Natural or Intrinsic

Coordinates

O
1
2
P
x
1
x
2
= x
1
+ L
L
2
L
1
x = ξ
1
x
1
+ ξ
2
x
2

L

ξ
1
= L
1
/ L
ξ
2
= L
2
/ L
Natural coordinates:
L
1
+ L
2
= L
ξ
1
+

ξ
2
= 1 Not independent:

1
2
L
1
1
ξ
1
= L
1
/ L
ξ
2
= L
2
/ L

x = ξ
1
x
1
+ ξ
2
x
2
e.g.
ξ
1
= ξ
2
= 1/2
x =

(x
1
+ x
2
)/2
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]



·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
ξ
ξ
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
ξ
ξ
]
]
]

·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
x
1
1 x
1 x
L
1
x x
1 1
x
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2 1

2 2
1 1
2 1
2
1
N
N
N
N
ξ ·
ξ ·
ξ ξ ·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
φ
φ
· φ
φ is an arbitrary variable. For example, it
could be displacement u.

O
1
2
x
1
L/2
L
3
L/2

1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
N
1
= ξ
1
(2 ξ
1
-1)
N
2
= ξ
2
(2 ξ
2
-1)
N
3
= 4 ξ
1
ξ
2
φ = a
1
ξ
1
2
+ a
2
ξ
2
2
+ a
3
ξ
1
ξ
2

1
2
3
N
1
= ξ
1
(2 ξ
1
-1)
ξ
1
= 1 at node 1 (2 ξ
1
-1) = 1 at node 1
ξ
1
= 1/2 at node 2 (2 ξ
1
-1) = 0 at node 2
ξ
1
= 0 at node 3 (2 ξ
1
-1) = -1 at node 3
ξ
1
(2 ξ
1
-1)
Write N
1
directly:

N
1
=
1
- N
3
/2
N
2
=
2
- N
3
/2
N
1
+ N
2
+ N
3
=
1
+
2
=1

2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
x
2 2 1 1
u
u
u
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
u u u
u
·
ξ ∂

·
ξ ∂


ξ ∂
ξ ∂

+

ξ ∂
ξ ∂

·




· ε
ξ + ξ ·
· φ

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
− · ε
·
,
`

.
|



·

ξ ∂
− ·
,
`

.
|



·

ξ ∂
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]



·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
ξ
ξ
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
ξ
ξ
]
]
]

·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
L
1
u
L
1
u
L
1
L
x x
x x
L
1
L
x x
x x
x
1
1 x
1 x
L
1
x x
1 1
x
1
2 1 x
1 2
2 1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2 1

[ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
1 ! 0
dL
dL B B AE k
L
2
k
1
L
T
·
+ +
· ξ ξ
·


! l k 1
l! k!
L
l

Natural Coordinates for a Triangular Element
(Area Coordinates)
x
y
A
3
A
2
A
1
1
2
3
side 1
side 2
side 3

i
= A
1
/A
j
= A
2
/A
m
= A
3
/A
i
+
j
+
j
= 1

Natural Coordinates for a Triangular Element
(Area Coordinates)
ξ
m
= 1
ξ
m
= 0.75
ξ
m
= 0.5
ξ
m
= 0.25
ξ
m
= 0
ξ
j

=

1
ξ
j

=

0
.
7
5
ξ
j

=

0
.
5
ξ
j

=

0
.
2
5
ξ
j

=

0
ξ
i

=

1
ξ
i

=

0
.
7
5
ξ
i

=

0
.
5
ξ
i

=

0
.
2
5
ξ
i

=

0
1 or i
2 or j
3 or m

Natural Coordinates for a Triangular Element
(Area Coordinates)
Centroid:
i
=
j
=
m
= 1/3

¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
ξ
ξ
ξ
]
]
]
]
]

·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
ξ
ξ
ξ
]
]
]
]
]

·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

y
x
1
A
y y y
x x x
1 1 1
A
y y y
x x x
1 1 1
y
x
1
1
3
2
1
m j i
m j i
3
2
1
m j i
m j i

i 2 1 m i m 1 j
m m m
j j j
i i i
1
y y x x y y x x A 2
A 2
1
A
− − + − − ·
]
]
]
]
]

γ β α
γ β α
γ β α
·

If i-j-m counterclockwise!

i j m m i j j m i
j i m i m j m j i
j i j i m i m i m j m j m j i
x x x x x x
y y y y y y
x y y x x y y x x y y x
− · γ − · γ − · γ
− · β − · β − · β
− · α − · α − · α

Shape Functions
i
= N
i
j
= N
j
m
= N
m
= N
i i
+ N
j j
+ N
m m

y y y y
x x x x
3
3
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
2
1
1

ξ ∂
ξ ∂
φ ∂
+

ξ ∂
ξ ∂
φ ∂
+

ξ ∂
ξ ∂
φ ∂
·

φ ∂

ξ ∂
ξ ∂
φ ∂
+

ξ ∂
ξ ∂
φ ∂
+

ξ ∂
ξ ∂
φ ∂
·

φ ∂
Derivatives by the chain rule.

