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Use of Locally Available Materials and Stabilisation Technique

Dr. M.S. AMARNATH Bangalore University Bangalore

Soil Stabilization
The soil stabilization means the improvement of stability or bearing power of the soil by the use of controlled compaction, proportioning and/or the addition of suitable admixture or stabilizers.

Basic Principles of Soil Stabilization….
• Evaluating the properties of given soil • Deciding the lacking property of soil and choose effective and economical method of soil stabilization • Designing the Stabilized soil mix for intended stability and durability values

Need for Soil Stabilization
 Limited

Financial Resources to Provide a complete network Road System to build in conventional method  Effective utilization of locally available soils and other suitable stabilizing agents.  Encouraging the use of Industrial Wastages in building low cost construction of roads.

Methods of Soil Stabilization • • • • • • Mechanical Stabilization Soil Cement Stabilization Soil Lime Stabilization Soil Bitumen Stabilization Lime Fly ash Stabilization Lime Fly ash Bound Macadam. .

e.Mechanical Stabilization • • • This method is suitable for low volume roads i. Village roads in low rainfall areas. This method involves the correctly proportioning of aggregates and soil. adequately compacted to get mechanically stable layer The Basic Principles of Mechanical Stabilization are Correct Proportioning and Effective Compaction .

less frost Susceptibility Ease of Compaction.Desirable Properties of SoilAggregate Mix • • • • • • Adequate Strength Incompressibility Less Changes in Volume Stability with Variation in water content Good drainage. .

Factors Affecting Mechanical Stabilization      Mechanical Strength of aggregates Gradation Properties of the Soil Presence of Salts Compaction .

Hence it is desirable to limit the plasticity index of the soil . results poor stability under soaking conditions.Mechanical Strength • When the soil is used in small proportion to fill up the voids the crushing strength of aggregates is important Gradation • A well graded aggregate soil mix results in a mix with high dry density and stability values Properties of soil • A mix with Plasticity Index.

Presence of Chemicals • Presence of Salts like Sulphates and mica are undesirable • Presence of Calcium Chloride is Beneficial Compaction • Effective Compaction is desirable to produce high density and stability mix .

Soil Cement Stabilization • Soil Cement is an intimate mix of soil. compacted to form a strong base course Cement treated or cement modified soil refers to the compacted mix when cement is used in small proportions to impart some strength Soil Cement can be used as a sub-base or base course for all types of Pavements • • . cement and water.

Factors affecting soil cement stabilization • • • • • • Soil Cement Pulverisation and Mixing Compaction Curing Additives .

Soil THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES • Particle Size Distribution • Clay content • Specific Surface • Liquid limit and Plasticity Index Cement A increase in cement content generally causes increase in strength and durability .

higher is the strength • Presence of un pulverised dry lumps reduces the strength Compaction • By increasing the amount of compaction dry density of the mix. strength and durability also increases .Pulverisation and Mixing • Better the Pulverisation and degree of mixing.

Curing Adequate Moisture content is to be retained in order to accelerate the strength Additives There are some additives to improve properties • • • • Lime Sodium hydroxide Sodium Carbonate Calcium Chloride .

5 kg/cm2 is taken as design cement content .Design of Soil –Cement Mix • • • • Soil – Cement specimens are prepared with various cement contents in constant volumes moulds The compressive strength of these specimens tested after 7 days of curing A graph is plotted Cement content Vs compressive strength The Cement Content Corresponding to a strength of 17.

Lime has been widely used as a modifier or a binder • Soil-Lime is used as modifier in high plasticity soils • Soil Lime also imparts some binding action even in granular soils .Soil Lime Stabilization • Soil.

.Soil-Lime is effectively used in Expansive soils with high plasticity index.

Factors affecting Properties of Soil-Lime Lime Content • Generally increase in lime content causes slight change in liquid limit and considerable increase in Plasticity index The rate of increase is first rapid and then decreases beyond a certain limit • The point is often termed as lime fixation point This is considered as design lime content • .

Type of Lime    After long curing periods all types of limes produce same effects. However quick lime has been found more effective than hydrated lime Calcium Carbonate must be heated at higher temperature to form Quick lime calcium oxide( CaO) Calcium oxide must be slaked ( by the addition of water) to form Hydrated lime  Compaction  Compaction is done at OMC and maximum dry density. .

