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Reported by: Kristene A.

Velasco Principles and Techniques of Teaching

I. Introduction
The research on teacher effectiveness has provided educational professionals with a relatively clear understanding of the fundamental principles for effective instructional practice. Teaching professors should use these empirically supported principles as a basis for the determination of their own instructional effectiveness in the classroom. Teaching effectiveness is dependent upon the interaction between the instructor's subject-matter knowledge and teaching (pedagogical) ability.

Teachers, instructors, and professors are required to fulfill many roles and perform many duties that may be considered ancillary. At the core of the roles and duties is the actual practice of teaching. The primary purpose of this teaching practice is to facilitate student learning. Learning may be defined as a change in behaviors, attitudes, or capabilities. Effective teachers promote student learning, and related instructional methods have been extensively documented in the educational research literature.

At the end of the lesson, the students are expected to:

understand the progress of research on teaching. identify different contemporary approaches to subject matter teaching. cite some examples of events classroom situation where classroom processes applicable.

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A. Researches on Teaching- this part discuss important

changes in research on teaching in the past 20 years. B. Research on teaching for Understanding- this address the contemporary approaches to subject-matter teaching. C. Process Studies- this topic explains the Teacher-Learning Process. D. Nature of Active Teaching- this discusses the concept of Active Teaching.

V. DISCUSSION RESEARCHES ON TEACHING According to Good and McCaslin, research on teaching has witnessed an important changes in the past 20 years. The progress of research on teaching engenders optimism. Concepts, findings, and propositions used to describe successful teaching are richer, more differentiated, and hence more helpful than those produced 20 years ago.

1. The learning goal of instructional design are 1. planned completely in advance and the teacher as a person who primarily implements an intended curriculum Examine only teachers behavior. Many investigators believe that research might yield general theories of instruction that would apply to numerous contexts. Students learn the facts. 2. 3.

Researchers now study the dynamic model of active teaching.

2. 3.

Examine teachers thinking and decision making. Most researchers recognize that teachers mat present information in many different ways.



Emphasizes the need to consider students conceptions of subject matter ant to give students assignments that allow them to integrate and apply knowledge. Different combinations of variables can yield equally appropriate conditions for students learning


Variation in student learning was unaffected by 5. teacher and school variables.


Despite its many strengths, the process-outcome research of the 1970s was limited in several respects.
1. It focused on important but basic aspects of teaching that differentiate the

least effective teachers from other teachers, but it did not address more subtle differences between the most outstanding teachers and those who are competent but less outstanding.
2. Process-outcome studies relied mostly on standardized tests as the

outcome measure, thus they measured mastery of relatively isolated bits of knowledge and skills without assessing students understanding of networks related information or their ability to use this information to think creatively or critically, to solve problems, or to make decisions.

3. When criterion-relevant measures were used they

tended to emphasize distal measures rather than the everydayness of learning.

4. The tendency to emphasize quantity rather than quality

of instruction and to minimize curriculum issues.

In short, the research did not give much attention to teaching for understanding and higher order application. In the 1980s many researchers therefore advocated studies of quality and appropriateness of various teaching sequences for certain concepts.

This advocacy led to the emergence during the 1980s of a new kind of research on subject matter teaching that focused more on curriculum units or individual lessons, taking into account the teachers instructional objectives and assessing students learning accordingly.

This newer research emphasizes teaching for understanding which implies more than just memorizing information in order to recognize or retrieve it on a test. To achieve understanding, students must learn not only the individual elements in a network of related content but also the connections between them, so that they can explain concepts and principles and model the strategic thinking that guides the use of such skills for problem solving. Research on teaching for understanding and higher order application is still in its infancy, but it already has produced successful experimental programs in most school subjects.

