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4/21/12

COPING WITH STRESS: the concept, theories and STRATEGIES

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Presented by, Sarin Dominic Msc. Applied Psychology Bharathiar University

Behavioral. Neuroendocrinal and Immune Responses to stress Relation between Gender and stress Measurements of stress Theories of stress . • • • • • • • Concept of Stress Eustress and Distress Causes and effects of stress Psychological.Recap….

Major ideas of discussion .

Stress – the concept • • • • Present century is called ‘the age of anxiety and stress’ Stress is seen differently by different people. . The conception first appeared in physical sciences The concept of stress was first introduced in the life sciences by Hans Selye in 1936. Everyone understands it in comparison with the troubles and responsibilities they face in daily life.

Health psychology.Defining stress • • • Physical sciences – Stress is an external force or pressure exerted on something with the intention to distort and being resisted by the person or object on which it is exerted. Psycho-physiology – Some stimulus resulting in a detectable strain that cannot be accommodated by the organism and that which ultimately result in impaired health and behaviour.“the condition in which person —environment transactions lead to a perceived discrepancy between the physical or psychological demands of a situation and the resources of the individual’s biological. psychological. 1986) . or social systems” (Lazarus et al.

threat. or challenge when a routine or automatic response is not readily available.The concept of coping • • • Definition .(Lazarus and Folkman. or the effort to master conditions of' harm. 1984) As a result of coping the person change . Constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person.Way of dealing with stress.

1984) • Primary appraisal : assessing the threat • Secondary appraisal: assessing the resource • Response Approaches to the study of coping • General coping traits and styles • Active on going strategies • .Approaches and Stages • Stages of coping (Lazarus and Folkman.

Theories of coping • • • Repression–Sensitization Theory Monitoring and blunting The model of coping modes .

When confronted with a stressful encounter. persons locate themselves to one pole of this dimension .Repression–Sensitization Theory • • Proposed by Byrne and Eriksen in 1966.

Monitoring and Blunting Theory • • Prposed by Miller in 1987 Individuals who encounter a stressful situation react in two ways depending on control .

Coping Resources .

human Absence of healthcare or counseling services .Constraints against using coping resources • • • • • • • • • • Guilt Unexpressed anger Hostility Fear Lack of confidence Perceived social prohibitions Unwillingness to seek or accept assistance Social norms emphasizing self sufficiency Lack of resources : financial.

Strategies of coping • Moos and Billings (1982) have organised the dimensions of appraisal and coping included in measurement procedures into three domains • Appraisal focused coping • Emotion focused • Problem solving focused coping .

Emotion-focused coping • • • Includes emotional responses Functions • Manage the emotions aroused by stressors • Maintain effective equilibrium The common strategies adopted are: • Social support • Defence mechanisms .

Defense Mechanisms .

Problem – focused Coping • • • Includes cognitive efforts Seeks to alleviate stressful situations by weighing pros and cons The common strategies adopted are: • Cognitive appraisal • Time Management • Assertiveness • Relaxation and Medication • Exercise .

Maladaptive coping strategies • • • • • • • • • • • Alcohol abuse Smoking Drug abuse Overeating Escapism Physical and verbal abuse Blaming Overworking Denial Magnification Martyrdom .

By enhancing coping skills through training one can effectively deal with stressful situations. The effort of individuals to minimize or restructure stressful situations is termed as coping. . Both innate energy and external supports are utilized through various strategies which are either emotion-focused or problem focused in nature.Conclusion • • • • Stress is a phenomenon that challenges human bio psychosocial equilibrium.

Boston. Margaret. (1974). (1966). Gordon. New Delhi  . (1992).(2010).S. Coelho.V. R. New York: Basis Books. Pestonjee. Snooks (2009). K.S. Lazarus. G. Stress and Coping: The Indian Experience. The Psychology of Coping: Issues of Research and Assessment.M. Adams (Eds. D. Coping and Adaptation.). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.and Sociocultural Perspectives. D. Health And Wellness (10th Edition).A.E. Psychological. Humburg and J. and Eric. E. Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. NewYork: McGraw-Hill. Boston. R.Reference • • • • • • Lazarus. New Delhi: Sage Publications. Health Psychology: Biological. Stress Management(Fourth edition)Wadsworth publications. In G. Jones and Bartlett Publishers Schafer Walt(2000).

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