Curing • The strength of soil-lime increases with curing period upto several years. Sodium hydroxide and Sodium Sulphate are also found useful additives . The rate of increase is rapid during initial period • The humidity of the surroundings also affects the strength Additives • Sodium metasilicate.

Soil.Bituminous Stabilization • The Basic Principles of this stabilization are Water Proofing and Binding • By Water Proofing inherent strength and other properties could be retained • Most Commonly used materials are Cutback and Emulsion • Bitumen Stabilized layer may be used as Sub-base or base course for all the roads .

Factors affecting properties of soil-bitumen Soil • The particle size. shape and gradation of the soil influence the properties of the soil-bitumen mix. Types of Bitumen • Cutbacks of higher grade should be preferred • Emulsions generally gives slightly inferior results than Cutback. .

Amount of Mixing
• Increasing proportion of bitumen causes a decrease in dry density but increases the stability after a certain bitumen content • The optimum bitumen content for maximum stability generally ranges from 4 to 6%

Mixing
• Improved type of mixing with low mixing period may be preferred

Compaction • Effective Compaction results higher stability and resistance to absorb water Additives • Anti stripping and reactive chemical additives have been tried to improve the properties of the mixes • Portland cement can also be used along with the soil bitumen

Use of Locally Available Materials in Road Construction

Necessity  Scarcity of good quality aggregates / soil for road construction Production and accumulation of different waste materials Disposal and environmental problem Economical and gainful utilisation    .

Limitations of Using Waste Materials     Quality of waste is not controlled by their manufacturers Characteristics of by-products vary in a wide range Road construction practice is accustomed to traditional materials of steady quality Specifications of layers compaction of traditional materials are not suitable for waste materials .

General Criteria for Use of Waste Materials      Amount of yearly produced waste material should reach a certain lower limit The hauling distance should be acceptable The material should not have a poissonous effect The material should be insoluble in water The utilisation should not have a pollutional effect to the environment .

Special Requirement for Using Waste Materials     Free from organic matter Should not swell or decay as influenced by water Should not be soluble in water Particles should be moderately porous .

Industrial wastes  Thermal Power Stations * * * Fly ash Bottom ash Pond ash Blast furnace slag Granulated blast furnace slag Steel slag  Steel Plants * * * .

Major role in power .Civil engineering applications like construction of roads & embankments Thermal power .Negligible utilisation of ash produced  Bulk utilisation .Use of coal with high ash content .Utilisation of fly ash  generation  Indian scenario .

Utilisation of fly ash s Can be used for construction of s Embankments and backfills s Stabilisation of subgrade and sub-base s Rigid and semi-rigid pavements s s s s Fly ash properties vary widely.oxides of silica. iron. to be characterised before use Major constituents . aluminum. calcium & magnesium Environmentally safe material for road construction Possesses many favourable properties for embankment & road construction .

lesser pressure on sub-soil High shear strength Coarser ashes have high CBR value Pozzolanic nature.Favourable properties of fly ash s s s s s s s s s s Light weight. additional strength due to self-hardening Amenable to stabilisation Ease of compaction High permeability Non plastic Faster rate of consolidation and low compressibility Can be compacted using vibratory or static roller .

55 Non plastic 0.Engineering properties of fly ash Parameter Specific Gravity Plasticity Maximum dry density (gm/cc) Optimum moisture content (%) Cohesion (kN/m 2 ) Angle of internal friction (j) Coefficient of consolidation C v (cm 2 /sec) Compression index C c Permeability (cm/sec) Particle size distribution (% of materials) Clay Silt Sand Gravel size size size size fraction 1 fraction 8 fraction 7 fraction 0 – 10 – 85 – 90 – 10 Range 1.01 x 10 -3 0.0 – 18.6 38.7 .75 x 10 -5 – 2.0 Negligible 30 0 – 40 0 1.4 8 x 10 -6 – 7 x 10 -4 Coefficient of uniformity 3.1 – 10.05 – 0.90 – 2.9 – 1.

2 per cent 1 to 3 per cent 3 to 4 times in comparison to source coal Lower US fly ash 5 to 8 per cent 3 to 4 per cent 5 to 8 per cent 10 times or more in comparison to source coal Higher .1 to 0.Differences between Indian & US fly ashes Property compared Loss on ignition (Unburnt carbon) SO 3 content CaO content Increase in concentration of heavy metals Rate of leaching Indian fly ash Less than 2 per cent 0.

