PR18 INTRODUCTION TO PARASITOLOGY INTRODUCTION: Types of associations: Physiological Parasitism: Heterospecific, metabolic dependence on human other not harmed

cannot exist independently vs Endoparasite Ecological

Commensalism: Two species, one benefits Symbiosis: Permanent association TYPES OF PARASITES: Facultative Accidental Pseudoparasites Coprozoic (Spurious) Microparasites vs Ectoparasite

Obligate Permanent vs Temporary

Macroparasites

TYPES OF LIFE CYCLES: Monoxenous

Heteroxenous Entomology

Autoheteroxenous Immunology

SUBJECT AREAS: Protozoology Helminthology

ECOLOGY OF PARASITES: Determines geographic distribution ENDOPARASITE: Host determines environment FREELIVING STAGE: Climate Social habits Environment Treatment

LIFE-CYCLE OF PARASITES: Diagnosis KNOWLEDGE OF: a. location of stages o. transmission q. intermediate hosts NATURE OF LIFE CYCLES: a. a. b. Definitive host: Adults Intermediate host: Direct d. entry

Prevention & Control

b. exit from host e. free-living stages g. susceptible stage b. Indirect

Sexual stages

Larval stage or asexual development (Exception ?)

Amoebiasis

c. Reservoir host: Animal that harbours infection, man can also be infected. Control programme INFECTION, TRANSMISSION, DISSEMINATION: A. EXIT: Faeces Urine Skin B. TRANSMISSION: Contact Soil • ENTRY: Direct Blood Food Water Biological/Mechanical vectors Digestive Tract Sputum Ingestion

PATHOGENIC EFFECTS OF PARASITES: A. Factors that determine Pathogenic effect: a. Avenue of entry b. e. Migration route Number in host c. f. Final location Activity

d. Size of parasite

B.

Type of pathogenic effect:

a. Spoilative c. e. Mechanical

b. Traumatic d. Toxic, Secondary

Irritative/Inflammatory f.

IMMUNITY: Physico-chemical, host-specificity, innate & acquired Evasion of immune response Premunition Concomitant Immunity Vaccines Immune complex-mediated Auto Ab Miscellaneous Immunodiagnosis

IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: HS: immediate type CMI DIAGNOSIS: Immunosuppression Clinical Culture TREATMENT: Medical Morphological

Xenodiagnosis ? Surgical Chemotherapy etc. b. Excreta disposal

PREVENTION: a. Barriers in life cycles

c. Reduce source of infection e. Reduce vectors ZOONOSES: animals

d. Control water and food supplies f. Reduce reservoir host

Human disease naturally acquired from an infection primarily of

NOMENCLATURE: Phylum, Species

Class, Order,

Family, Genus,

IMPORTANCE: All helminths 4.5 billion; Ascaris 1.3 billion; Schistoso 271 million; Filaria 657 million; Malaria 300 million. 15 million die of intestinal infections; Malaria cost US$ 21 million in death. Loss of manpower, treatment costs (India); US$ 14 million to eradicate malaria in India in 2 yrs.

Big/Small

Ectoparasite/Endoparasite

Blood Parasites

Vector
Tick Tsetse fly

Larval form/Adult

Intermediate Host

Route of Entry

Route of Exit

Types of Parasites

Types of Life Cycles
Direct: Trichuris trichiura Indirect: Taenia sp. Monoxenous Heteroxenous Autoheteroxenous

Victoria Falls

Geographic Distribution

Nature of Life Cycles

Trypanosomiasis

Clonorchis sinensis

Exit

Amoebiasis

Miami

Transmission

Entry

Balantidium coli

Ascariasis

Harmful effects depends on

Harmful effects may be

Immunity

Diagnosis

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.