Contemporary Approaches to Subject-matter Teaching:

1. The curriculum is designed to equip students with knowledge,

skill, attitudes, and values that they will find useful both inside and outside school. 2. Instructional goals emphasize developing students expertise within an application context, understanding of knowledge, and self regulated application of skills. 3. The curriculum balances breadth with depth by addressing limited content by developing this content sufficiently to foster conceptual understanding. If teachers are to teach for understanding they must emphasize depth rather than breadth of coverage.

4. The concept is organized around a few powerful

ideas. 5. The teachers role is not just to present information but also to scaffold and to respond to students learning efforts. Instructional scaffolding, which refers to a range of task assistance or simplification strategies that teacher use to bridge the gap between what students are capable of doing on their own and what they can accomplish with help. Instructional scaffolding is the degree of structure that teachers provide for students. Like the scaffolding used at barn raisings, it is temporary and is removed when it is no longer needed.

6. The students role is not just to absorb or copy new

information but also to actively make sense and construct meaning. Students develop new knowledge through a process of Active Construction. In order to get beyond rote memorization to achieve true understanding of new information, they needed to develop and integrate a network of associations linking new information to preexisting knowledge and beliefs anchored in informative appropriate experience. 7. Activities and assignments feature tasks that call for problem solving or critical thinking, not just memory or reproduction. 8. Teach students to relate knowledge to their lives outside school by thinking critically or creatively about it.

The findings most relevant to the relation between the teacher behavior and student learning come from studies of the relation of classroom processes (what teachers and students do in the classroom) to student outcomes (changes in students knowledge, skills, or dispositions). TEACHER-EFFECTS RESEARCH: This section reviews the findings that emerged from process-product research that conceptualized generic teacher behavior but little concern for context. Teachers in this tradition were conceptualized in terms of classroom behavior, whereas student behavior was largely ignored and seen only in terms of distal measures of achievement.

The following are the most widely replicated findings concerning characteristics of teachers who elicit strongest achievement gains from their students:

EFFICACY- the teacher believes that students are capable of learning and that they can teach them. 2. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONThese teachers organize their classroom as effective learning environments and use management techniques that maximize the time students spend engaged in lessons and activities.

Four Variables of Classroom Environment

1. Physical Environment 2. Intellectual Climate 3. Social Climate 4. Emotional Climate


teachers allocate most available time to instruction in the curriculum rather than nonacademic activities or pastime. 4. CURRICULUM PACING- These teachers move through the curriculum in ways that minimize students frustration and allow continuous progress. 5. ACTIVE TEACHING-effective teachers actively instruct-demonstrating skills, explaining concepts, conducting participatory activities, explaining assignments and reviewing when necessary.

6. TEACHING TO MASTERY- the teachers

monitor each students progress and provide feedback and remedial instruction as needed, making sure that students achieve mastery. 7. A SUPPORTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTdespite their strong academic focus, teachers who elicit good achievement gains maintain pleasant, friendly classrooms and are perceived as enthusiastic, supportive instructors.


Many researchers refer to this cluster of behaviors as direct instruction. However, other investigators prefer to use the term active teaching to describe the instruction associated with successful classroom learning because this term more broadly defines effective teaching. Although both terms imply that the teachers spends a great deal of time actively instructing students in whole class or small group lessons and circulating to monitor their work on assignments, active teaching connotes a broader philosophical base than direct anchored in behavior. In active teaching, the initial style may be inductive or deductive, and student learning may be teacher- initiated or student-initiated.

The concept of active teaching may be applied not only to teacher-led instruction but also to instruction that occurs within a variety of other organizational structures, such as the student-team learning that sometimes follows teacher-led instruction. The concept of active teaching always implies that instruction is planned with particular learning outcomes in mind. However, it also implies that instruction becomes less direct as students mature and develops increased ability to direct their own learning, as attention changes from cognitive to affective outcomes, and as the class moves through units and shifts from a focus on lower level knowledge and skills to higher level application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation outcomes.

Simulation role playing Presentation/ exhibition Cooperative learning Study Technology (Demo-kit) Lesson Study

Effective Teaching by Guillermo Aquino cfm