PR18 INTRODUCTION TO PARASITOLOGY INTRODUCTION: Types of associations: Physiological Parasitism: Heterospecific, metabolic dependence on human other not harmed

cannot exist independently vs Endoparasite Ecological

Commensalism: Two species, one benefits Symbiosis: Permanent association TYPES OF PARASITES: Facultative Accidental Pseudoparasites Coprozoic (Spurious) Microparasites vs Ectoparasite

Obligate Permanent vs Temporary



Heteroxenous Entomology

Autoheteroxenous Immunology

SUBJECT AREAS: Protozoology Helminthology

ECOLOGY OF PARASITES: Determines geographic distribution ENDOPARASITE: Host determines environment FREELIVING STAGE: Climate Social habits Environment Treatment

LIFE-CYCLE OF PARASITES: Diagnosis KNOWLEDGE OF: a. location of stages o. transmission q. intermediate hosts NATURE OF LIFE CYCLES: a. a. b. Definitive host: Adults Intermediate host: Direct d. entry

Prevention & Control

b. exit from host e. free-living stages g. susceptible stage b. Indirect

Sexual stages

Larval stage or asexual development (Exception ?)


c. Reservoir host: Animal that harbours infection, man can also be infected. Control programme INFECTION, TRANSMISSION, DISSEMINATION: A. EXIT: Faeces Urine Skin B. TRANSMISSION: Contact Soil • ENTRY: Direct Blood Food Water Biological/Mechanical vectors Digestive Tract Sputum Ingestion

PATHOGENIC EFFECTS OF PARASITES: A. Factors that determine Pathogenic effect: a. Avenue of entry b. e. Migration route Number in host c. f. Final location Activity

d. Size of parasite


Type of pathogenic effect:

a. Spoilative c. e. Mechanical

b. Traumatic d. Toxic, Secondary

Irritative/Inflammatory f.

IMMUNITY: Physico-chemical, host-specificity, innate & acquired Evasion of immune response Premunition Concomitant Immunity Vaccines Immune complex-mediated Auto Ab Miscellaneous Immunodiagnosis

IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: HS: immediate type CMI DIAGNOSIS: Immunosuppression Clinical Culture TREATMENT: Medical Morphological

Xenodiagnosis ? Surgical Chemotherapy etc. b. Excreta disposal

PREVENTION: a. Barriers in life cycles

c. Reduce source of infection e. Reduce vectors ZOONOSES: animals

d. Control water and food supplies f. Reduce reservoir host

Human disease naturally acquired from an infection primarily of

NOMENCLATURE: Phylum, Species

Class, Order,

Family, Genus,

IMPORTANCE: All helminths 4.5 billion; Ascaris 1.3 billion; Schistoso 271 million; Filaria 657 million; Malaria 300 million. 15 million die of intestinal infections; Malaria cost US$ 21 million in death. Loss of manpower, treatment costs (India); US$ 14 million to eradicate malaria in India in 2 yrs.



Blood Parasites

Tick Tsetse fly

Larval form/Adult

Intermediate Host

Route of Entry

Route of Exit

Types of Parasites

Types of Life Cycles
Direct: Trichuris trichiura Indirect: Taenia sp. Monoxenous Heteroxenous Autoheteroxenous

Victoria Falls

Geographic Distribution

Nature of Life Cycles


Clonorchis sinensis






Balantidium coli


Harmful effects depends on

Harmful effects may be



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