Fly ash for road embankment        Ideally suited as backfill material for urban/ industrial areas and areas with weak sub soils Higher shear strength leads to greater stability Design is similar to earth embankments Intermediate soil layers for ease of construction and to provide confinement Side slope erosion needs to be controlled by providing soil cover Can be compacted under inclement weather conditions 15 to 20 per cent savings in construction cost depending on lead distance .

Fly ash for road embankment Typical cross section of fly ash road embankment .

00 Crore .1.1.50.8 km Height varies from 6 to 9 m Ash utilised .1.000 cubic metre Embankment opened to traffic in 1998 Instrumentation installed in the embankment showed very good performance – Approximate savings due to usage of fly ash is about Rs.Approach embankment for second Nizamuddin bridge at Delhi – – – – – Length of embankment .

Approach embankment for second Nizamuddin bridge at Delhi .

Spreading of pond ash Second Nizamuddin bridge approach embankment Compaction of pond ash .

Stone pitching for slope protection Second Nizamuddin bridge approach embankment Traffic plying on the embankment .

Utilisation of fly ash Four laning work on NH-6 (Dankuni to Kolaghat) Length of stretch – 54 km Height of embankment – 3 to 4 m Fly ash utilisation – 2 Million cubic metres Water logged area (soft ground conditions) Compaction of fly ash over layer of geotextile .

friction ties.Reinforced fly ash embankment  Fly ash .better backfill material for reinforced embankments Polymeric reinforcing materials – Geogrids. geotextiles Construction sequence – similar to reinforced earth structures   .

Okhla flyover approach embankment – First geogrid reinforced fly ash approach embankment constructed in the country – Length of embankment – 59 m – Height varied from 5.700 cubic metre – Opened to traffic in 1996 – Performance has been very good .8 m – Ash utilised – 2.9 to 7.

Okhla flyover approach embankment Facing panels Filter medium Geogrids 7.8 to 5.9 m Reinforced foundation mattress of bottom ash .

Erection of facing panels Okhla flyover approach embankment Rolling of pond ash .

Support provided to facing panels during construction Okhla flyover approach embankment Laying of geogrids .

0 m – Opened to traffic in 1997 .42 m to 1.4 m – Height varied from 3.Hanuman Setu flyover approach embankment – Geogrid reinforced fly ash approach embankment – Length of embankment – 138.

Sarita Vihar flyover approach embankment – – – – Length of embankment – 90 m Maximum height – 5.25 m Embankment opened to traffic in Feb 2001 Polymeric friction ties used for reinforcement .

Laying of friction ties Sarita Vihar flyover reinforced approach embankment Arrangement of friction ties before laying pond ash .

Compaction of pond ash using static and vibratory rollers Sarita Vihar flyover reinforced approach embankment Compaction using plate vibrator near the facing panels .

 Stabilised soil subgrade & subbase/base courses Fly ash for road construction – Mixing with soil reduces plasticity characteristics of subgrade – Addition of small percentage of lime or cement greatly improves strength – Leaching of lime is inhibited and durability improves due to addition of fly ash – Pond ash & bottom ash can also be stabilised – Lime-fly ash mixture is better alternative to moorum for construction of WBM / WMM .

Fly ash for road construction  Construction of semi-rigid/ rigid pavements – Lime-fly ash concrete – Dry lean cement fly ash concrete – Roller compacted concrete – Fly ash admixed concrete pavements – Lime-fly ash bound macadam – Precast block paving – High performance concrete .

Bituminous concrete 40 mm 100 mm DBM BM 75 mm WBM Gr III/WMM 75 mm WBM Gr II/WMM 150 mm GSB 350 mm Typical cross section of flexible pavement – conventional section .

Bituminous concrete 40 mm DBM 100 mm BM 75 mm WBM Gr III/WMM 75 mm Fly ash + stabilised 6% cement layer 150 mm Pond ash 350 mm Typical cross section of flexible pavement – using fly ash .

Fly ash admixed PQC 300 mm DLFC 100 mm Pond ash 300 mm Typical cross section of rigid pavement – using fly ash .

Demonstration road project at Raichur       Total length of the road – 1 km Five sections of 200 m each with different pavement sections Pond ash has been used for replacing moorum in sub-base course Stabilised pond ash used for replacing part of WBM layer One rigid pavement section using DLFC and RCCP technology was laid Performance of all the specifications is good .

