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Internet & Security

Shweta Agrawal


The Internet is perhaps the most well-known, and the largest, implementation of inter-networking, linking hundreds of thousands of individual networks all over the world. The Internet has a range of capabilities that organizations are using to exchange information internally or to communicate externally with other organizations. Internet technology is providing the primary infrastructure for electronic commerce, electronic business, and the emerging digital firm.


and the willingness to pay a small monthly usage fee can access it through an Internet Service Provider. a modem. although anyone with a computer.S. . Even today individuals cannot connect directly to the Net. Department of Defense network to link scientists and university professors around the world.What is the Internet?   The Internet began as a U.

.Contd.  An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a commercial organization with a permanent connection to the Internet that sells temporary connections to subscribers.

this lack of centralization was purposeful. To join the Internet. Costs are low because the Internet owns nothing and so has no costs to offset.Contd. As a creation of the Defense Department for sharing research data. to make it less vulnerable to wartime or terrorist attacks.     One of the most puzzling aspects of the Internet is that no one owns it and it has no formal management organization. an existing network needs only to pay a small registration fee and agree to certain standards based on the TCP/IP reference model. .

of course. These Internet companies route and forward all traffic. making the Net a very inexpensive communications medium. with messages arriving anywhere in the world in a matter of seconds or a minute or two at most. The result is that the costs of e-mail and other Internet connections tend to be far lower than equivalent voice. It is also a very fast method of communication. or overnight delivery. but those costs usually exist independent of the Internet. Regional Internet companies have been established to which member networks forward all transmission. postal. and the cost is still only that of a local telephone call. .      Each organization. pays for its own networks and its own telephone bills.Contd.

All the data. A client uses the Internet to request information from a particular Web server on a distant computer and the server sends the requested information back to the client via the Internet. .Internet Technology     The Internet is based on client/server technology. including e-mail messages and Web pages. A client reaches the Internet by using a Web browser software. are stored on servers. like Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator.

   Web server software receives requests for Web pages from the client and accesses the Web pages from the disk where they are stored.Contd. including application servers. Specialized middleware. is used to manage the interactions between the Web server and the organization’s internal information systems for processing orders. and other electronic commerce functions. tracking inventory. maintaining product catalogs. Web server can also access other information from an organization’s internal information system applications and their associated databases and return that information to the client in the form of Web pages if desired. .

format. and display information (including text. audio. and video) using hypertext links .Major Internet Tools for Communications Capability E-mail Usenet Newsgroups Chatting FTP Functions Supported Person-to-person messaging. document sharing Discussion groups on electronic bulletin boards Interactive conversations Transfer files from computer to computer World Wide Web Retrieve. graphics.

INTERNET TERMS    HOME PAGE: WWW screen display welcomes user to organization’s page WEBMASTER: Person in charge of Web site UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR (URL): Address of specific Internet resource .

Domain Name  The unique name of a node on the Internet. .

Internet Protocol (IP) Address  Four-part numeric address indicating a unique computer location on the Internet. .

.Domain Name System (DNS)  A hierarchical system of servers maintaining databases enabling the conversion of domain names to their IP addresses.

net. is known as the domain name.e.Analysis of an Internet Address        Let us consider a hypothetical Internet address – jack@nic. .. nic – Host computer net – Function in – Location The portion after the @ jack – Individual or organization name @ .

It can handle all types of digital communication. hypermedia. and displaying information using a client/server architecture. The Web combines text. formatting. graphics. and sound. . retrieving. The Web is a system with universally accepted standards for storing.The World Wide Web (WWW)     The World Wide Web (the Web) is at the heart of the explosion on the business use of the Internet. making it easy to link resources that are half-a-world apart.

Using these links.     The Web uses graphical user interfaces for easy viewing.Contd. . and immediately be transported to another document. probably on another computer somewhere else in the world. It is based on a standard hypertext language called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). the user need only point at a highlighted keyword or graphic. Users are free to jump from place to place following their own logic and interest. which formats documents and incorporates dynamic links to other documents stored in the same or remote computers. click on it.

Contd.     Web browser software is programmed according to HTML standards. . site by site. The standard is universally accepted. Browsers are hypertext’s point-and-click ability to navigate or surf – move from site to site on the web – to another desired site. so anyone using a browser can access any of the millions of Web sites. The browser also includes an arrow or back button to enable the user to retrace his or her steps. navigating back.