A 2 y A 2 y A 2 y
A 2 x A 2 x A 2 x
i 3 i 2 i 1
m 3
j
2 i 1
γ
·

ξ ∂ γ
·

ξ ∂ γ
·

ξ ∂
β
·

ξ ∂
β
·

ξ ∂ β
·

ξ ∂

m
m
j
j
i
i
φ ·
ξ ∂
φ ∂
φ ·
ξ ∂
φ ∂
φ ·
ξ ∂
φ ∂

[ ]
[ ]
( )
A 2 A 2
y x
x x
y x
A 2
1
A 2
1
A
y
x
1
A
i i i i 1
i i i 1
m m m
j j j
i i i
1
1
3
2
1
β
·
,
`

.
|
γ + β + α


·

ξ ∂
γ + β + α · ξ
]
]
]
]
]

γ β α
γ β α
γ β α
·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
ξ
ξ
ξ



p)! n l (2
p! n! l!
+ + +
· ξ ξ ξ A 2 dA
p
m
n
j
A
l
i
Centroidal Coordinates:
s
2
r
2
s
2
r
2
s
1
r
1 s r
A
s r
y x y x y x A C dA y x + + ·
+
r+s 1 2 3 4 5
C
r+s
0 1/12 1/30 1/30 2/105

1
x y
x
2
x y y
2
x
3
x
2
y x y
2
y
3
x
4
x
3
y x
2
y
2
x y
3
y
4
x
5
x
4
y x
3
y
2
x
2
y
3
x y
4
y
5
Pascal’s Triangle:
Degree of polynomial
0
1
2
3
4
5

Degree of polynomial
p
1
2
3
4
Number of terms
n
3
6
10
15

( ) ( )
2
6 5
2
4 3 2 1
1 3 6 3 2 5 2 1 4
2
3 3
2
2 2
2
1 1
s
3
r
2
n
1 i
q
1 i
y b xy d x b y b x b b
a a a a a a
2
2 p 1 p
n
2 p
6 n
p s r q
a
+ + + + + · φ
ξ ξ + ξ ξ + ξ ξ + ξ + ξ + ξ · φ
+ +
·
·
·
· + +
ξ ξ ξ · φ
·
: to Equivalent
Triangle Quadratic

1
2
3
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Nodal Numbering Schemes:

1 3 6 3 2 5 2 1 4
2
3 3
2
2 2
2
1 1
a a a a a a ξ ξ + ξ ξ + ξ ξ + ξ + ξ + ξ · φ
Triangle Quadratic
Node ξ
1
ξ
2
ξ
3

1 1 0 0
2 0 1 0
3 0 0 1
4 1/2 1/2 0
5 0 1/2 1/2
6 1/2 0 1/2


N
i
1 2 3 4 5 6
_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________
1 1 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 1 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 1 0 0 0
4 0 0 0 1 0 0
5 0 0 0 0 1 0
6 0 0 0 0 0 1

Shape Functions

Can we write shape functions directly?
ξ
1
= 1 at node 1
ξ
1
= 0 at node 2
ξ
1
= 0 at node 3
ξ
1
= 1/2 at node 4
ξ
1
= 0 at node 5
ξ
1
= 1/2 at node 6
N
1
= ξ
1
( 2ξ
1
-1 )

ξ
2
= 0 at node 1
ξ
2
= 1 at node 2
ξ
2
= 0 at node 3
ξ
2
= 1/2 at node 4
ξ
2
= 1/2 at node 5
ξ
2
= 0 at node 6
N
2
= ξ
2
( 2ξ
2
-1 )

ξ
3
= 0 at node 1
ξ
3
= 0 at node 2
ξ
3
= 1 at node 3
ξ
3
= 1 at node 4
ξ
3
= 1/2 at node 5
ξ
3
= 1/2 at node 6
N
3
= ξ
3
( 2ξ
3
-1 )

ξ
1
= 1 at node 1
ξ
1
= 0 at node 2
ξ
1
= 0 at node 3
ξ
1
= 1/2 at node 4
ξ
1
= 0 at node 5
ξ
1
= 1/2 at node 6
ξ
3
= 0 at node 1
ξ
3
= 0 at node 2
ξ
3
= 1 at node 3
ξ
3
= 0 at node 4
ξ
3
= 1/2 at node 5
ξ
3
= 1/2 at node 6
ξ
2
= 0 at node 1
ξ
2
= 1 at node 2
ξ
2
= 0 at node 3
ξ
2
= 1/2 at node 4
ξ
2
= 1/2 at node 5
ξ
2
= 0 at node 6
N
4
= 4 ξ
1
ξ
2
N
5
= 4 ξ
2
ξ
3
N
6
= 4 ξ
3
ξ
1

x
N
x
N
u
x
N
x
u
j
3
1 i
j
i i
i
6
1 i
i
X
·
·

Cubic Element
ξ
i
= 1, 0, 1/3, 2/3
N
1
= 1/2 ξ
1
(3 ξ
1
-1)(3 ξ
1
-2)
N
2
= 1/2 ξ
2
(3 ξ
2
-1)(3 ξ
2
-2)
N
3
= 1/2 ξ
2
(3 ξ
2
-1)(3 ξ
2
-2)
N
4
= 9/2 ξ
1
ξ
2
(3 ξ
1
-1)
N
5
= 9/2 ξ
2
ξ
1
(3 ξ
2
-1)
N
6
= 9/2 ξ
2
ξ
1
(3 ξ
1
-1)
N
7
= 9/2 ξ
2
ξ
3
(3 ξ
2
-1)
N
8
= 9/2 ξ
2
ξ
3
(3 ξ
3
-1)
N
9
= 9/2 ξ
1
ξ
3
(3 ξ
1
-1)
N
10
= 27 ξ
1
ξ
2
ξ
3

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