Mixing of lime stabilised pond ash Demonstration road project using fly ash at Raichur Compaction of stabilised pond ash using road roller .

Construction of roller compacted concrete pavement Demonstration road project using fly ash at Raichur View of the demonstration road stretch after three years .

Demonstration road project using near Dadri (U.4 km Bottom ash used as embankment fill Base course constructed using fly ash stabilised with 8% cement RCCP Wearing course – 10 cm thickness RCCP Mix proportion – 1:2:4 30 per cent of cement and 20 per cent of sand replaced with fly ash in RCCP Shoulders – 8% cement stabilised fly ash . Uttar Pradesh was selected Total length of road – 1.P)  fly ash        A rural road near Dadri in District Gautam Budh Nagar.

1 m Stabilised fly ash base .P) – Typical section RCCP wearing course .Demonstration road project using fly ash near Dadri (U.1 m Soil cover Bottom ash Stabilised fly ash Shoulder .0.0.

P) Stabilised base course Mixing & laying of RCCP Compaction of RCCP .Demonstration road project using fly ash near Dadri (U.

IRC Guidelines / Specifications  Guidelines available on pavement construction  IRC 60 ‘Tentative guidelines for use of lime fly ash concrete as pavement base or subbase’ IRC 68 ‘Tentative guidelines on cement fly ash concrete for rigid pavement construction’ IRC 74 ‘Tentative guidelines for lean cement concrete and lean cement fly ash concrete as a pavement base or sub-base’ IRC 88 ‘Recommended practice for lime fly ash stabilised soil as base or sub-base in pavement construction’    .

58:2001) Includes design aspects also Handling and construction – Loose layer thickness of 400 mm can be adopted if vibratory rollers are used – Moisture content .OMC + 2 per cent – Use of vibratory rollers advocated – Minimum dry density to be achieved .Guidelines for use of fly ash in road embankments    Published recently by Indian Roads Congress (SP.95 per cent of modified Proctor density – Ash layer and side soil cover to be constructed simultaneously .

0 million tonnes Types of slags – Blast furnace slag  Granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS)  Air cooled slag – Steel slag .Utilisation of steel slags   Total production of slag from steel industries is about 8.

Granulated blast furnace slag Contains reactive silica Suitable for lime / cement stabilisation Air cooled blast furnace slag Non – reactive Suitable for use as coarse .

CRRI work on utilisation of steel slags Characterisation of slags produced at different steel plants  Laboratory studies on Lime-GBFS mixes  Semi-field studies on Lime-GBFS concrete  Test track studies on usage of slags in road works  .

58 – 1.90 0.00 14.80 abrasion value (%) Impact value 15.29 0.82 2.79 (%) Soundness value (%) Percentage voids 1.33 24.80 - .28 34.99 2.10 43.90 43.82 – 3.Properties of air cooled slag Property Durgapur Bhilai Rourkela Delhi Quartzite Specification requirements Specific gravity Water absorption (%) 2.17 16.50 0.66 25.17 30% Max 12% Max 46.38 0.33 2.72 0.78 – 2.97 – 2.80 1.53 – 1.40 43.67 1.00 40% Max 14.48 2% Max Los Angeles 18.74 – 1.

steel slag should be weathered before using it in construction . higher amounts of iron oxide and calcium oxide Due to presence of free lime. steel slag contains lower amount of silica.Steel slags     Obtained as a waste product during production of steel Particle size varies from 80 mm to 300 microns Compared to blast furnace slag.

Ranchi using Slags from Bokaro Plant  .Road projects executed under CRRI guidance using slags Plant roads at Visakhapatnam  Test tracks in collaboration with AP PWD using slags from Visakhapatnam Steel Plant  Test tracks in collaboration with Orissa PWD using slags from Rourkella Plant  Test tracks at R&D Centre for Iron & Steel.

Construction of test track using slag at Orissa Labour based techniques for construction of stabilised layer .

Lime stabilisation of iron slags (Orissa) View of finished surface of road constructed using slags at Orissa .

Processed municipal wastes Processed municipal wastes utilised for construction of test track on village road near Delhi  Stabilised municipal waste used for construction of sub-base layer  Performance of stretch is good  .

Kimberlite tailings    Kimberlite tailings are waste produced from diamond mining Can be used in base or sub-base course by adopting mechanical or cement stabilisation High value of water absorption makes them unsuitable for use in bituminous pavement .

THANK YOU .

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