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NRP P.S. : G851110051 : BIOKIMIA


AP Biology

Nucleic Acids
Information storage

AP Biology


Nucleic Acids

 Function:

genetic material
 stores information  genes  blueprint for building proteins

DNA  RNA  proteins


 transfers information  blueprint for new cells  blueprint for next generation

AP Biology proteins




AP Biology

Nucleic Acids  Examples:  RNA (ribonucleic acid)  single helix  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)  double helix  Structure:  monomers = nucleotides AP Biology DNA RNA .

C.T.Nucleotides  3 parts nitrogen base (C-N ring)  pentose sugar (5C)   ribose in RNA  deoxyribose in DNA  Nitrogen base I’m the A.G or U part! phosphate (PO4) group Are nucleic acids charged molecules? AP Biology .

Types of nucleotides  2 types of nucleotides different nitrogen bases  purines  Purine = AG Pure silver!  double ring N base  adenine (A)  guanine (G)  pyrimidines  single ring N base  cytosine (C)  thymine (T)  uracil (U) AP Biology .

Nucleic polymer  Backbone sugar to PO4 bond  phosphodiester bond   new base added to sugar of previous base  polymer grows in one direction  N bases hang off the sugar-phosphate backbone Dangling bases? Why is this important? AP Biology .

Pairing of nucleotides  Nucleotides bond between DNA strands H bonds  purine :: pyrimidine  A :: T   2 H bonds  G :: C  3 H bonds Matching bases? Why is this important? AP Biology .

DNA molecule  Double helix  H bonds between bases join the 2 strands  A :: T  C :: G H bonds? Why is this important? AP Biology .

Copying DNA  Replication  2 strands of DNA helix are complementary  have one. can build other  have one. can rebuild the whole Matching halves? Why is this a good system? AP Biology .

When does a cell copy DNA?  When in the life of a cell does DNA have to be copied?  cell reproduction  mitosis  gamete production  meiosis AP Biology .

DNA replication “It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material.” James Watson Francis Crick 1953 AP Biology .

Watson and Crick … and others… 1953 | 1962 AP Biology .

Maurice Wilkins… and… 1953 | 1962 AP Biology .

Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958) AP Biology .

Interesting note…  Ratio of A-T::G-C affects stability of DNA molecule   2 H bonds vs. 3 H bonds biotech procedures  more G-C = need higher T° to separate strands  high T° organisms  many G-C  parasites  many A-T (don’t know why) AP Biology .

Another interesting note…  ATP Adenosine triphosphate  modified nucleotide  adenine (AMP) + Pi + Pi + AP Biology + .


baby! AP Biology .Let’s build some DNA.

RNA & DNA  RNA  single nucleotide chain double nucleotide chain  N bases bond in pairs  DNA  across chains  spiraled in a double helix  double helix 1st proposed as structure of DNA in 1953 by James Watson & Francis Crick (just celebrated 50th anniversary in 2003!) AP Biology .

Information polymer  Function  series of bases encodes information  like the letters of a book  stored information is passed from parent to offspring  need to copy accurately  stored information = genes  genetic information Passing on information? Why is this important? AP Biology .

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a tree.DNA stands for: D: Deoxyribose N: Nucleic A: Acid DNA is too small to see. a mushroom and a beetle!!!! AP Biology . That means that you have something in common with a zebra. but under a microscope it looks like a twisted up ladder! Every living thing has DNA.

AP Biology .

Let’s get DNA from an onion! AP Biology .

Materials  Onion  Salt  Dishwashing liquid  Meat tenderizer  Rubbing alcohol ENZYMES” 2. Add ½ teaspoon of meat tenderizer to cup marked “soap and enzymes” 5. Label your cups “CONTROL” and “SOAP AND . Add dishwashing soap to cup marked “soap and enzymes” 4. Add onion juice to both cups 3. wait 10 minutes 1. Stir AP Biology gently.

This is a rail This is a step Green can only go with Red Purple can only go with Yellow AP Biology .DNA is made up of steps and rails of a ladder.

(In candy!) AP Biology .Let’s make our own DNA molecule.

The licorice is the DNA “backbone” (or the sides of the ladder) 2. The marshmallows connect the two sides of the ladder with a toothpick (think of the marshmallows as the two parts of velcro) 3.Instructions Materials  Two pieces of licorice  6 toothpicks  12 different coloured marshmallows (4 different colours) 1. Remember only certain colours can “stick” together in DNA Red goes with Orange AP Biology Yellow goes with Green .

You can tell people apart by their fingerprints… Because everyone’s fingerprints are different! AP Biology .

DNA is like a fingerprint because everyone’s is a little different! How does the police look at DNA to figure out who committed a crime? AP Biology .

The DNA gets cut up by special scissors!!! AP Biology .

The scissors can only cut the same colour! AP Biology .

AP Biology .All of the cut up pieces of DNA are different sizes.

(Little pieces are fast. LITTLE AP Biology BOTTOM .) BIG TOP A special machine sorts the DNA by size. so they move faster to the bottom.

We are ALL a little bit different! BIG LITTLE Miss Ellis’ DNA Sara’s DNA AP Biology .

Soooo…. How do we tell people apart just by their DNA anyways??? AP Biology .

Our DNA has different sizes of pieces so it makes a different pattern when it’s all cut up. Miss Ellis’ DNA Sara’s DNA AP Biology .

Miss Ellis Sara AP Biology This is what it really looks like!!! .

Can you guess which one is Sara and which one is Miss Ellis? Miss Ellis ? Sara Is the red box around Miss Ellis’ DNA or around Sara’s DNA? AP Biology .