AE 587 .

Providing fillets and taper helps in Reduction of thermal stresses near joints.4) results in less defects associated with shrinkage along with a reduction in stresses caused due to thermal stress concentrations. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 156 AE 587 .Design Strategies to Counteract Shrinkage q Replacing sharp corners and angles with fillets (Fig.

Strategies to Avoid Defects During Cooling q Mechanical stresses are induced in a casting on cooling. Sharp corners and angles cause higher stresses and hence rounding of corners is suggested in the Figure q Rounding of corners necessary for reduction in stresses. The solidification process in metals always proceeds from the mold face to the center of the casting. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 157 AE 587 .

The best casting design would entail bringing the minimum number of sections and also by avoiding acute angles along with large fillets.Strategies to Avoid Defects during Cooling Cooling curves can be consulted in designing junctions in castings. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 158 AE 587 . q The design engineer must take into consideration the cooling curves for various junction designs.

Not necessarily choosing the alloy which causes less slag/dross but by choosing the alloy keeping in mind the application. This makes it critical in choosing the right alloy for the casting. Although slag is usually referred with higher melting point metals and dross with lower melting point metals.Slag and Dross Formation q Slag/Dross – These are synonyms meaning “refuse from melting of metals”. Various metals have varying tendencies for the formation of slag/dross. q 8/12/2009 159 AE 587 .

Pouring Temperature q Pouring temperature becomes a critical parameter in casting design due to the extremely high temperatures associated with molten metal. The designer must hence take into consideration problems associated with thermal degradation of the mold and formation of hot spots. q 8/12/2009 160 AE 587 .

eg: Only titanium alloys are poured in graphite molds.Metal Alloys and Their Approximate Pouring Temperatures q Table 2 courtesy “Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook” provides the design engineer with approximate pouring temperatures which would result in the least amount of thermal abuse. The pouring temperatures would also be affected with the type of mold material. q 8/12/2009 161 Table 2: Table gives recommended approximate poring temperatures. AE 587 .

Non uniform sections would cause defects in the casting due to the variable cooling rates. q Due to variable cooling rates sections designed should be as uniform in thickness as possible.Section Thicknesses Uniform thickness of section for the lugs is recommended. Chills can be provided to counteract this phenomenon Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 162 AE 587 .

This makes it necessary to avoid as far as possible sharp angles and corners.Correct proportioning of inner wall dimensions Reduction of the inner section to 9/10th of outer walls. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 163 AE 587 . q q Cooling rates of inner portions are much slower compared to outer surfaces. A good rule of thumb is to reduce the inner sections to 9/10th the thickness of the outer walls.

Inner cylinder should be bigger than the casting wall thickness. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 164 AE 587 . As in in the Figure since the inner radius is much smaller it is advisable to cast it as a solid and to then drill the required hole.Correct proportioning of inner wall dimensions q For economy purposes the radius of the inner cylinder should be bigger than the wall thickness.

Source: Schrader & Elshennawy q 8/12/2009 165 AE 587 . So if the ribs are designed with less depth or are widely spaced they become redundant. Thickness of the ribs should be 80% of casting thickness and the ribs should be rounded at the edges and filleted correctly.Rib Design Principles Figures show the Do’s and Don’t’s of Rib design in castings. q Since ribs are designed to increase stiffness and for weight reduction.

Source: Schrader & Elshennawy q 8/12/2009 166 AE 587 . q Design of complex ribbing should be avoided where necessary due to simplification in casting process on the whole. If the casting wall itself can provide the necessary stiffness then omission of ribs is recommended.Rib Design Complex Rib design should be avoided if possible.

8/12/2009 167 AE 587 . Lugs and Pads q Since bosses and pads increase the metal thickness this entail results in hot spots in the casting requiring the presence of chills etc.Bosses. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy Best design practices for bosses and pads. Hence it is recommended to not use these elements where possible.

Recommended design for bosses and pads. Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 168 AE 587 . Table 3 gives an approximate reference guide for the heights of bosses. q Table 3: Guide to designing bosses. Lugs and Pads q As is the case with junction design the design of bosses should be such that they seamlessly mate with the casting with the help of proper tapers and allowances as in the Figure.Bosses.

Source: Schrader & Elshennawy 8/12/2009 169 AE 587 .Redundancies A projection increases the cost of making a casting q By providing a recess in the above casting. Cost becomes a factor due to the need for a core. This can be reduced if the casting can be done solid without the recess. So the design engineer must work closely in minimizing the complexities involved in the casting.

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