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Four Types of Buying Behavior
High Involvement Low Involvement
Significant Differences Complex buying Variety-seeking
between Brands behavior buying behavior

Few Differences between Dissonance-reducing Habitual buying


Brands buying behavior behavior

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INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOR
 Cultural Factors
Culture
Culture is the most fundamental determinant of a person’s wants and behavior.
The growing child acquires a set of values, perceptions, preferences and behaviors
through his or her family and other key institution.

Subculture
Each culture consists of smaller subcultures that provide more specific
identification and socializing for their members. Subculture includes nationalities,
religions, racial groups and geographic regions.

Social classes
Virtually all-human societies exhibit social stratification. Social classes do not
reflect income alone, but also other indicators such as occupation, education and
area of residence. Social classes differ in dress, speech patterns, recreational
preferences and many other characteristics. Social classes show distinct product
and brand preferences in many areas, including clothing, home furnishing, leisure
activates and automobiles. 13-8
SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASSIFICATION (SEC)

 Marketing professionals use socio-economic


classification (SEC) of urban consumers as an
indicator of the propensity of a consumer to
purchase different items.

 SEC A&B : Hi; SEC C: Mid; SEC D&E : Lo


 Basis : Education + Occupation of CWE
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Socioeconomic Classification (SEC)
Matrix—India (Urban)

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SEC Matrix—India (Rural)

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Socioeconomic Class-wise
Distribution of Households (%)

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Indian Households by Income Groups

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Age Distribution of Population—India

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INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOR
 Social Factors
 Reference Groups
 Membership groups
 Primary groups
 Secondary groups
 Aspirational groups
 Dissociative groups
 Opinion leader
Reference Groups
A person’s reference group consists of all the groups that have direct or
indirect influence on the person’s attitudes or behavior. People are
significantly influenced by their reference groups in at least three ways.
• Reference groups expose an individual to new behavior and lifestyles.
• They influence attitudes and self-concept.
• And they create pressures for conformity that may affect actual product
and brand choices 13-15
Opinion leader
People -within a
reference group who,
because of special skills,
knowledge, personality or
other characteristics, exert
influence on others. 13-16
INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOR
Family
The family is the important consumer buying organization in society.
We can distinguish between two families in buyer’s life. The family of
orientation consists of one’s parents and siblings. More direct influence
on everyday buying behavior is one’ family of procreation- namely,
one’s spouse and children. Marketers are interested in the roles and
relative influence of the husband, wife and children in the purchase of a
large variety of products and services. These roles vary widely in
different countries and social classes

Roles and Statuses


A person participates in many groups- family, clubs, and organization.
The person’s position in each group can be defined in term of role and
status. A role consists of the activities that a person is expected to
perform. Each role carries a status. Marketers are aware of the status
symbol potential of products and brands.

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INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOR

 Personal Factors
 Age and Stage in the Life Cycle
 Family life cycle
 Occupation and Economic
Circumstances

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Stages in the Family Life Cycle
1. Bachelor stage: Few financial burdens. Fashion opinion leaders.
Young, single, not living Recreation oriented. Buy: basic home equipment,
at home furniture, cars, equipment for the mating game;
vacations.
2. Newly married Highest purchase rate and highest average
couples: purchase of durables: cars, appliances, furniture,
Young, no children vacations.
3. Full nest I: Home purchasing at peak. Liquid assets low.
Youngest child under six Interested in new products, advertised products.
Buy: washers, dryers, TV, baby food, chest rubs
and cough medicines, vitamins, dolls, wagons,
sleds, skates.
4. Full nest II: Financial position better. Less influenced by
Youngest child six or over advertising. Buy larger-size packages, multiple-unit
deals. Buy: many foods, cleaning materials,
bicycles, music lessons, pianos.

See text for complete table


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DISCUSSION QUESTION
With the “graying” of the populace, marketers
have begun to shift images and cultural
references in advertising from things that are
relevant to the twenty-somethings to images of
active seniors, and soundtracks from the sixties
and seventies. Can you identify any particular
ad campaigns that fit this pattern?

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INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOR
 Personality and Self-Concept
 Personality
 Brand personality
 Sincerity
 Excitement
 Competence
 Sophistication
 Ruggedness
 Self-concept
 Person’s actual self-concept
 Ideal self-concept
 Others’ self-concept

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The VALS segmentation system:
An 8-part typology
 Groups with High
Resources
1. Actualizers
2. Fulfilleds
3. Achievers
4. Experiencers
 Groups with Lower
Resources
1. Believers
2. Strivers
3. Makers
4. Strugglers

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INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOR

 Psychological Factors
 Motivation
 Motive
 Freud’s Theory
 Laddering
 Projective techniques

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INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOR

 Ernest Dichter’s research found:


 Consumers resist prunes because prunes
are wrinkled looking and remind people
of old age.
 Men smoke cigars as an adult version of
thumb sucking.
 Women prefer vegetable shortening to
animal fats because the latter arouse a
sense of guilt over killing animals.

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INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOR
 Maslow’s Theory

Maslow’s
Hierarchy of
Needs

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INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOR

 Herzberg’s Theory
 Dissatisfiers
 Satisfiers

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INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOR

 Perception
 Selective attention
 People are more likely to notice stimuli than
relate to a current need
 People are more likely to notice stimuli than
they anticipate
 People are more likely to notice stimuli
whose deviations are large in relation to the
normal size of the stimuli
 Selective distortion
 Selective retention

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INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOR

 Learning
 Drive
 Cues
 Discrimination
 Beliefs and Attitudes
 Belief
 Spreading activation
 Attitude

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INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOR
 Learning
When people act they learn. Learning involves changes in an
individual’s behavior arising from experience. Most human behavior is
learned. Learning theorists believe that learning is produced through
the interplay of drives, stimuli, cues, responses and reinforcement.
 A drive is a strong internal stimulus impelling action.
 Cues are minor stimuli determine when, where and how a person respond.

 Beliefs and Attitudes


Through doing and learning, people acquire beliefs and attitudes.
These it turn influence buying behavior.
A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something.
Beliefs may be based on knowledge, opinion, or faith. They may or
may not carry an emotional charge. Of course, manufacturers are very
interested in the beliefs people carry in their heads about their products
and services. These beliefs make up product and brand images, and
people act on their images. An Attitude is a person’s enduring
favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotional feeling and action
tendencies toward some object or idea.
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THANK YOU

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