Most Web pages offer a way to contact the organization or individual. the home page leads users to other pages. The person in charge of an organization’s Web site is called a Webmaster.     Those who offer information through the Web must establish a home page – a text and graphical screen display that usually welcomes the user and explains the organization that has established the page.Contd. For most organizations. therefore. it must set up a Web site of one or more pages. . For a corporation to establish a presence on the Web. with all the pages of a company being known as a Web site.

wiu. For is the domain name identifying the Web server storing the Web http stands for hypertext transfer protocol. the URL for Western International University is http://www. www. the user must specify a uniform resource locator (URL).      To access a Web site. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands.wiu. . which points to the address of a specific resource on the Web. which is the communications standard used to transfer pages on the Web.

with the more than one billion Web pages in existence. . No comprehensive catalog of Web sites exists.Searching for Information on the Web   Locating information on the Web is critical function.

Such tools. then they display matches ranked by a method that usually involves the location and frequency of the search terms. can find Web sites that may be little known.Contd. called search engines.    Other search tools do not require Web sites to be preclassified and will search Web pages on their own automatically. . They contain software that looks for Web pages containing one or more of the search terms.

and Go. depending on how their components are turned. Some are more comprehensive or current than others. Lycos. but they create indexes of the Web pages they visit.     These search engines do not display information about every site on the Web. . are examples of these search engines. and some also classify Web sites by subject categories.Contd. The search engine software then locates Web pages of interest by searching through these indexes.

such as Yahoo and AltaVista.    Specialized search tools are also available to help users locate specific types of information easily. . For example.Contd. have become so popular and easy to use that they also serve as portals for the Internet. Google is turned to find the home pages of companies and organizations. Some Web sites for locating information.

   There are two ways of identifying Web pages to be tracked by search engines. and Web crawlers to traverse the Web and identify the Web pages for indexing.Contd. The other is to use software agents known as spiders. . bots. One is to have Web page owners register their URLs with search engine sites.

S.TCP): Breaks data into datagrams Network Layer (Internet Protocol .IP): Breaks. sends datagrams as smaller IP packets.A.Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)  This is a reference model developed by Department of Defense of U. can repeat transmission to increase reliability Network Interface: Handles addressing and interface between computer & network Physical Net: Defines electrical transmission characteristics for sending signal along networks to destination . in 1972. The layers available in this reference model are:      Application Layer: Provides screen presentations Transport Layer (Transmission Control Protocol .

suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO). They have suggested seven layers as follows:        Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer . for linking different types of computer and networks.Open System Interconnection OSI)   This is an international reference model.

including mobile handheld computers and wireless remote access devices.Intranets and Extranets     Organizations can use Intranet networking standards and Web technology to create private networks called intranets. An intranet is an internal organizational network that can provide access to data across the enterprise. Intranets can create networked applications that can run on many different kinds of computers throughout the organization. . It uses the existing company network infrastructure along with Internet connectivity standards and software developed for the World Wide Web.

The firewall consists of hardware and software placed between an organization’s internal network and an external network. examine its characteristics. The firewall is programmed to intercept each message packet passing between the two networks. and reject unauthorized messages or access attempts.Intranet Technology    Although the Web is open to anyone. the intranet is private and is protected from public visits by firewalls – security systems with specialized software to prevent outsiders from invading private networks. . including the Internet.

The company can use firewalls to ensure that access to its internal data is limited and remains secure. authorized buyers could link to a portion of a company’s intranet from the public Internet to obtain information about the cost and features of its products. making sure that only authorized people can access the site. For example.Extranets     Some firms are allowing people and organizations outside the firm to have limited access to their internal intranets. firewalls can also authenticate users. Private intranets that are extended to authorized users outside the company are called extranets. .


or for collaborating with other companies on joint development or training efforts. and shipment data. pricing. .Contd. They often are used for providing productavailability. electronic data interchange (EDI).   Extranets are especially useful for linking organizations with customers or business partners.

customization Accelerated knowledge .Internet Benefits  Following are the benefits derived from the Internet.       Global connectivity Reduced communications cost Lower transaction costs Reduced agency costs Interactivity. flexibility.

spreads rapidly. disrupts processing & memory * . destroys data. personal pleasure COMPUTER VIRUS: Rogue program. difficult to detect.HACKERS & COMPUTER VIRUSES   HACKER: Person gains access to computer for profit. criminal mischief.

memory conflicts * . Deletes files FORM: Makes clicking sound. ROM BIOS JUNKIE: Infects files. destroys files MONKEY: Windows won’t run CHERNOBYL: Erases hard drive.EXE: Attached to e-mail. corrupts data EXPLORE. tries to e-mail to others.COMMON COMPUTER VIRUSES       CONCEPT. MELISSA: Word documents. boot sector. e-mail.


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